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BOILER MAINTENANCE

BOILER
MAINTENANCE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1Background
Maintenance is derived from the word
"maintain" which has the following meanings
; carry on, preserve, support, sustain, keep
up and keep supplied

1.0 INTRODUCTION
For

boiler system, it means :-

to ensure safe operation by regular inspection


to keep the boiler in operation
to keep the boiler in operating condition
to restore boiler efficiency
to repair the damaged parts and keep it tight
to clean the boiler

1.2 Maintenance Objectives


From the definition, boiler maintenance is any
work done on the boiler system so as to meet
certain objectives. These objectives are :

to keep the boiler in operation so as to meet the


design load
to maintain full reliability and maximize
availability by zero unplanned down time and
optimize planned down time
to meet safety and regulatory requirements

1.3 Types of Maintenance (Generic)


Type

Rate

Requirement

1. Routine

Daily, Weekly, Monthly or


Yearly (incl. regulatory
inspection)

Require Procedure and


Instruction including record
keeping

2. Predictive

depend on plant
Requires special tool or program
maintenance philosophy and
i.e. RBI, CBM
program

3. Preventive

depending on O & M
requirements

Regular inspection and test


during operation or shutdown

4. Reactive
(Corrective)

when boiler system fail and


damage

May require stock of part and


external expertise

2.0 BOILER MAINTENANCE PROGRAM

2.1 Background
To ensure boiler system is continuously
reliable, special planned program for
maintenance must be set up.
In general, the program should consists of
the following basic items;
Written inspection and overhaul procedure
Maintenance scheduling inclusive planned,
predictive & preventive

2.1 Background (cont.)


Equipment database inclusive histories, lesson
learnt.
Spare part inventories.
Personnel training for competency.
Equipment improvement planned.

2.1.1 Inspection and overhaul procedure


A procedure or instruction can be usually being
designed for each of the following operations
during overhauls;

Equipment in service prior to overhaul.


Equipment out of service.
Equipment in service following an overhaul.

Overhaul can be divided into two types;

Partial - usually confine to rotation or reciprocating


equipment.

2.1.1 Inspection and overhaul procedure


(cont.)

Complete - complete dismantling performed to


examine every possible cause of future
equipment failure or to verify the capability of
the equipment to perform its function.

Inspection

can be made during normal


operation to check performance as it may
indicate physical condition.

2.1.2 Maintenance scheduling


The
schedule
should
include
a
comprehensive maintenance and equipment
activities.
The schedule must be take consideration on
production
requirements,
equipment
capability,
operating
experience
and
equipment performance.
Schedule must flexible and intervals between
inspections should be subject to constant
review.

2.1.3 Equipment database


The database is to make available the
information
required
to
determine
equipment maintenance performance and
charting the maintenance program for the
specific equipment.
SAP system in Petronas is one of example
of implementation.

2.1.4 Spare parts inventories


The equipment database should list the
major parts repaired or replaced during
an overhaul so that spare parts
inventories can be intelligently reviewed
and spare parts kept to a reasonable
minimum.

2.1.5 Personnel training for competency


Training for operation and maintenance
personnel is required to be able plant to
recognized, identify and report any indication
of impending equipment failure. So that,
unscheduled down time can be avoided.
Any indication of failure must be addressed
for immediate action but also as bases for
future overhauls.

2.1.6 Equipment improvement planned


Every overhaul, an effort must be made to
improve any inherent equipment defects i.e.
by a change of material, lubrication,
environment, temperature or any other
means. Changes must be justified
economically or in the interests of safety.

3.0 GENERAL MAINTENANCE CHECKS,


INSPECTION & EXAMINATION

Problem

Method of
Measuring

Possible Causes
Erosion

Measure important
dimensions
Dimensional Changes

Measure weight of
component
Measure clearance

Corrosion
Abrasive wear
Permanent deformation
due to over-stress
Cavitation
Substandard material

3.0 GENERAL MAINTENANCE CHECKS,


INSPECTION & EXAMINATION

Problem

Method of
Measuring

Possible Causes
obstructed expansion

Measure important
dimensions
Distortion

Overheating & unequal


expansion
Over-stress
Substandard material
Poor design

3.0 GENERAL MAINTENANCE CHECKS,


INSPECTION & EXAMINATION

Problem

Method of
Measuring

Possible Causes
Fatigue

Appearance of crack

After dye penetrate test,


measure length of
Thermal stress
cracks and record its
position
Water hammer
Radiograph weld

