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# HEAT TRANSFER

## Heat transfer (or heat) is energy in transit due

to a temperature difference
Whenever there exists a temperature
difference in a medium or between media,
heat transfer must occur

## There are 3 modes of heat transfers:

1. Conduction: heat transfer that will occur across the
medium when a temperature gradient exists in a
stationary medium , which may be a solid or a
fluid molecular heat transfer
2. Convection: heat transfer that will occur between
a surface and a moving fluid when they are at
different temperatures.
3. Thermal radiation: all surfaces of finite
temperature emit energy in the form of
electromagnetic waves. Hence in the absence of an
intervening medium, there is net heat transfer by
radiation between two surfaces at different
temperatures.

CONDUCTION
through a solid or stationary fluid
T1
T2

T1 > T2

CONVECTION
from a surface to a moving fluid
Ts > T
Moving fluid,
T

q
Ts

Heat exchange between two surfaces
surface, T1

q1

surface, T2

q2

video

convection

conduction

## How smart are you??

1. Conduction is
a. Heat transfer due to a different temperature
across a motionless medium either a solid
or a fluid from molecule to molecule.
b. Heat transfer due to a different temperature
between a medium and a moving fluid.
c. Heat transfer through electromagnetic
waves.

## 2. Heat transfer in a vacuum chamber occurs

according to . mode:
a. Conduction
b. Convection
3. Whenever you want to eat or drink something
hot, you will breathe air from your mouth to
cool down the food. This mechanism of heat
transfer is classified into..
a. Conduction
b. Convection

CONDUCTION

## Conduction deals with heat transfer in atomic or

molecular level.
Conduction may be viewed as the transfer of
energy from the more energetic to the less
energetic particles of a substance due to
interactions between the particles.

## The energy of a gas related to random translational motion, internal

rotation, and vibrational motion of the molecules.
Energy transfer by conduction occur in the direction of decreasing
temperature (positive x direction)
The net transfer of energy by random molecular motion is defined
as a diffusion of energy.

T1

qx xo

qx

T1 > T2

T2

## Conduction and particle motion

In kinetic theory,
particles in a solid are
closely packed,
they vibrate to & from
but can't change
positions.
particles at
hot end
vibrate a lot

particles
at cold
end
vibrate
less

## Conduction and particle motion

The fast vibrating particles
bump into the slower
neighbouring particles &

particles
at cold
end
vibrate
less

## make them vibrate

more rapidly
energy is
(from one particle to
transferred
the next & from hot
to cold end of rod)

particles at
hot end
vibrate a lot

Warm-up
Why are frying-pans and woks
usually made of metals but their

Introduction
How is energy transferred from the cooker
to the pan and then to the food?

## Energy transfer by conduction

Energy is
transferred by
conduction
from
the cooker,
through the pan,
to the food.

Conduction (video)
Studying the heat transferred along a
metal
rod board
insulating
copper rod

wax

drawing
pins

What happens to
these drawing pins?

Conduction (video)

## What kind of rod conducts heat?

Feel the ends of the
rods to find out which
wood
rod feels hot first.

iron
copper

glass

very hot
water

Conduction (video)
What kind of rod conducts heat fastest?
aluminium
copper
iron

drawing
pins

## Heat the ends of the

metal rods and note
which drawing pin
at the other end
falls first.

Conduction (video)
Does water conduct heat?
boiling
tube
water

wire gauze
ice

## Gently heat the top

part of the water &
find out if the ice
melts.

Conduction (video)
Does air conduct heat?
thermometer

Leave the
cardboard for a
while & then
take the
temperature

heater
cardboard tube

Conduction (video)
Does air conduct heat?
Leave the cardboard
for a while & then
take the temperature

## Energy transfer by conduction

In conduction, heat (energy) is
transferred from the hot part to the
cold
part.
Materials conduct heat at different
rates.
Metals (e.g. copper and iron) are good
conductors of heat.
Non-metals (e.g. wood, water and
air) are poor conductors (or good
insulators).

## Properties of some conductors and insulators

specific for certain material

## Energy transfer by conduction

In conduction, heat is transferred from
the hot part to the cold part along an
object. Conduction is efficient in
conductors but not in insulators.

air

water

video

## Energy transfer by conduction

Does the orientation of the rod
matter?

matter?

## Phoebe heats two metal rods as

shown. Which will be heated up first?
Why?
Both of them are heated
up at the same rate.
Energy transferred from
the hot end to the cold
end by conduction is not
affected by the orientation
of the rod.

## Conduction and particle motion

(simulation)

video

Examples of conduction
How to keep warm?

A cotton jacket
keeps warm by
trapping air next
to the body.

Examples of conduction
How to keep warm?

Polar bears
keep warm by
trapping air in
the fur.

## Examples of conduction (video)

How to keep warm?
Birds keep
warm by
trapping air in
their feathers.

