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El agua y las races pueden

pasar entre los macro poros

Suelo de partculas dispersados


destapan los macro poros

Superficie de costra

Cationes Floculados
Podemos dividir los cationes a
dos categoras
Floculadores
malos
Sodio
Potasio

Floculadores
buenos
Calcio
Magnesio

Poder Relativo de
Floculacin

Ion
Sodio

Na+

1.0

Potasio

K+

1.7

Magnesio

Mg2+

27.0

Calcio

Ca2+

43.0

Proporcion de Adsorcin de Sodio


La proporcin de los floculadores malos a buenos provee
una indicacin del estatus relativo de estos cationes:
+

+
+

++ ++ ++
++ ++ ++ ++

Na+

Ca2+ and Mg2+

Matemticamente, est expresado como el radio de adsorcin de sodio


o RAS:

[Na+]
SAR =

[Ca2+] + [Mg2+]

donde las concentraciones estn expresados en mmoles/L

La estabilidad de aglomerado (dispersin y floculacin)


depende en el equilibrio (RAS) entre (Ca2+ y Mg2+) y Na+
as como la cantidad de sales solubles (CE =
Conductividad Elctrica) en el suelo.
Na+

Ca2+ and Mg2+


++ ++ ++
++ ++ ++ ++

+
+

RAS

CE

CE ms baja

Suelo
Floculado

CE ms alta

Suelo
Dispersado

Las partculas de suelo floculan si las


concentraciones de (Ca2+ + Mg2+) estn mas
elevados relativamente a la concentracin de
Na+ (RAS est disminudo).

Na+
+
+

Ca2+ and Mg2+


++
+
++ + +
++ + +
++
++
++
+
++

Suelo
Floculado

RAS

CE

Suelo
Dispersado

Ca2+ and Mg2+


++
++ +
+

Las partculas de suelo se dispersan si


las concentraciones de (Ca2+ + Mg2+)
estn disminuidas relativamente a la
concentracin of Na+ (RAS est
aumentado).

Na+
RAS

+
+

CE

Suelo
Floculado

+
+

Suelo
Dispersado

Partculas de suelo floculan si la


cantidad de sales solubles en el
suelo se aumenta (CE
aumentada), aunque existe
mucho sodio.

Na+
+
+

+
+

+
+

Ca2+ and Mg2+


++
+
++ + +
++ + +
++
++
++
+
++

Suelo
Floculado

RAS

CE

CE ms baja

CE ms alta

Suelo
Dispersado

Ca2+ and Mg2+


++
++
++

Partculas de suelo se pueden


dispersar si la cantidad de sales
solubles en el suelo se disminuyen
(i.e. si CE esta disminuido).

Na+

RAS

CE

CE mas baja

Suelo
Floculado

CE mas alta

Suelo
Dispersado

FIN
Terrazas en Nepal

Soil Erosion

Erosion Processes
Detachment
Destruction of aggregation: raindrops, flowing
water, ice, tillage, wind, animals, vehicles

Transport
Movement of detached particles: ice, gravity,
wind, water

Deposition
Eroded particles find a new home

Erosion by Water
Raindrop Splash Erosion
Causes initial detachment.
Can be minimized by good
soil cover.

Surface Flow
Causes transport. Can be minimized by
good soil cover and anything that reduces
slope or slope length.

Sheet erosion

Rills

Gullies - Arizona

Texturing Soils by Hand

START: Place approximately 3 tablespoons of soil in


palm. Add drops of water and knead the soil to break
down aggregates. Soil is at the proper consistency
when it is plastic and moldable. If soil is too dry, add
more water; if it is too wet, add more soil.

Does soil remain in a


ball when squeezed?

NO

SAND

Place ball of soil between thumb and forefinger, gently pushing the soil
with the thumb and pushing upward to form a ribbon. Allow the ribbon
to emerge and extend over the forefinger, breaking from its own weight.
NO

LOAMY
SAND

Does soil form a ribbon?

Is the ribbon
1 inch
long before
breaking?

NO

Is the ribbon
1-2 inches
long before
breaking?

NO

Is the ribbon
>2 inches
before
breaking?

Excessively wet a pinch of soil in palm and rub with forefinger.

SANDY
LOAM

Does soil feel


very gritty?

SANDY
CLAY
LOAM

NO

SILT
LOAM

Does soil feel


very smooth?

Neither
grittiness or
smoothness
predominates

SANDY
CLAY

NO

SILTY
CLAY
LOAM

NO

LOAM

Does soil feel


very gritty?

Does soil feel


very smooth?

NO

SILTY
CLAY

NO

CLAY
LOAM

Neither
grittiness or
smoothness
predominates

Does soil feel


very gritty?

Does soil feel


very smooth?
NO

CLAY

Neither
grittiness or
smoothness
predominates

100

USDA Texture
Triangle

90

10

80

12 Textural Classes

20

70

30
Clay

60

40

18

50
S andy
C lay

40

13
Sandy

30

12

14

10
Sand2
1

100

90

Sandy
4
Loam 7
3Loam6y
5

50
60

Clay Loam

Clay Loam

20

17

Silty
Clay

11

Loam

16

Silty Clay
Loam 15

70

9
10 Silt Loam

80
90
Silt

100

Sand

80

70

60

50

40

SAND (% )

30

20

10

Universal Soil Loss Equation


(for water erosion)

A = R . K . LS . C . P
A = erosion loss in tons/acre/yr
R = rainfall factor (amount/intensity)
K = soil erodibility factor (texture/ SOM)
LS = slope-length factor (angle/length of slope)
C = cover and management factor (crop/tillage)
P = practice factor (erosion control measures)

Average Annual Rainfall Factor (R)

Soil Erodibility Factor (K)


Depends on
rate of water infiltration
structural stability

High K factors (high erodibility) caused by:


Soils high in silt and fine sand
Platy or massive soil structure

A value is assigned to each soil series

Soil Erodibility Factor (K)


Texture
Sand
Loamy sand
Sandy loam
Loam
Silt loam
Silt
Clay loam
Clay

Organic matter content


<0.5%
2%
4%
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.27
0.24
0.19
0.38
0.34
0.29
0.48
0.42
0.33
0.60
0.52
0.43
0.28
0.25
0.21
0.13 0.29

Length-Slope (LS)

Cover (C)

Controlling Water Erosion


Control detachment
protect the soil surface from rain, mechanical
disturbance
encourage soil aggregation

Control transport
Slow down water movement

Reduced Tillage

Grassed Waterways

Strip
Cropping

Terracing in Nepal

Terracing - Lebanon

These rock-walled bench terraces have been


in use for thousands of years.

Erosion is much easier to prevent


than to stop !