Improper welding
Poor design

3.0 GENERAL MAINTENANCE CHECKS,


INSPECTION & EXAMINATION

Problem

Method of
Measuring

Possible Causes
Incomplete combustion

photograph

Deposits

Dusty condition

Sketch location of
deposit

Rust deposit

Record results of
chemical analysis

Upstream sootblowing
deposit soot down
stream

3.0 GENERAL MAINTENANCE CHECKS,


INSPECTION & EXAMINATION

Problem

Method of
Measuring
Record vibration
readings

High vibration level

Possible Causes
Unbalance
Misalignment

Record plant offsetand


gap readings (for
alignment)

Lack of clearance

Measure clearance

Foundation setting

Lube oil property change

3.0 GENERAL MAINTENANCE CHECKS,


INSPECTION & EXAMINATION

Problem

Method of
Measuring

Possible Causes
Accumulation of scales
on steam side

Record location of
blockage
Blockage

Photograph

Failure of sootblowers
Accumulation of soot
Foreign matter
Damaged strainer not
replaced

3.0 GENERAL MAINTENANCE CHECKS,


INSPECTION & EXAMINATION

Problem

Method of
Measuring

Possible Causes
Wrong assembly

Sudden failure

No lubrication; water
Record events leading to hammer
sudden failure briefly
Material failure

4.0 GUIDELINES ON BOILER MAINTENANCE


ACTIVITIES

4.1 Furnace
Inspection of the following parts :front wall tubes including the area of the burner
side wall tubes including peephole area
rear wall tubes including the boiler nose area
furnace floor area

Water

washing to remove deposits from all


the walls

4.1 Furnace
Repair the burner cell refractory
Repair the furnace floor area
Scaffolding erection in the furnace
Cut the water wall tube for mechanical and
chemical inspection
Repair the water wall tubes
Removal of fire bricks and refractory materials
from furnace

4.2 Secondary Superheater and Reheater


Inspection of the following :

secondary superheater tubes


screen tubes
secondary reheater tubes
manhole and sootblower area
boiler roof

Waterwashing of tubes
Removal of slag - by mechanical or chemical
means
Replace or repair the tube

4.3 Heat Recovery Area


Inspection of the following :

Primary superheater/reheater tubes


Screen tubes
Manhole area
Sootblower area
Economizer tubes

Removal of combustion products from hopper


Water washing of HRA
Repair the expansion joint
Replace or repair the tubes

4.4 Forced Draft Fan Ducting


Inspection of the following :

FD fan suction screen


Steam air preheater area
Hot air ducting from air preheater to windbox

Cleaning of suction screen


Cleaning of steam air preheater steam tubes
(externally) and tightening of leaking joints.
Strengthening of hot air ducting and burner
windbox guide vanes.

4.5

Steam Drum
Inspection of the following :Drum internal surfaces
All pipe fittings/joints inside the drum
Feed pipe, girth plates, baffles, scrubbers,
chevron driers, separator
Gauge glasses
Isolation valves

4.5 Steam Drum


Wipe clean the drum internal surface
Removal of deposits by vacuum cleaning
Inspection by Inspector of Machinery
before reassemble
Overhaul the gauge glass and isolating
valve.

4.6 Header
Inspection of the following :Superheater inlet and outlet header
Reheater inlet and outlet header
Waterwall header
Economizer inlet and outlet headers

Removal

of handhole or by cutting header


cap for inspection and reweld.

4.7 Tubes
Cutting of tubes for inspection and
rewelding.
Replacing worn-out tubes.

4.8 Forced/Induced Draft Fan


Inspection of the following :

Impeller and shaft


Suction part and impeller gap
Casing and ducting
Suction screen
Bearing
Fluid coupling

4.8 Forced/Induced Draft Fan


Water washing of the fan impeller, shaft and
casing.
Cleaning
and easing of the damper,
greasing and casing.
Checking bearing clearances and renewing
lubricating oil.
Overhaul the fluid coupling and realignment.