Examples of conduction
Hot or cold?
Under the same condition, a metal
block feels colder than a wooden block
even the 2 objects are at the same
temperature.
metal easily conducts energy away
you feel cold

## In conduction, heat is transferred...

In conduction, heat is transferred in
which of the following direction?
A

## The direction of heat transferred is

different in metals and non-metals.

## Which of the following can explain why a

tile floor feels colder than a wooden
floor?
A

lower.

wood.

tile.

## Tile is smoother than wood.

because they
are good _________ of
conductors
heat, while handles of frying-pans are
insulators
they are good
_________ of heat.

## One-dimensional heat transfer by conduction

(diffusion of energy)
T
Fouriers Law of heat conduction:
qx = - k (dT/dx) (1.1)
qx = - k (T/x) (1.2)

T1

Tx

qx

T2
L

where:
qx = heat flux (Wm-2 or Js-1m-2)
k = thermal conductivity (WK-1m-1)
T = temperature (K)
x = distance (m)

x
Heat rate = heat fluxarea
qx = qx A

Example 1.1
The wall of an industrial furnace is constructed from
0.15 m thick fireclay brick having a thermal conductivity
operation reveal temperatures of 1400 and 1150 K at the
inner and outer surfaces respectively. What is the rate of
heat loss through the wall that is 0.5 m by 3 m on a side?

T1

qx

T2

H = 0.5 m
W=3m

L = 0.15 m

Assumptions:
2. One-dimensional conduction through the wall
3. Constant thermal conductivity
How much did you get??
qx = 2833 Wm-2
qx = 4250 W

## Another form of Fouriers Law equation:

Fouriers Law of heat conduction:

qx = qx/A = - k (dT/dx)
qx = - kA (dT/dx)
where:
qx = heat flux (Wm-2 or Js-1m-2)
qx = heat rate (W or Js-1)
k = thermal conductivity (WK-1m-1)
T = temperature (K)
x = distance (m)
A = area (m2)

## 1. A heat rate of 3 kW is conducted through a section of

an insulating material of cross-sectional area 10 m2 and
thickness 2.5 cm. If the inner (hot) surface temperature
is 415 oC and the thermal conductivity of the material is
0.2 W/mK, what is the outer surface temperature?
2. The heat flux through a wood slab 50 mm thick, whose
inner and outer surface temperatures are 40 and 20 oC
respectively, has been determined to be 40 W/m2. what
is the thermal conductivity of the wood?
3. What is the thickness required a masonry wall having
thermal conductivity 0.75 W/mK if the heat rate is to be
80% of the heat rate through a composite structural wall
having thermal conductivity of 0.25 W/mK and a
thickness of 100 mm? Both walls are subjected to the
same surface temperature difference.

CONVECTION

## Convection heat transfer mode is comprised of

two mechanism: the random molecular motion
(diffusion) and bulk or macroscopic motion of the
fluid.
Advection: transport due to bulk fluid motion.

## The Boundary Layer Development in Convection Heat Transfer

Hydrodynamic
(velocity)
boundary layer

fluid

Velocity
distribution,
u(y)

T
Thermal
boundar
y layer

u0
Heated surface
uy
Ty
if Ts >T convection happens

Temperature
distribution,
T(y)

Ts

## The convection heat transfer mode is sustained both

by random molecular motion and by the bulk motion
of the fluid within the boundary layer.
The contribution due to random molecular motion
(diffusion) dominates near the surface where the fluid
velocity is low. In fact, at the interface between the
surface and the fluid (y=0), the fluid velocity is zero
and heat is transferred by this mechanism only.
The contribution due to bulk fluid motion originates
from the fact that the boundary layer grows as the flow
progress in the x direction.
In effect, the heat that is conducted into this layer is
swept downstream and is eventually transferred to the
fluid outside the boundary layer.

## According to the nature of the flow, convection is classified into

two modes:
1. Forced convection: when the flow is caused by the external
means, such as a fan, a pump, or atmospheric wind.
2. Free or natural convection: when the flow is induced by
buoyancy forces, which arise from the density differences
caused by temperature variations in the fluid.
The mixed or combined forced and natural convection may exist
in reality.
Typical energy being transferred in convection is sensible heat or
internal thermal, energy of the fluid. In addition, there may
latent heat exchange due to phase transformation.

## Regardless the nature of the convection process, the rate

equation is (Newtons law of cooling):
q = h(Ts T)
(1.3)
q is the convective heat flux (Wm-2)
h is the convection heat transfer coefficient (Wm-2K-1)
Heat flux is positive when heat is transferred from the
surface, while negative when heat is transferred to the
surface.

