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In-Circuit

Test
Concepts
Part 2
Analog
In-circuit
Michael J Smith
Michael.J.Smith@Teradyne.com
BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS

The Series
Part 1 In-Circuit Test Overview
What and Why In-Circuit Test?
The Defect Spectrum
In-circuit Test System Architecture

Part 2 - In-Circuit Analog Measurement

Shorts and Opens Testing


2,3,4,6 Wire Measurement
R,C,L, Diode, Zener, Transistor Measurement
Powered Analog Testing
Analog Digital Opens Testing

Part 3 - In-Circuit Digital Testing

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Digital Vectors
Backdriving
Inhibits and Disables
Bus Testing
Boundary Scan
ISP and FLASH programming

Part 4 - In-Circuit Program Development Process

Agenda: In-Circuit Analog Measurement

Introduction
Analog Test Flow
Startup Procedures
Shorts Testing
Resistor Measurement
2,3,4,6 Wire Measurement
C,L, Diode, Zener, Transistor Measurement
Powered Analog Testing
Analog Digital Opens Testing
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What is In-Circuit Test?

Uses a Bed of Nails to access as many electrical


nodes on the Unit Under Test (UUT) as possible.

Voltage and current source(s) and measure(s) are


used to test analog devices, one device at as time,
using guarding techniques to negate the effects of
other devices.

A technique called backdriving, using voltage


overdriving, is used to test digital devices in isolation
with digital vectors by voltage forcing techniques.

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Defect Spectrum

ICT finds defects!

But it does not


normally find
potential defects
in solder quality!

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Analog Test Program Flow

Capacitor Discharge
Contact Test
Shorts Test
Analog Test Un-powered

Resistor
Capacitor
Inductor
Diode
Transistors

Analog Digital Opens


Power Board
Power Up Tests
Op-Amps.

Un Power Board

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Initial Routines

Capacitor Discharge
Checks for voltages on large capacitors and then removes potential

Can effect measurement

Normal method is to discharge through a resistor to ground and measure the


voltage,

Contact Test
Lifts the potential of the board ( VCC and GND ) and checks to see
if all contacting nails reflect the raised potential.

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Shorts Tests

Shorts Test
Check for shorts between all points
Normal shorts test is to test one node against all other nodes
Number of tests = Number of nodes -1

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Alternative Shorts Tests

Fast Shorts Test use a binary search method


Number of tests = only log2 (N) tests

Faster Shorts Testing by Anthony Suto, Teradyne Inc

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Ohms Law
states that, in an electrical circuit, the current passing through a
conductor between two points is proportional to the
potential difference (i.e. voltage drop or voltage) across the two
points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between
them. In mathematical terms, this is written as:
I

= V/R

I = V/R
V=IR
R = V/I

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How is Ohms Law applied?

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8-Wire Scanner Relay Connected for a resister test

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Real Life Circuits

Only a few measurements are per 2-terminal


Series, Pull-ups, Pull-downs and Terminators etc.
Minimize Voltage!

Most other circuits and networks of resistors

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Use of the Virtual Ground

All the paths are connected together and a virtual


earth is created

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3- and 4-Terminal Guarded Measurement

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4-Terminal Guarded Resistor Test

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4-Terminal Guarded Resistor Test Ex 2

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Kelvin Resistor Test

Relays and fixture resistance can effect low-value


resistor measurements and therefore we use a
Kelvin test ( <20 ).

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6-Terminal Resistor Test

DCSV OUT
(Source)
DCSV OUTS
(Source Sense)

CHA

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S

Rdut

42
M

CHB DCMI IN
(Measure)
CHF
DCMI INS
(Measure Sense)

CHE
Ra

Rb

DCSV REFS
(Source Low Sense)

DCMI GRDS
(Guard Sense)

DCSV REF
(Source Low)
DCSV

AREF
(Guard)

DCMI
6388.0

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Electrical Impedance, or Simply Impedance


A term coined by Oliver Heaviside in July of 1886 to describe a
measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating current.

Electrical impedance extends the concept of resistance to AC


circuits, describing not only the relative magnitudes of the
voltage and current, but also the relative phases.

In general, impedance is a complex quantity ; the polar form


conveniently captures both magnitude and phase
characterstics,

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4-Wire Guarded Capacitor Test

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4-Wire Guarded Inductor Test

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Diode Test

Looks for the characteristic knee voltage ( Typ 0.65V)


Also use the dynamic resistance as a secondary test
I

VM

IS

RS

VS

SLOPE = RF (DYNAMIC)

REF
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VF

V
3777.0

Zener Diode Test

Looks for the switch voltage.


VM

RS

VZ

ZZT

IZT

VS

3778.0

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Transistor Test

Transistor NPN and PNP tests are normal gain


measurements.
Set the current source to a nominal predetermined value (IE1).
Measure the current in the base circuit (IB1).
Slightly increase the current source to a new known value (IE2).
Measure the new current in the base circuit (IB2).
Use the values in the following formula to calculate the gain.
GAIN = (IE2-IE1) - (IB2-IB1)/(IB2-IB1)
IM

VM

IS

31832.0

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REF.

Other Tests

Transformers
AC gains

Relay
Switch Test

Etc.

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Powered
Analog Tests

BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS

Applying Power

Power needs to applied correctly ie emulate the


system supply
Right order, timing and slew rate
Limited Current
Verify Stable
Verify Voltage Levels

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Op-Amp Test

A number of preset test are normally available


This is a simple AC gains test

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Op-Amp Test

A number of preset test are normally available


This is a simple switch to rail test

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Powered Analog

Frequency generator
Plus generator

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Other Analog Tests

Custom Test Needs language support


V,I,
Frequency
V and I measured over time for complex waveform

Hybrid Tests Synchronized Analog and Digital


D to A
A to D
Complex circuits.

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Analog Digital
Opens Testing

BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS

Why Analog Digital Opens Test?

Increasing use of complex connectors and sockets


Lack of digital vectors

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What is Analog Digital Opens?

Capacitance Coupling Technique

Software replaced by fixture hardware


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Types of Analog Open Techniques

Opens Xpress

FrameScan & FX Probe

Passive Probe

Active Probe

Low Cost

High Signal Integrity

Easy of Manufacture
Conductor
Carrier
RCM
PCB
Component under Test

Standard

Nail

5
2 Vac
@ 3.0 KHz
-0.6 Vdc

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DUT

Signal
VBIAS
Detector

Vcc

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Gnd

2V

Active Analog Opens


Gain

Filter

Opens
Sensor
Scanner
DeviceUnder-Test

Mux Board
Active Buffer assembly
Probe Plate

DUT
IC Lead
Printed
Circuit
Board

Guard

AC
Source

AC
Detector

ICA
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In-Circuit
Test
Concepts
Part 2
Analog
In-circuit
Michael J Smith
Michael.J.Smith@Teradyne.com
BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS

The Sequels!

Part 1 In-Circuit Test Overview


http://atd-teradyne.01o.com/ajtk/servlet/JJ?H=13q7oj&R=665215672/resource/type/web_recordings.html.

Part 3 - In-Circuit Digital Testing


Digital Vectors
Backdriving
Inhibits and Disables
Bus Testing
Boundary Scan
ISP and FLASH Programming

Part 4 - In-Circuit Program Development Process


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