4.9 Valves and Fittings


Overhaul of the following valves :All the safety valves
Boiler main stop valve and its bypass
Feedwater control valve and its bypass
All burner inlet and outlet isolating valves
Boiler and drum blowdown valves.
High Pressure dosing valves.

4.9 Valves and Fittings


Overhaul of the following valves :

Sootblower steam isolating, bypass and control


valves
Steam oil heater valves.
Steam traps and its bypass and isolating valves

Overhauling

the drum gauge glasses.


Cleaning and easing of the boiler explosion door.

4.10 Economizer
Check interior of tubes and headers where
possible for corrosion, oxygen pitting and scale.
Check exterior of tubes and headers for
corrosion, erosion and deposits. Check
particularly at soot blower locations for
impingement and leakage.
Check for cleanliness and security of vent and
drain connections and valves.
Check exterior economizer casing for leaks and
tightness and doors.

4.11 Water Columns


Check gauge glasses for leaks, cleanliness and visibility.
Check illuminators, reflectors, and mirrors for cleanliness
and breakage.
Check operation and condition of gauge cocks and
valves. Inspect chains and pulleys if used. Repair or
replace as necessary.
Ensure that water column is free to expand with boiler.
Check water column piping to drums for leaks, internal
deposits, and missing insulation.
Check condition of high and low water alarms and trips.

4.12 Feedwater Regulator


Examine
valve externally for leaks,
operability, and cleanliness. Do not
dismantle if operation has been satisfactory.
Check connecting lines and mechanisms for
proper function.

5.0 OPERATING CHECKS RELATING TO


MAINTENANCE

5.1 Leakage
Check for any flue gas, steam drum or water
leaks
Check for steam leaks at superheater
headers and tube joint
Check for air leaks around doors, seals and
tubes joints
Operating Checks Relating to Maintenance

5.0 OPERATING CHECKS RELATING TO


MAINTENANCE
5.2 Refractory
Check condition of burner throat refractory
Check condition of pit refractory (if applicable)
Check for slag build up on refractory
Check for missing insulation on headers and drum

5.3 Burner
Check for burner wear by noting flame
shape and completeness of combustion
Check ease of operation of burner vanes.
This will indicate burner mechanism
condition

5.4 Superheater Tubes


Check for a change in pressure drop through
the superheater indicating internal condition
of the tubes

5.5 Boiler drums


Check the steam quality. This will indicate
the condition of steam scrubbers and
separators
Check for noises in drums. This may be
caused by loose connections of drum
internal piping

5.6 Economiser and air pre-heater


Check
for a variation in temperature
differences over both units at constant load,
indicating deposits or buildup
Check for a decrease in pressure drop over
any part of the system at constant load
indicating a misplaced or bypassed baffle

5.7 Furnace and Casing


Check
the extent of expansion and
contraction of pressure parts during startup
and shutdown
Check that header support hangers are
always in tension. Looseness will indicate an
obstruction
to
free
expansion
and
contraction.

Internal Inspection

What to check for?

Wear
Deterioration
Corrosion
Scale
Oil
Crack
Grooving
Thinning
etc

All the above technique is using Visual test or and NDT

Welding crack

Visual inspection of crack

Typical internal inspection


Where

What to inspect

Longitudinal seam of
drums

Crack and grooving

Unstayed heads

Groove at fillet weld

Manholes and opening

Corrosion thinning &


crack

Welded nozzles and


atachment

Weld washout, crack,


deterioration

Typical internal inspection


Where

What

Stay & stay bolts

Crack and even


tension

Waterline in drums

Oil and pitting

Tubes and plate


expose to fire

Bulging or blistering

Tube to shell weld


joint

Crack or pitting

External Inspection
Check

for any abnormalities or damage in the


following area:

Platform and ladders


Insulation
Skin Temperature using Infrared Thermography
Any leakage or seepage at PSV and other valves and
flanges
Any sign of water under insulation

How?

