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3-phase Induction motor

3-Phase Induction
Motor

Most Common & Frequent motors


in industry

Simple Design, Rugged, Low Cost and Easy to Maintain


Wide Range of power rating: fractional horsepower to MW
High efficiency: no brushes and good power factor
Constant speed from zero to full load

General
Principle

Transformer:
Electrical

Magneti
Electrical
c
Alternating
field
Magneti
Mechanical
Induction Motor: Electrical
c
/Electrical
Rotating field

Induction Motor
Construction

phase induction motor comprises of two main parts:

Electromagnetics

Rotor
Stator

Stator(Stationary)
consists of a steel frame that supports a hollow, cylindrical core of
stacked laminations. Slots on the internal circumference of the stator
house the stator winding.
Rotor(Revolving)
composed of punched laminations, with rotor slots for the rotor winding.
Two basic design: Squirrel cage and wound rotor

Rotating Magnetic Field


3-Phase System: Current displaced by 120in time (phase)
IB

IA
A

Stator with 6 salient poles:


Windings A, B & C. Pole pairs: North
IC
and South
Windings are mechanically spaced at 120from each other.
Each winding produces its own MMF. The 3 fluxes combine to
produce a magnetic field that rotates at the same frequency as the

Synchronous Speed
For p
poles/phase:
synchronous
speed,

ns

120 f
P

rev/min

ns

Example

A 4-pole 3 phase induction motor operates from a supply whose


frequency is 50 Hz. Calculate:
(a) the speed at which the magnetic field of the stator is rotating.
(b) the speed of the rotor when the slip is 0.04
(c) the frequency of the rotor currents when slip is 0.03
(d) the frequency of the rotor current at standstill.
(a) Stator field revolves at synchronous speed, given by:

Ns

120 f
50
120
1500r.p.m
P
4

(b) Rotor (motor) speed,

N N s (1 s) 1500(1 0.04) 1440r.p.m


(c) Frequency of rotor current,

fR sf 0.03 50 1.5r.p.s 90r.p.m


(d) At standstill =

Example

A 3 phase induction motor is wound for 4 poles and is supplied


from 50-Hz system. Calculate:
(a) the synchronous speed.
(b) the rotor speed when slip is 5%
(c) the frequency of the rotor when the rotor runs at 600 r.p.m
(a) Synchronous speed:

Ns

120 f
50
120
1500r.p.m
P
4

(b) Rotor (motor) speed,

N N s (1 s) 1500(1 0.05) 1425r.p.m


(b) When rotor speed is 600 r.p.m,

s
rotor current
frequency:

(N s N ) 1500 600

0.6
Ns
1500

fR sf (0.6 50) 30Hz

Example

A 6 pole induction motor is excited by a 3 phase 60 Hz source.


The full load rpm is 1140 r.p.m. Calculate the slip?
Synchronous speed:

Ns

120 f 120 60

1200r.p.m
P
6

Slip:

Ns Nm 1200 1140

0.05
Ns
1200

5%

Solution:
120 f
120 * 60
ns

1800 rpm
p
4
n 1 s ns 1 0.05 *1800 1710 rpm
(b) 1800 (same as synchronous speed)

Example
A 4-pole 3-phase induction motor operates from a
supply whose frequency is 50Hz. Calculate:
1. The speed at which the magnetic field of the stator
is rotating
2. The speed of the rotor when the slip is 0.04
3. The frequency of the rotor currents when the slip is
0.03
4. The frequency of the rotor currents at standstill.

Recap
General Principle of Induction motor is similar to transformer
Components of Motor:
Stator - mechanically spaced at 120
Rotor - Squirrel Cage and Wound Rotor
Synchronous speed = speed of rotating field
Slip

ns nm
s
ns

120 f
rev/min
ns
P

Slip speed n ns nm

Frequency of Rotor current

Pn
fR
120

f R sf

Rotor Rotating Field

uced current in 3-phase rotor also produce a rotating field


Speed w.r.t rotor
nr

120 fr
p

120sf
p

sns

Induced rotor field rotates in the air


gap

nm nr (1 s)ns sns

Modes of Operation

Plugging(Braking)

Motoring

Generating

0 nm n s

nm < 0

nm > n s

1s0

s>1

s<0

ns
n

ns

ns
n

Torque-Speed Curve

Torque-Speed Curve
Motoring

Where is the operating range and why?

Power Flow

Power Flow
Motoring
Stator Core
Loss
Rotor
Friction and
Core Loss Windage Losses

Pag

Pi

Pmech

Stator Cu
Loss 3I
( 12 R1

Generator

Rotor Cu
Loss ( 2
3I 2 R2
)

Pout
(Pshaft)

Equivalent Circuit Model

Stator Windings

Similar to equivalent circuit of transformer primary winding


V1 = per-phase terminal voltage
R1 = per-phase stator winding resistance
L1 = per-phase stator leakage inductance
E1 = per-phase induced voltage in stator
winding
Lm = per-phase stator magnetizing inductance
Rc = per-phase stator core loss resistance

Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor

sE2
I2
R2 jsX 2

P2

E2
I2
R2 / s jX 2

2
I 2 R2

P Pag
Pmech

Pmech

2
I2

I 22

R2

2 R2
R2
1 s I 2
s
s

R2
1 s
s

Pmech 1 s * Pag

1 s

P
s

Pag : P2 : Pmech 1 : s : 1 s

P2 I 22 R2 sPag

Torque

Mechanical torque developed per phase, Tmech

Pmech Tmech m

m = angular velocity of the rotor (rad/s)

synchronous speed (rad/s)

2 nm
m
60

2 ns
s
60

Tmech

Pag

N.m

Power
Motoring
Stator Core
Loss
Rotor
Friction and
Core Loss Windage Losses

Pi

Pag

Pmech

Rotor Cu
Stator Cu
Loss ( 2
2
3I 2 R2
Loss ( 3I1 R1 ) )

Pshaft Pmech Pf ,w

Pshaft Tshaft m

Pout(shaft)
(Pshaft)

Efficiency
Useful power output:Total input power

Pshaft
Pin

Power Factor

Power Factor =

cos r
Pin

Sin

For a 3 phase system:

Sin 3Vline I line

Example
A 3 phase, 230V, 60Hz, 74.6KW, six pole induction motor operating
at rated conditions has an efficiency of 91.0%. It draws a line
current of 248A. The core loss, stator copper loss and rotor
conductor loss are 1697W, 2803W and 1549W respectively.
Determine:
(a) power input
(b) total loss
(c) air-gap power
(d) shaft(mechanical) speed
(e) power factor
(f) friction and windage losses and draw the power flow diagram
(g) shaft torque