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Biology

What is a carbohydrate?

What are monosaccharides


and disaccharides? Give
examples of each.

What are the tests for


glucose and starch?

What is a polysaccharide?
And what are the 3 main
types?

What is a protein?

What are the two types of


protein?

What is a lipid?

A substance made up of
carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen. It is used as an
energy source by the body.

Monosaccharide: One ring


sugars, e.g. glucose &
fructose.
Disaccharide: Two ring
sugars, e.g. maltose
(glucose x2), lactose
(glucose & galactose) &
sucrose (glucose &
fructose).

When you add iodine to a


starch, it goes from red to
blue/black. Benedicts reagent,
when added to glucose, goes
from blue to orange.

A protein is made up of carbon,


hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and
sulphur. It is composed of 20
different amino acids made, 12
from liver, 8 (essential) amino
acids are obtained from food.
Each gene is a genetic code for
the cells to make a protein, and
the number and order of amino
acids make the protein.

A lipid is made up of carbon,


hydrogen and oxygen. They are
made up of 3 fatty acids which are
different chain lengths attached to
glycerol.

Polysaccharide: Many ring sugars.


Starch: Plants convert excess
glucose to starch. Found in
rice, cereals, potatoes.
Cellulose: Makes up the cell
wall of plants. We cant digest
it, due to no cellulose
enzyme.
Glycogen: Excess glucose is
converted to glycogen as a
reserve. Stored in liver and
muscle.

Structured protein: Used for


growth and repair. E.g. Keratin
(hair and nails), actin and
myosin (muscle), collagen
(tendon, bones). All insoluble.
Globular proteins: Soluble
proteins which serve different
functions. Enzymes, hormones,
antibodies, haemoglobin.

What are all the uses of


lipids?

What are the two types of


fats and their properties?

What are vitamins A, C and


D, and what do they do?

What happens if you dont


have enough of vitamins A,
B and C.

What is the formula used


for calculating the energy
released when food is
burnt?

What are Iron, Calcium,


Fibre and water made of,
what do they do and how
you get them?

Describe the, burning the


wotsit experiment.

Define Digestion

Saturated fats: Of animal origin


(e.g. butter & lard). They are
solid at room temperature and
have the maximum amount of
hydrogen.
Unsaturated fats: E.g. olive oil,
rapeseed oil, sunflower oil. They
are oils at room temperature
because they have double
bonds.

Used for energy.


Storage (can store twice as much
energy gram for gram than carbs).
Insulation.
Protecting vital organs.
Used in cell membranes
(phospholipids and cholesterol).
Used to make steroid hormones (e.g.
testosterone & oestrogen).
Fat is stored in adipose tissue, made
up of glycerol and fatty acids, called
triglyceride.

Vitamin A: Lack of causes nights


blindness, found in fish liver oils
and carotene (carrots).
Vitamin C: Lack of causes scurvy.
Cells peel apart and wounds dont
heal. Found in oranges,
blackcurrants, other fruits.
Vitamin D: Lack of causes rickets
where bones are weak. Found in
fish liver oils, but also milk and
dairy food. Also produced in the
skin via UV.

Vitamin A: Retinol Makes


Rhodopsin, which is used by
rods in your eyes to see in dim
light.
Vitamin C: Ascorbic acid Is
needed to make connective
tissue binding cells together.
Vitamin D: Calciferol Needed to
absorb calcium of the gut.

Iron: Needed to make haemoglobin which


carries oxygen in red blood cells. Lack of
causes anaemia (causes extreme
llethargy). From red meat and vegetables.
Calcium: Needed for healthy bones. Found
in dairy products.
Fibre: Roughage, undigested plant
material. Adds bulk to faeces, increases
peristalsis, prevents constipation and
bowel cancer.
Water: Coolant in the eye, detoxifier,
lubrication, hydration, etc. 3 days without
you die.

Energy released in Joules = mass of


water (g) x temperature of water (C)
x4.2J (heat capacity of water, no. of
joules in a calorie, and joules needed
to raise 1g of water by 1C)

Making large insoluble food


molecules soluble so they can be
absorbed into blood.

Fill a boiling tube with 10cm cubed


of water. Support in it a clamp, then
measure the temperature of the
water. Weigh a wotsit and position
it on a needle on a cork under the
water. Burn the wotsit, stir water
and take final temperature. The rise
in temperature, when plugged into
the formula gives you the heat. It is
best in a closed system with

What does the mouth do?

What does the stomach do?

What does the small


intestine do?

What are the final products


of digestion which occur
where?

What are villi?

How are villi adapted to


digestion?

What does the large


intestine do?