Nondestructive Test

Visual Test
Dye Penetrant Test (DPT or dyepent)
Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) or WFMPT (wet flourecence
magnetic particle testing)
Radiography
Ultrasonic Test (UT)

Other advanced NDT such as Remote Field Eddy


Current ( C Steel boiler tubes) and IRIS (Internal rotating
Inspection System), Hardness Test , Plastic replica and
metallography

Non Destructive Testing


Equipment and samples

Example of damages found during visual


inspection in boilers

Thin and thick lipped burst

Scales in boiler tube resulting in failure

Scales in boiler tube resulting in failure

PROCESS HEATERS/FURNACES

FIRED HEATERS

A fired heater is a device in which heat liberated by the combustion of fuel within an
internally insulated enclosure is transferred to fluid contained in tubular coils. Heat
transfer occurs primarily by radiation in the combustion chamber and by convection in
the convection chamber.

Fired heater size is determined in terms of its design heat absorption capability or duty,
in Btu/hr. Duties range from about a half million Btu/hr to about one billion Btu/hr.

Examples of service categories are column reboilers, fractionating column feed preheaters, reactor feed pre-heaters, heating of heat transfer media such as heating oil,
heating of viscous fluids and fired reactors.

The two examples of orientation categories are vertical and horizontal.

Suitable for heating large flows of gas under


conditions of low pressure drop. Typically used
in catalytic reformer charge heaters.

The tube coil is inherently drainable. One


limitation is that generally only one flow
path is followed by the process fluid.

Can be fired from the floor or from the


side. Tubes are laid horizontally in the
radiant section.

Yields a highly uniform distribution of heat


transfer rates about the tube circumference.
Firing is normally from both sides of the row.

Firing is from the floor. It features both


radiant and convection sections. It is an
economical high efficiency design. The first
few rows of tubes in the convection section
are subject to radiant heat transfer in addition
to convective heat transfer. These tubes are
subject to the highest heat transfer rates in the
heater and are called shock or shield tubes.

Vertically fired from the floor. Economical,


high efficiency design.

Air Preheat System Using Regenerative, Recuperative, or


Heat Pipe Unit

FURNACE FLUE GAS TEMPERATURES

1. FLAME - 1816 deg C


2. RADIANT EXIT OR BRIDGE WALL - 788 deg C
3. STACK - 204 deg C

HEAT DISTRIBUTION IN RADIANT SECTION

1. FLAME RADIATION - 14%


2. HOT GAS RADIATION - 28%
3. CONVECTION - 6%
4. REFRACTORY REFLECTION - 12%
TOTAL = 60%

HEAT DISTRIBUTION IN CONVECTION SECTION

1. CONVECTION = 25%

HEAT LOSS IN HEATER

1. FLUE GAS - 13%


2. REFRACTORY - 2%
TOTAL = 15%

Performance monitoring

Data that provide an indication as to how well the heater is being fired -

1. Process stream flow rate


2. Fuel firing rate
3. Process stream temperatures
4. Flue gas temperatures
5. Flue gas draft profile
6. Flue gas sampling
7. Tube skin temperatures

Maintenance Program for heaters

1. VISUAL INSPECTION
Operating burners should be checked visually once per shift.
Any unusual situation, such as flame impingement on tubes
and supports, improper flame dimensions, oil drippage,
uneven heat distribution, smoky combustion, and so forth,
should be noted and corrected as soon as possible.

2. CHECK BURNERS WITH ORIGINAL DESIGN


The following items should be checked with the original
design to ensure compatibility with the present operating
conditions:
a. Fuel pressure.
b. Fuel characteristics (heating value, composition, viscosity,
sulfur content, etc.)
c. Gas tip and oil guns (orifice size, drilling angle, and tip and
gun position).
d. Burner size.
e. Turndown.
Replacement either of burner tip or gun or of complete
burner should be considered if the original burner cannot be
operated satisfactorily.

3. BURNER CLEANING
Users should establish their own cleaning schedules based
upon their experience; however, the following should be noted:a. Oil guns normally require more frequent cleaning than gas
tips. Oil guns should be cleaned at least once a week when
burning No. 6 oil.
b. Gas tips are typically cleaned when the gas pressure drop
across the burner has increased approximately 30 percent
above the design pressure for a given fuel and heat release.
Gas tips are cleaned when irregular flame patterns develop
from a burner tip.

