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Beam Deflection Review

(4.3-4.5)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
NC State University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Beam Deflection Review

Deflection Due to Bending (4.3)

ds
dy

dx

d ds

dx
cos
ds

dy
sin
Slope of the deflection curve ds

d 1
curvature of beam
ds
2

dy
tan
dx

Beam Deflection Review

Deflection Due to Bending (4.3)


Assumption 1: is small.

ds dx d 1 d
ds dx

1.

dy
1 d2y
d d 2 y
tan
2
2
2.
dx
dx
dx dx

1 M
Assumption 2: Beam is linearly elastic.

EI

Thus, the differential equation for the deflection


curve is:
d2y M

2
dx
EI
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Beam Deflection Review

Deflection Due to Bending (4.3)

Recall:

So we can write:

Deflection curve can be found by integrating

dV
w
dx

dM
V
dx

d2y
EI 2 M
dx

d3y
EI 3 V
dx

d4y
EI 4 w
dx

Bending moment equation (2 constants of integration)


Shear-force equation (3 constants of integration)
Load equation (4 constants of integration)

Chosen method depends on which is more convenient.

Beam Deflection Review

Method of Superposition (4.5)

Deflection and slope of a beam produced by multiple


loads acting simultaneously can be found by
superposing the deflections produced by the same
loads acting separately.

Reference Appendix A-9 (Beam Deflections and Slopes)

Method of superposition can be applied to statically


determinate and statically indeterminate beams.

Beam Deflection Review

Method of Superposition (4.5)

Consider the following example:

Find reactions at A and C.

Method 1: Choose MC and RC as


redundant.

Method 2: Choose MC and MA as redundant.


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Beam Deflection Review

Example Problem
For the beam and loading shown, determine (a) the deflection
at C, and (b) the slope at end A.

Beam Deflection: Method of


Superposition

Example Problem

Example Problem
For the beam shown, determine the reaction at B.

Beam Deflection: Method of


Superposition

Example Problem

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Castiglianos Theorem
(4.7-4.10)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
NC State University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

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Castiglianos Theorem

Castiglianos Theorem (4.8)

This method is a powerful new way to determine


deflections in many types of structures bars,
beams, frames, trusses, curved beams, etc.

We can calculate both horizontal and vertical


displacements and rotations (slopes).

There are actually two Castiglianos Theorems.

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The first can be used for structures made of both


linear and non-linear elastic materials.
The second is restricted to structures made of linear
elastic materials only. This is the one we will use.

Castiglianos Theorem

Castiglianos Theorem (4.8)

When forces act on elastic systems subject to


small
displacements,
the
displacement
corresponding to any force, in the direction of the
force, is equal to the partial derivative of the total
strain energy w.r.t. that force.

U
i
Fi
Where:
Fi = Force at i-th application point
i = Displacement at i-th point in the direction of Fi
U = Total strain energy
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Castiglianos Theorem

Castiglianos Theorem (4.8)

We can also use this method to find the angle of


rotation ().

U
i
M i
Where:
Mi = Moment at i-th application point
i = Slope at i-th point resulting from Mi
U = Total strain energy

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Castiglianos Theorem

Castiglianos Theorem (4.8)

General case

U
1
F1

1
F1
F2 2
F3 3

U
3
F3

U stored in
structure

Fn
n
15

U
2
F2

U
n
Fn
Castiglianos Theorem

Strain Energy in Common Members (4.7)

Spring
k

1 2
U k
2
Note:

F k F / k

1 F

Check: U k
2 k
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1 F 2 U F

F k
2 k
Castiglianos Theorem

Strain Energy in Common Members (4.7)

Bar subject to axial load


A,E
F

F
L

1 F 2L
F ( x)2
U
or U
dx
2 AE
2 A( x) E ( x)
0

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Castiglianos Theorem

Strain Energy in Common Members (4.7)

Shaft subject to torque


J,G
T

T
L

1 T 2L
T ( x) 2
U
or U
dx
2 GJ
2G ( x) J ( x)
0

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Castiglianos Theorem

Strain Energy in Common Members (4.7)

Beam subject to bending


I,E
M

M
L

1 M 2L
M 2 ( x)
U
or U
dx
2 EI
2 E ( x) I ( x)
0

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Castiglianos Theorem

Strain Energy in Common Members (4.7)

Beam in direct shear

F L
F 2 ( x)
U
or U
dx
2 AG
2 A( x)G ( x)
0

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Castiglianos Theorem

Strain Energy in Common Members (4.7)

Beam in transverse shear


I,E
V

V
L

CV 2 ( x)
U
dx
2 A( x)G ( x)
0
Correction factor for transverse shear
(see table 4-1 in textbook)
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Castiglianos Theorem

Strain Energy in Common Members (4.7)


For structures with combined loading (or
multi-component structures) add up
contributions to U.
F 2 ( x)
T 2 ( x)
M 2 ( x)
U
dx
dx
dx
2 A( x) E ( x)
2G ( x) J ( x)
2 E ( x) I ( x)

F 2 ( x)
CV 2 ( x)
0 2 A( x)G( x) dx 2 A( x)G( x) dx

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Castiglianos Theorem

Castiglianos Theorem - Frame (4.8)

For the structure and loading shown below, determine


the vertical deflection at point B. Neglect axial force in
the column.
P

L2
B
E, I
L1

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Castiglianos Theorem

Castiglianos Theorem - Frame (4.8)

For the structure and loading shown below, determine


the vertical and horizontal deflection at point B.
Neglect axial force in the column.
L2

w
B
E, I
L1

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Castiglianos Theorem

Castiglianos Theorem Curved Beam

(4.9)

For the structure and loading shown below, determine


the vertical and horizontal deflection at point B.
Consider the effects of bending only.
Fv

E, I

R
A
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Castiglianos Theorem

Fh

Castiglianos Theorem - Trusses

For the structure and loading shown below, determine


the vertical deflection at D and horizontal deflection at
C.
Let
L
=
16
ft,
h
=
6
ft,
E = 30 x 103 ksi, P = 18 kips, Atens = 2.5 in2, and Acomp = 5
in2.
B
h
A

C
D
L/2

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L/2

Castiglianos Theorem

Statically Indeterminate Problems (4.10)

For the structure and loading shown below,


find the fixed end reactions.
w
A

B
L

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Castiglianos Theorem

Statically Indeterminate Problems (4.10)

A curved frame ABC is fixed at one end,


hinged at another,
and subjected to a
concentrated load P, as shown in the figure
below. What are the horizontal H and vertical
F reactions? Consider bending only.

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Castiglianos Theorem

Special Cases: Hollow Tapered Beam

Find the tip deflection for the structure and


loading shown below.
P
t

dA

dB= 2dA

x
L
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Castiglianos Theorem

Special Cases: Beam With Spring

For the beam-spring system below, find the


deflection at end C.
P

E, I
B

C
k
x
L

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Castiglianos Theorem