What do the pancreas and


liver do?

Muscular bag which churns food.


The glandular lining secretes HCl
to kill bacteria.
Pepsin enzyme speeds up
protein breakdown and mucus
protects lining.

In the small intestine:


Protease: Proteins to amino acids.
Lipase: Fats to glycerol + fatty
acids.
Maltase: Maltose to 2x glucose.
Sucrase: Sucrose to glucose +
fructose.
Lactase: Lactose to glucose +
galactose.

They have a large surface area.


They have columnar epithelial cells with
microvilli for further surface area.
Capillary network inside absorbs food
molecules.
Lacteal inside takes up fatty acids +
glycerol.
There are lots of them, tightly packed.

Liver:
Makes and secretes bile into gut via
bile duct. The bile is stored in the
gallbladder, and is alkaline to
neutralise stomach acid. It contains
bile salts, which emulsify fats too.
Breaks them down to increase surface
area.

Pancreas: Produces pancreatic juice


which is alkaline and neutralises
stomach acid in small intestine. Also
secretes amylase, lipase and
protease.

Food ingested to be chewed to create


a larger surface area (mechanical
digestion).
Saliva lubricates food with mucus, and
amylase breaks down starch to
maltose.

Food is swallowed, forced down


oesophagus by peristalsis. It becomes
a bolus and moves into stomach.

7m long, made up of duodenum,


jejunum and ileum.
Chemical digestion takes place
here and the absorption of food
molecules.
Various enzymes secreted from
gland wall.

Villi are finger-like projections in the


wall of the small intestines, aimed
at increasing surface area.

1.5m long, made of colon,


rectum and anus.
Faeces stored in rectum,
ingested from the anus.
Faeces is composed of fibre,
bacteria, dead gut cells, bile salt
and pigments and water.

What are enzymes?

What is the effect of


temperature on enzymes?

What is the effect of PH on


enzymes?

What is respiration?

What is the formula of


aerobic respiration?

Describe a test to show


organisms produce CO2.

What is anaerobic
respiration and the
formula?

What is the formula for


fermentation?

As temperature increases, the


molecules move around faster and
there are more collisions, which
causes the enzyme to react quickly,
but past the optimum temperature,
the structure denatures.

Enzymes are biological catalysts made up


of protein that speeds up a reaction and
remain unchanged. Each enzyme has a
substrate, which binds (via the lock-andkey method) to the active site of an
enzyme, then catalyses.

Respiration is when glucose is


oxidised in cells very gradually by a
series of reactions controlled by
enzymes, to produce energy.

Enzymes work within an optimum


PH. Too low, it doesnt work. Too
high, and it denatures.

Have two test tubes with


water. Have an insect
placed on a gauze in one of
C6H1206+6O26CO2+H2O+Energ
them. As the insect
y
respires, the water should
become carbonic acid, and
you can use an indicator to
test for it.
Anaerobic respiration is when
respiration occurs without
oxygen, so less energy
released. It occurs during
server physical exertion is
undertaken, it causes an
oxygen debt, only be used for a
short time and releases lactic
acid. The formula is
C6H1206Lactic Acid+Energy

This is fermentation, used


in baking and brewing.
C6H1206Ethanol+CO2+Ener
gy

What happens when you


inhale?

What happens when you


exhale?

What is the route taken for


breathing?

How are your lungs adapted


for gaseous exchange?

What are the effects of


smoking on respiration?

What are pleural


membranes?.

What is the effect of


exercise on breathing?

How does gaseous


exchange occur in your
lung?

The diaphragm relaxes, and


raises.
Intercostal muscles relaxes,
moving the ribs inwards and
downwards. The elastic recoil of
the lungs moves it back to its
original position.
The above decreases pressure,
so air rushes outwards.

The diaphragm contracts and lowers.


Intercostal muscles contract and raise
the ribs upwards and outwards.
The above increases the volume of the
lungs, which decreases the pressure, so
air rushes in.

Millions of alveoli give a large


surface area.
Alveoli and capillary wall are
each only one cell thick, so there
is a high diffusion gradient.
The steep gradient is maintained
by rapid blood flow in capillaries
and ventilation.

Nosetracheabronchi
bronchioles alveoli blood

Pleural membranes surround each lung,


and pleural fluid lies in the cavity outside
the lung, which lubricates the lung and
stop it rubbing on the ribs.

The tar can paralyse the cilia in the lining


of your trachea, so when goblet cells
secrete mucus to trap dirt, rather than be
pushed up by cilia, bacteria and particles
are trapped and swallowed, sometimes
into the lung to give you bronchitis and
the smokers cough.

