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WEEK 5:

ORGANIZING THE BODY


OF THE SPEECH
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GAME: BACK TO THE BOARD

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1. informative

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2. persuasive

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3. organization

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4. Main points

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5. Supporting materials

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6. order

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7. Specific purpose

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8. problem

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9. cause

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10. direction

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11. topics

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12. tranitions

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DISCUSSION
1.What is speech organization?
2.Why is speech organization
important?
3.What patterns/orders of
speech organization do you
know?
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Watch a video. Remember to take notes on:


- Definition of speech organization
- Reasons why speech organization is
important
- Methods of speech organization (Speech
organizational patterns)

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SPEECH ORGANIZATION
Putting a speech together in a
particular way to achieve a particular
result with a particular audience.
Effectively taking the information one
wishes to present and arranging it in
a logical order
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Main idea
The central purpose of your speech

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Main points
The major points developed in the body of
a speech
Smaller chunks of information to break
down the main idea
How many main points should a speech
contain?
- Maximum: 5 main points
- But most speeches: two to three main
points
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Tips for Preparing


Main Points
Keep main points separate
Try to use the same pattern
of wording for main points
Balance the amount of time devoted to
main points

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WHY IS SPEECH
ORGANIZATION IMPORTANT?
The speakers credibility: A well-organized
speech increased the audiences belief on
the speakers (and the speech itself)
competence and trustworthiness
Audience understanding: enjoyable,
easier to understand and remember the
speech well
The speaker: boost confidence, and
improve the ability to deliver a message
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fluently
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SPEECH
ORGANIZATIONAL
PATTERNS

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Chronological Order
A method of speech organization in
which the main points follow a time
pattern.

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Chronological Order
Specific Purpose:
To inform my audience how the
Great Wall of China was built.
Main Points:

I. Building of the Great Wall began


during the Qin dynasty of
221-206 B.C.
II. New sections of the Great Wall
were added during the Han
dynasty of 206 B.C.-220 A.D.
III. The Great Wall was completed
during the Ming Dynasty of
1368-1644.
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Spatial Order
A method of speech organization in
which the main points follow a
directional pattern.

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Spatial Order
Specific Purpose:
To inform my audience about the
structure of a hurricane.
Main Points:
I. At the center of a hurricane is the
calm, cloud-free eye.
II. Surrounding the eye is the
eyewall, a dense ring of clouds
that
produces the most intense
wind and
rainfall.
III. Rotating around the eyewall are
large bands of clouds and
precipitation called spiral rain
bands.
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Causal Order
A method of speech organization in
which the main points show a causeeffect relationship.

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Causal Order
Specific Purpose:

To inform my audience about the


possible causes for the collapse
of Mayan civilization.

Main Points:

I. Mayan civilization flourished for


over a thousand years until 900
A.D., when it mysteriously began
to disintegrate. (EFFECT)
II. Scholars have advanced three
major explanations for the causes
of this disintegration. (CAUSE)
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Problem-Solution Order
A method of speech organization in
which the first main point deals with
the existence and seriousness of a
problem and the second main point
presents a solution to the problem.
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Problem-Solution Order
Specific Purpose:

To persuade my audience that


legislation is needed to control
the abuses of fraudulent charity
fund-raisers.

Main Points:

I. Fraudulent charity fund-raising


has become a widespread
national problem.

II. The problem can be solved by a


combination of government
initiative and individual
awareness.
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Topical Order
A method of speech organization in
which the main points divide the topic
into logical and consistent subtopics.

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Topical Order
Specific Purpose:
To inform my audience about
the achievements of Ida
Wells-Barnett.
Main Points:
I. As a teacher, Wells-Barnett spoke
out against inferior school
facilities
for African-American
children.
II. As a journalist, Wells-Barnett
campaigned against lynching.
III. As a civic organizer, WellsBarnett helped found the NAACP.
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Connective
A word or phrase that connects the
ideas of a speech and indicates the
relationship between them.

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Types of Connectives

Transition
Internal preview
Internal summary
Signpost
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Transition
A word or phrase that indicates
when a speaker has finished one
thought and is moving on to
another.
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Transitions
Now that we have seen how
drinking too much is a serious
problem for students and their
communities,
let us look at some causes.
So much for the present; what
about the future?
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Internal Preview
A statement in the body of the speech
that lets the audience know what the
speaker is going to discuss next.

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Internal Preview
In discussing how Asian Americans
have been stereotyped in the mass
media, well look first at the origins of the
problem and second at its continuing
impact today.

