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# Beam Deflection Review

(4.3-4.5)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
NC State University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

## Deflection Due to Bending (4.3)

ds
dy

dx

d ds

dx
cos
ds

dy
sin
Slope of the deflection curve ds

d 1
curvature of beam
ds
2

dy
tan
dx

## Deflection Due to Bending (4.3)

Assumption 1: is small.

ds dx d 1 d
ds dx

1.

dy
1 d2y
d d 2 y
tan
2
2
2.
dx
dx
dx dx

1 M
Assumption 2: Beam is linearly elastic.

EI

curve is:
d2y M

2
dx
EI
3

Recall:

So we can write:

dV
w
dx

dM
V
dx

d2y
EI 2 M
dx

d3y
EI 3 V
dx

d4y
EI 4 w
dx

## Bending moment equation (2 constants of integration)

Shear-force equation (3 constants of integration)
Load equation (4 constants of integration)

## Deflection and slope of a beam produced by multiple

loads acting simultaneously can be found by
superposing the deflections produced by the same

## Method of superposition can be applied to statically

determinate and statically indeterminate beams.

redundant.

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## Beam Deflection Review

Example Problem
For the beam and loading shown, determine (a) the deflection
at C, and (b) the slope at end A.

## Beam Deflection: Method of

Superposition

Example Problem

Example Problem
For the beam shown, determine the reaction at B.

## Beam Deflection: Method of

Superposition

Example Problem

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Castiglianos Theorem
(4.7-4.10)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
NC State University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

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Castiglianos Theorem

## This method is a powerful new way to determine

deflections in many types of structures bars,
beams, frames, trusses, curved beams, etc.

## We can calculate both horizontal and vertical

displacements and rotations (slopes).

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## The first can be used for structures made of both

linear and non-linear elastic materials.
The second is restricted to structures made of linear
elastic materials only. This is the one we will use.

Castiglianos Theorem

## When forces act on elastic systems subject to

small
displacements,
the
displacement
corresponding to any force, in the direction of the
force, is equal to the partial derivative of the total
strain energy w.r.t. that force.

U
i
Fi
Where:
Fi = Force at i-th application point
i = Displacement at i-th point in the direction of Fi
U = Total strain energy
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Castiglianos Theorem

## We can also use this method to find the angle of

rotation ().

U
i
M i
Where:
Mi = Moment at i-th application point
i = Slope at i-th point resulting from Mi
U = Total strain energy

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Castiglianos Theorem

## Castiglianos Theorem (4.8)

General case

U
1
F1

1
F1
F2 2
F3 3

U
3
F3

U stored in
structure

Fn
n
15

U
2
F2

U
n
Fn
Castiglianos Theorem

## Strain Energy in Common Members (4.7)

Spring
k

1 2
U k
2
Note:

F k F / k

1 F

Check: U k
2 k
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1 F 2 U F

F k
2 k
Castiglianos Theorem

## Bar subject to axial load

A,E
F

F
L

1 F 2L
F ( x)2
U
or U
dx
2 AE
2 A( x) E ( x)
0

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Castiglianos Theorem

## Shaft subject to torque

J,G
T

T
L

1 T 2L
T ( x) 2
U
or U
dx
2 GJ
2G ( x) J ( x)
0

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Castiglianos Theorem

## Beam subject to bending

I,E
M

M
L

1 M 2L
M 2 ( x)
U
or U
dx
2 EI
2 E ( x) I ( x)
0

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Castiglianos Theorem

## Beam in direct shear

F L
F 2 ( x)
U
or U
dx
2 AG
2 A( x)G ( x)
0

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Castiglianos Theorem

## Beam in transverse shear

I,E
V

V
L

CV 2 ( x)
U
dx
2 A( x)G ( x)
0
Correction factor for transverse shear
(see table 4-1 in textbook)
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Castiglianos Theorem

## Strain Energy in Common Members (4.7)

multi-component structures) add up
contributions to U.
F 2 ( x)
T 2 ( x)
M 2 ( x)
U
dx
dx
dx
2 A( x) E ( x)
2G ( x) J ( x)
2 E ( x) I ( x)

F 2 ( x)
CV 2 ( x)
0 2 A( x)G( x) dx 2 A( x)G( x) dx

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Castiglianos Theorem

## For the structure and loading shown below, determine

the vertical deflection at point B. Neglect axial force in
the column.
P

L2
B
E, I
L1

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Castiglianos Theorem

## For the structure and loading shown below, determine

the vertical and horizontal deflection at point B.
Neglect axial force in the column.
L2

w
B
E, I
L1

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Castiglianos Theorem

(4.9)

## For the structure and loading shown below, determine

the vertical and horizontal deflection at point B.
Consider the effects of bending only.
Fv

E, I

R
A
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Castiglianos Theorem

Fh

## For the structure and loading shown below, determine

the vertical deflection at D and horizontal deflection at
C.
Let
L
=
16
ft,
h
=
6
ft,
E = 30 x 103 ksi, P = 18 kips, Atens = 2.5 in2, and Acomp = 5
in2.
B
h
A

C
D
L/2

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L/2

Castiglianos Theorem

## For the structure and loading shown below,

find the fixed end reactions.
w
A

B
L

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Castiglianos Theorem

## A curved frame ABC is fixed at one end,

hinged at another,
and subjected to a
concentrated load P, as shown in the figure
below. What are the horizontal H and vertical
F reactions? Consider bending only.

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Castiglianos Theorem

## Find the tip deflection for the structure and

P
t

dA

dB= 2dA

x
L
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Castiglianos Theorem

## For the beam-spring system below, find the

deflection at end C.
P

E, I
B

C
k
x
L

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Castiglianos Theorem