Alveoli walls break down, so there is less


surface area for gaseous exchange. Lungs
lose their elastic recoil, so you breathe
less and have to make yourself breathe
out. Patients require pure oxygen.

The carcinogens in tobacco can also


cause cancer, and there are many.

Gaseous exchange occurs between the


alveolus and red blood cells, in the
capillaries which contain haemoglobin.
Oxygen diffuses from alveoli into
haemoglobin to become oxyhaemoglobin,
while carbon dioxide is diffused from
capillaries into the alveoli.

When you exercise very quickly, i.e.


sprinting, your body builds up an oxygen
debt due to anaerobic respiration, so
afterwards, you breathe deeply and
heavily, so your heart pumps quickly, and
your breathing rate goes up. With other
exercise, your breathing rate goes up as
your body requires more and more
oxygen so it can pump red blood cells
around your body, as there is increased
demand.

Explain what blood made


from.

What are the properties of


plasma, and what does it
contain?

What are the properties of


erythrocytes and what do
they contain?

What do platelets do?

What do white blood cells,


and what are the three
types?

What are the functions of TLymphocytes

What are the functions of BLymphocytes?

Describe the vaccination


process and what happens
when you are infected.

Plasma: Fluid part of the blood,


makes up 55% of blood. Contains:
Lipids, fatty acids, cholesterol
Antibodies, enzymes
Urea
Mineral ions, electrolytes
Gases (e.g. carbon dioxide)

Platelets are involved in the


clotting process. When a wound
opens, they bind together to fill
the wound, to stop foreign
objects coming in and prevents
blood loss.

Killer T lymphoctyes
destroys infected cells.
Helper T-cells co-ordinate
the immune response.

When an infection takes place,


macrophages go forward and
attack, and natural T killer cells and
neutrophils do the same. As well as
killer T-cells. Dendritic cells create a
marker by taking samples, which
Helper T-cells take, and travel to
find the B-cell, which contains the
correct antibody fort he pathogen.
All together, they kill the pathogen.

Plasma
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
White blood cells
Platelets

Red blood cells:


Biconcave discs for high surface
area-to-volume ratio.
1/3
haemoglobin/oxyhaemoglobin
Made in bone marrow, broken
down in spleen and liver after
120 days.
Able to squeeze through
capillaries, 1 cell thick
White blood cells are cells which
defend the body against pathogens,
and are used. The three types are:
Phagocytes: Cells which engulf
and digests pathogens.
Lymphocytes: T and B types
which play key roles in immune
system.
Granulocytes (neutrophils):
Types of phagocytes with
granules.

They produce proteins called


antibodies which destroy
pathogens. Each lymphocyte
produces 1 type of antibody for
its pathogen, on its antigen, the
specific molecule on the surface
of its pathogen
Memory B cells are created
afterwards which stay for years
and help prevent future
invasions.

Describe the heart

What is the route the heart


takes to pump blood?

What are the three valves,


where are they and what do
they do?

What are the differences in


purpose between arteries,
veins and capillaries?

What are the differences in


structure between arteries,
veins and capillaries?

What is the effect of


smoking on the circulatory
system?

What is the effect of


exercise on heart rate and
why?

What is the general plan of


the circulation system?

Blood from body/head via vena


cavaright atrium tricuspid valve
semilunar valves pulmonary
artery lungs blood from lungs
from pulmonary veins left atrium
mitral/bicuspid valve left
ventricle semilunar valves aorta
to body and head vena cava

Made of cardiac muscle (myogenic


muscle), it is 2 pumps that beat at once.
The right side receives deoxygenated
blood and pumps it to the lungs, and the
left side pumps oxygenated blood to the
body. The two sides are separated by the
septum. It has 4 chambers, two atria and
two ventricles.

Bicuspid/Mitral valve: Prevents


backflow into the left atria when
left ventricle closes.
Tricuspid valve: Prevents
backflow into the right atria
when right ventricle closes.
Semilunar valves: Prevents
backflow into ventricles, located
in aorta and pulmonary artery.

Arteries: Carries blood from


heart to organs.
Veins: Carries blood from body
towards the heart.
Capillaries: Carries blood
through organs, bringing blood
to every cell.

Nicotine makes red blood cells and


platelets sticky, which increases blood
pressure, which damages blood vessels.
Atherosclerosis: Build up of cholesterol
in the wall of the endothelium (cell
lining). Increases pressure which when
burst, results in the clotting
(thrombosis) of a blood vessel, which
leads to a heart attack.

Arteries: Thick wall of muscle


and elastic tissue, small lumen
(cavity). Very, very high
pressure.
Veins: Thin wall of muscle and
elastic tissue, large lumen. Much
less pressure.
Capillaries: One cell thick for
diffusion of gases, cells near
capillary and contains various
gases.