4. BURNER BLOCK
The burner block should be inspected. Cracks and spalled
sections shall be repaired to a smooth surface
commensurate with the original design. Repairs should be
accomplished with a plastic refractory comparable to the
existing material and having at least the same temperature
rating. Burner blocks requiring extensive repair should be
replaced.
5. AIR REGULATING DEVICES
Air dampers and registers should be operable at all times.

6. REMOVAL OF UNUSED BURNERS


As many burners as practicable should be in operation to achieve
good heat distribution. Unnecessary burners should be removed and
the burner openings sealed to prevent air leakage. Remaining bumers
should be arranged to provide good heat distribution.
Gas tips and oil guns should be removed on shutdown burners. No
metallic burner components should be exposed to the hot flue gas.
Burner tiles may be left in place.
Burners may be removed from the outside when the heater is in
operation. Burner openings should be covered with carbon steel plate
insulated from the heat of the furnace. Burners may be blanked from
the inside of heater after shutdown.

7. BURNER REPLACEMENT OR MODIFICATION


Burners should be replaced or modified if the burners have
deteriorated where substantial maintenance is required. They
should be replaced if satisfactory combustion with optimum
excess air operation cannot be maintained.
Burners should be replaced or modified if the existing burners
are unsuitable for the new operating requirements.
These requirements may be environmental, fuel change, heat
release, process, etc.
The burner manufacturer should be consulted when burner
replacement or modification is required.

8. SPARE PARTS
The number of spare parts depends on burner design, fuel,
plant location and operation, and maintenance experiences. It
is recommended that 10 percent of all tips, oil guns, and
burner tiles as a minimum should be purchased as spares.

9. CLEANING THE CONVECTION SECTION


Deposits on the convection tubes when burning fuel oil are generally
sulfur, vanadium, sodium and ash. These need to be removed or the
efficiency of the heater will be reduced. This is done by manual
lancing, rotating soot blowers or retractable soot blowers.
Water washing is also done to remove deposits. Permanently installed
alloy steel headers and nozzles are positioned in the convection
section. Water is injected through these and the contact of water with
the hot tubes vaporizes the water thus dislodging the deposits.
Water washing can also be done during turnarounds after suitably
protecting the refractory in the radiant section.

10. Tube replacement


a. Radiant section : Tubes can be lowered into the furnace through the
access doors on top of the radiant section. As far as is possible,
tubes shall be replaced in one piece from return bend to return bend
without intermediate welds. In case it is not possible, sectional
replacement can be considered.
b. Convection section : Tube replacement here is difficult since the
tubes have to be inserted through the intermediate tube sheets.
11. Refractory repair
The primary consideration is the skin temperature of the casing. In case
alternate materials are used, calculations must be made to ensure
required skin temperature of the casing.
Repairs along the roof of the heater are difficult and may require the use
of plywood shoring. The plywood shoring is left in the heater and
allowed to burn up during operation.

12. Damper repairs


Problems associated with dampers are mainly with the bearings. These require
periodic greasing. In case of manual control, the wire ropes and pully systems
used should be kept in good condition.
13. FD/ID fans
These fans should be subjected to regular preventive and predictive
maintenance. ID fans should be inspected at shutdowns due to the high
temperatures involved. FD fan vane control mechanisms should be inspected and
kept in good condition by lubrication.
14. Air pre-heaters
Inspection through manways should be done at every shutdown. These are
generally cast and replacement is in modules or sections.

15. Skin thermocouples


Regular replacement of tube skin thermocouples should be done to maintain the
accuracy of temperature measurements.
16. Thermowells
Thermowells should be removed for inspection at every shutdown. There are
instances of leaks through the thermowells resulting in hydrocarbon leaks at the
thermocouple wiring area.
17. Tubes
Tubes should be inspected for relevant failure mechanisms and the remaining
life should be calculated.

DECOKING OF FURNACE TUBES

DECOKING OF FURNACE TUBES


2. Decoking by pigging
Decoking of furnace tubes can be accomplished by means of using
pigs. These pigs are made of foam with metal studs on the outer
surface. These are propelled through the tubes with water as the
medium. Coke is collected in drums by filtering the effluent water.

PHOTOGRAPHS OF DECOKING ACTIVITY AT PPTSB.