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Transition Combined with


an Internal Preview
(Transition): Now that we have seen how
serious the problem of faulty credit reports
is, lets look at some solutions.
(Internal Preview): I will focus on three
solutionsinstituting tighter government
regulation of credit bureaus, holding credit
bureaus financially responsible for their
errors, and giving individuals easier access
to their credit reports.
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Internal Summary
A statement in the body of the speech
that summarizes the speakers
preceding point or points.

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Internal Summary
In short, palm reading is an ancient
art. Developed in China more than
5,000 years ago, it was practiced in
classical Greece and Rome,
flourished during the Middle Ages,
survived the Industrial Revolution,
and remains popular today.
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Signpost
A very brief statement that indicates
where a speaker is in the speech or that
focuses attention on key ideas.

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Signposts
The first cause of this problem is inefficient
agricultural production.
The second cause is recurrent drought in
the affected countries.
The final cause is mismanagement of
available food resources by local leaders.

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Discussion
1. What organization patterns
should we use for informative
speech?
2. What organization patterns
should we use for persuasive
speech?
Make a list
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ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS
FOR INFORMATIVE SPEECH

Chronological order
Spatial order
Causal order
Problem-solution order
Topical order
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Objects
History or evolution of the object:
chronological order
Main features of your object:
spatial order
Subtopics: topical order

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Processes
Chronological order

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Events
History of an event: Chronological
order
A combination of angles: features,
origins, implications, benefits,
future developments, etc.: topical
order
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Concepts
Main features/aspects of a
concept: Topical order

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ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS
FOR PERSUASIVE SPEECH
Watch a video and take notes

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Question of facts
Usually: Topical order

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Persuasive Speech on a
Question of Fact
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that an
earthquake of 9.0 or above on
the
Richter scale will hit
California in the
next ten years.
Main Points:
I. California is long overdue for
a major earthquake.
II. Many geological signs
indicate that a major
earthquake may happen soon.
III. Experts agree that a major
earthquake could hit
California any day.
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Questions of value
Almost always: topical order
- Establishing the standards for your value
judgement
- Analysing the standards to the subject of
your speech

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Persuasive Speech on a
Question of Value
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that
capital punishment is morally
and legally wrong.
Main Points:

I. Capital punishment violates


the biblical commandment
Thou shalt not kill.

II. Capital punishment violates


the constitutional ban on
cruel and unusual punishment.

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Questions of policy

Problem-solution order
Problem-cause solution order
Comparative advantages order
Monroes motivated sequence

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Problem-Solution Order
Main point I: Documents the existence
of a problem.
Main point II: Presents a solution to the
problem.

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Problem-Solution Order
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that
the use of antibacterial
chemicals in household
products is
creating health and
environmental problems.
Main Points:
I. The use of antibacterial
chemicals in household
products is a
serious problem.
II. Solving these problems
requires a combination of
and consumer
action.

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government

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Problem-Cause-Solution
Order
Main point I: Documents the existence
of a problem.
Main point II: Analyzes the causes of the
problem.
Main point III: Presents a solution to the
problem.

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Problem-Cause-Solution Order
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that
the age for full motor-vehicle
driving privileges should be
raised to 18.
Main Points:
I. The number of accidents and
death involving teenage
drivers is a
serious national
problem.
II. There are four main causes
of the problem.
III. We can help solve these
problems by raising the age
driving privileges.

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for full

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Comparative Advantages Order


Each main point explains why a
speaker's solution to a problem is
preferable to other potential
solutions.

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Comparative Advantages Order


Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that
the U.S. space program should
put greater priority on unstaffed
scientific missions.
Main Points:

I. Unstaffed scientific missions


are less costly than staffed
space flights.

II. Unstaffed scientific missions


provide more practical
benefits than staffed space
flights.
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Monroes Motivated Sequence


A five-step sequence designed
especially for organizing persuasive
speeches that seek immediate action.

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Monroes Motivated
Sequence
Attention:

Gain the attention of the


audience

Need:

Show the need for change

Satisfaction: Provide a solution to the


need
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Monroes Motivated Sequence


Visualization:

Intensify desire for the


solution by visualizing its
benefits

Action:

Urge the audience to take


action in support of the
solution

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HOMEWORK
Before Thursday 23/10/2014: finalizing
your speech topics (based on your
teachers comments)
After Thursday 23/10/2014: do research
and choose an organizational pattern for
your speech. Post the outline of your
speech BODIES to the course online.
Deadline: 24:00 Sunday 26/10/2014
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