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Internal Combustion

Engine

ENGINE

WHAT IS HEAT ENGINE?

The device which is able to derive heat energy


from the combustion of the fuel and able to
transfer this heat energy in to mechanical energy
is known as a heat engine.

There are two types of heat engines.

External Combustion Engine

Internal Combustion Engine

TYPES OF ENGINES

CLASSIFICATION OF I.C. ENGINES

Types of Fuel used as:

Petrol Engine

Diesel Engine

Gas Engine

Nature of Thermodynamic cycle as:

Otto cycle Engine

Diesel cycle Engine

Duel cycle Engine

CLASSIFICATION OF I.C. ENGINES

Number of strokes per cycle as:

Four stroke engine

Two stroke engine

Method of ignition as:

Spark ignition engine

Compression ignition engine

CLASSIFICATION OF I.C. ENGINES

Method of cooing as:

Air cooled engine

Water cooled engine

Speed of the engine as:

Low speed engine

Medium speed engine

High speed engine

CLASSIFICATION OF I.C. ENGINES

Number of cylinder as:

Single cylinder engine

Multicylinder engine

Position of cylinder as:

Inline Engine

V-Engine

Radial Engine

Opposed cylinder engine

Opposed piston engine

CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINE

Inline Engine

V Engine
Radial Engine

CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINE

Opposed piston Engine Engine

Opposed cylinder Engine Engine

ENGINE COMPONENTS

Cylinder

Cylinder head
Piston
Piston ring
Piston pin
Connecting rod
Crank & Crank shaft
Valves
Flywheel
Crank case

Carburetor
Fuel Pump
Fuel injector
Spark plug

ENGINE COMPONENTS

ENGINE COMPONENTS

Cylinder & Cylinder head:


It is the heart of the engine in which the fuel is
burnt and the power is developed.
It has to withstand very high pressure and
temperature because the combustion of fuel is
carried out within the cylinder. Therefore cylinder
must be cooled.
Piston reciprocates inside the cylinder.
Cylinder head covers top end of cylinder. It
provides space for valve mechanism, spark plug,
fuel injector etc.

ENGINE COMPONENTS

Piston:
The function of the piston is to transmit the gas
force to connecting rod, hence to the crank.
It slides in the cylinder.
Pistons are generally made of aluminum alloys and
cast steel.

ENGINE COMPONENTS

Piston rings:
The piston rings are metallic rings inserted into
circumferential grooves provided at the top of the
piston. This rings maintain gas tight joint between
the piston and the cylinder while piston is
reciprocating inside the cylinder.
Piston rings made of cast steel are provided to
prevent the leakage of gas to crank case. Upper
rings are called compression rings. Lower piston
rings are oiling rings.

ENGINE COMPONENTS
Piston pin or Gudgeon pin:
It connects the piston to small end of the
connecting rod.
It is made of hardened steel in the shape of
spindle.
Connecting rod:
As the name suggests, it connects piston on one
side through piston pin and crankshaft on other
side through crank pin.
It forms the main link for converting reciprocating
motion of piston in to rotary motion of crankshaft.
It is usually made of steel forging.

ENGINE COMPONENTS

Crank and Crank Shaft:


The crank is a leaver that is connected to big end of
connecting rod by pin joint with its other end
connected rigidly to a shaft called crank shaft.
As piston reciprocates in cylinder, crank rotates
about the axis of crankshaft.
Crankshaft is supported by bearings.

ENGINE COMPONENTS
Valves and valve gear mechanism:
Engine has intake valve and exhaust valve.
They are operated by valve gear mechanism.
Valves controls the flow of intake air and exhaust
gases to and form engine cylinder.
Flywheel:
A heavy rotating mass is attached to crankshaft
outside the crankcase called flywheel.
The function of the flywheel is to smooth out the
cyclic fluctuations of torque developed by the
reciprocating engine during cycle.

ENGINE COMPONENTS
Crank case:
It is the lower part of the engine, serving as an
enclosure of the crank shaft and also as a sump for
the lubricating oil.
Carburetor:
It is used in petrol engine and its function is to
prepare proper mixture of air and petrol.
Spark plug:
It is used in petrol engine to produce high
intensity spark for ignition of air petrol mixture in
the cylinder.

ENGINE COMPONENTS
Fuel Pump:
It is used in diesel engine for increasing pressure
of fuel and controlling quantity of fuel supplied to
injector.
Fuel injector:
It is used to inject diesel in the form of fine
atomized spray in the cylinder.

I.C. ENGINE TERMINOLOGY

Bore (D):

The inner diameter of cylinder is called a bore.

Dead Centres:
In case of vertical engines, Top most position of
piston is called top dead centre (T.D.C.).
In case of vertical engines, Bottom most position
of piston is called bottom dead centre (B.D.C.).

I.C. ENGINE TERMINOLOGY


Dead Centres:
In case of horizontal engines, inner most position
and outer most position of the piston are called
inner dead centre (I.D.C.) and outer dead
centre (O.D.C.) respectively.
Stroke (L):
Travel of piston from one dead centre to other
dead centre is termed as stroke.

I.C. ENGINE TERMINOLOGY

Clearance Volume (Vc ):


The volume contained in the cylinder above the
piston from its top dead centre position is called
clearance volume. It is denoted by Vc.
The volume between cylinder head and piston
when piston is at top dead centre is called
clearance volume.

I.C. ENGINE TERMINOLOGY

Stroke Volume:
The volume displaced by the piston, when it
moves from TDC to BDC is called stroke
volume. It is denoted by Vs.
Vs = /4 d2 l
Where,

d = Bore
l = Stroke

I.C. ENGINE TERMINOLOGY

Compression Ratio (r):


The ratio of cylinder volume to clearance volume
is called the compression ratio of the engine.

I.C. ENGINE TERMINOLOGY

Piston speed:

It is the average speed of piston. It is equal to 2LN.


Unit is m/min.
Where,
N = Speed of crank shaft in rpm,
Piston speed Vp = 2LN/60 m/sec

FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


PETROL ENGINE

FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


PETROL ENGINE

FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


PETROL ENGINE

FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


PETROL ENGINE
The cycle of operation in a four stroke petrol
engine is completed in two revolutions of crank
shaft or four strokes of piston.
There are basic four strokes:
a) Suction stroke
b) Compression stroke
c) Expansion stroke (Working stroke)
d) Exhaust stroke

FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


DIESEL ENGINE

FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


DIESEL ENGINE

FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


DIESEL ENGINE

COMPARISON OF PETROL & DIESEL


ENGINE

COMPARISON OF PETROL & DIESEL


ENGINE

TWO STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


PETROL ENGINE
The cycle of operation in a two stroke petrol
engine is completed in one revolutions of crank
shaft or two strokes of piston.
There are basic four strokes:
a) Suction stroke
b) Compression stroke
c) Expansion stroke (Working stroke)
d) Exhaust stroke

TWO STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


DIESEL ENGINE

TWO STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


DIESEL ENGINE

COMPARISON OF 4 STROKE & 2


STROKE ENGINE

COMPARISON OF 4 STROKE & 2


STROKE ENGINE

COMPARISON OF 4 STROKE & 2


STROKE ENGINE