## Typical values of the convection heat transfer

coefficient
Process
Free convection:
Gases
Liquids
Forced convection:
Gases
Liquids
Convection with phase
change:
Boiling or condensation

h (Wm-2K-1)
2 25
50 1000
25 250
50 20,000
2500 100,000

## 1.11. An electric heater is embedded in a long cylinder of

diameter 30 mm. When water with a temperature of 25 oC and
velocity of 1 m/s flows crosswise over the cylinder, the power per
unit length required to maintain the surface at a uniform
temperature of 90 oC is 28 kW/m. When air, also at 25 oC, but
with velocity of 10 m/s is flowing, the power per unit length
required to maintain the same temperature is 400 W/m. Calculate
and compare the convection coefficients for the flows of water
and air.
1.13. A square isothermal chip is of width w = 5 mm on a side
and is mounted in a substrate such that its side and back surfaces
are well insulated, while the front surface is exposed to the flow
of a coolant at T = 15 oC. From a reliability considerations, the
chip temperature must not exceed T = 85 oC. If the coolant is air
and the corresponding convection coefficient is h = 200 W/m2K,
what is the maximum allowable chip power? If the coolant is a
dielectric liquid for which h = 3000 W/m2K, what is the maximum
allowable chip power?

## Radiation may occur from solid, liquid, or gas surfaces.

Regardless of the form of the matter, the emission may be
attributed to changes in the electron configurations of the
constituent atoms or molecules.
The energy of the radiation field is transported by
electromagnetic waves (or alternatively photons)

Gas
T , h
qconv

Surface of emissivity ,
absorptivity , and
temperature Ts

(a)

Gas
T , h

Surroundings
at Tsur

qconv

Surface of emissivity ,
absorptivity , and
temperature Ts

(b)

surroundings

## Radiation that is emitted by the surface (Fig. a) originates from the

thermal energy of matter bounded by the surface, and the rate at
which energy is released per unit area (Wm-2) is termed the surface
emissive power E.
There is an upper limit to the emissive power, which is prescribed
by the Stefan-Boltzmann law
Eb = Ts4 (1.4)
is Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67x10-8 Wm-2K-4
Such a surface is called an ideal radiator or blackbody.
The heat flux emitted by a real surface is less than that of a
blackbody at the same temperature and is given by
E = Ts4 (1.5)
Where is a radiative property of the surface termed the emissivity.
With values in the range 01, this property provides a measure of
how efficiently a surface emits energy relative to a blackbody.

## Radiation may also be incident on a surface from its

surroundings. It may originate from a special source such as the
sun. Irrespective of the source(s), the rate at which all such
radiation is incident on a unit area of the surface as the irradiation
G.
A portion or all of the irradiation may be absorbed by the surface,
thereby increasing the thermal energy of the material. The rate of
Gabs = G (1.6)
Where 01. If <1 and the surface is opaque, portions of the
irradiation are reflected. If the surface is semitransparent, portions
of the irradiation may also be transmitted. The value depends on
the nature of irradiation and the surface itself.
Absorbed and emitted radiation increase and reduce the thermal
energy of matter, respectively, while reflected and transmitted
radiation have no effect on this energy.

## A special case that occurs frequently involves radiation

exchange between a small surface Ts and a much larger,
isothermal surface that completely surrounds the smaller one
(Fig. b). The surroundings could, for example, be the walls of a
room or a furnace whose temperature Tsur differs from that of
an enclosed surface (TsurTs). For such condition, the
irradiation may be approximated by emission from a
blackbody at Tsur in which case G = Tsur4
If the surface is assumed to be one for which = (a gray
surface), the net rate of radiation heat transfer from the surface,
expressed per unit area of the surface is (thermal energy
qrad = q/A = Eb(Ts) - G = (Ts4 Tsur4) (1.7)

## Another expression for net radiation heat exchange:

Where the radiation heat transfer coefficient, hr is from (1.7)
hr = (Ts + Tsur)(Ts2 +Tsur2)
(1.9)
The total rate of heat transfer from the surface is then
q = qconv + qrad = hA(Ts-T) + A (Ts4 Tsur4)
(1.10)

## Example 1.2. An uninsulated steam pipe passes through a room in

which air and walls are at 25 oC. The outside diameter of the pipe is
70 mm and its surface temperature and emissivity are 200 oC and
0.8, respectively. What are the surface emissive power and
irradiation? If the coefficient associated with free convection heat
transfer from the surface to the air is 15 Wm-2K-1,what is the rate of
heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe?

air

Ts = 200 oC
= 0.8

T = 25 oC
h = 15 Wm-2K-1

L
D = 70 mm
G

Tsur = 25 oC

## The Surface Energy Balance

Ex. 1.5. The hot combustion gases of a furnace are separated from the ambient air and
its surroundings, which are 25 oC, by a brick wall 0.15 m thick. The brick has thermal
conductivity of 1.2 W/m K and a surface emissivity of 0.8. Under steady state
conditions an outer surface temperature of 100 oC is measured. Free convection heat
transfer to the air adjoining the surface is characterized by convection coefficient of h =
20 W/m2K. What is the brick inner surface temperature?