The pulmonary circuit carries blood to


the lungs to be oxygenated and then
back to the heart. In the lungs, carbon
dioxide is removed from the blood, and
oxygen taken up by the haemoglobin in
the red blood cells.
The systemic circuit carries blood
around the body to deliver the oxygen
and returns de-oxygenated blood to the
heart. Blood also carries nutrients and
waste.

Exercise causes muscles to increase the


rate of respiration to provide energy. This
means it requires more oxygen and
glucose, and therefore produces more
carbon dioxide. The brain sends a
message to the natural pacemaker (SA
node) of the heart to increase the heart
rate. Adrenaline is released from the
adrenal gland and does the same thing to
the heart.

What are the levels of


organisation from
organelles to systems?

What are the: Cell


membrane, cytoplasm,
nucleus, cell wall,
chloroplast and vacuole and
their functions? Which ones
are used in plant cells and
which in animal cells?

What are: Diffusion,


osmosis and active
transport? Give 3 examples
of each.

What happens to a plant


cell in a solution which has
a lower water potential and
a higher water potential?
And what happens to red
blood cells in low water
potential?

Describe an experiment to
show the effect of osmosis
on potato chips.

Describe an experiment to
show osmosis in action in a
u-tube.

Name 4 factors which affect


the rate of movement of
substances.

Why can a unicellular


organism rely on diffusion
for movement, but not a
multicellular organism?

Cell Membrane: Surrounds and


protects cell.
Cytoplasm: Where chemical
reactions occur.
Nucleus: Contains DNA
Cell wall: Permeable but rigid
and made of cellulose.
Chloroplast: Contains
chlorophyll which
photosynthesises.
Vacuole: Contains water and
minerals, and it keeps the cell
turgid.

Only
Inhigher
Bold water
In a *Plant
solution
with
potential, water enters the plant via
osmosis and it enters the vacuole,
filling it and making the plant cell
turgid as the cytoplasm pushes
against the wall.
Placed in a solution with a lower
water potential, the water leaves the
vacuole as the cell shrinks and
becomes flaccid.
A red blood cell when it loses water
loses its shape and becomes
crenated.

Have a u-tube with a semipermeable membrane in the


middle, and one side a
solution with higher water
potential, and one of the
sides should have more water
put in. Osmosis will level it
out.

A unicellular organism, being so small has


a very high surface area-to-volume ratio
and therefore is optimal for diffusion,
whereas a multi-cellular organism having
such a low surface area and being so
inefficient at diffusion would benefit from
carrying around molecules differently.

Organelles (Microscopic structures in cells


having a particular function, e.g. nucleus,
mitochondria) Cells Tissues Organs
Systems

Diffusion: The movement of molecules of an


area of a high concentration to a low
concentration. E.g. Tea, perfume, alveoli.

Osmosis: The movement of liquids with a


high water potential to a low water potential
through a semi-permeable membrane. E.g.
plant roots, kidney, capillaries.

Active transport: The movement of


molecules from an area of low
concentration to a high concentration which
requires energy. E.g. root cells absorbing
minerals from soil, glucose and amino acids
by epithelial cells in gut and glucose from
glomerular filtrate by tubules in your kidney.

Set up various beakers with various


dilutions of water and sucrose. Cut
equal sized amounts of potato chips
and place them in each one. Take
the mass beforehand, and the mass
afterward, and depending on the
dilution of water, it will change
depending on the mass. Where
there is the least mass change, is
where the water potential of the
solution is similar to that of the
potato.

Temperature.
Concentration.
Surface area.
Difference in
concentrations

What is the path fro the


What is urea and urine? And
kidney to urethra, and what
what are three of your
are each of the parts, and
excretory organs?
what do they do?

Describe the structure of a


nephron and the function of
the parts.

Explain how glucagon and


insulin regulate blood
glucose levels.

How does ADH regulate the


water content in blood?
Mention the negative
feedback.

Define homeostasis.

Explain what in your skin


happens when the
temperature is too hot or
too cold?

How do hormones vary


from receptors?

Kidney (Filters blood and


absorbs nutrients and water.
while expelling waste)Ureter
Bladder Urethra

If you have hyperglycaemia (blood


glucose too high), your pancreas
detects it, secretes insulin which
enables glucose to be used up in
respiration and convert excess
glucose to glycogen.
If too low, your pancreas detects and
releases glucagon which causes
glycogen to be broken down into
glucose. Both are negative feedbacks.
This is necessary, because too high or
too low blood sugar results in an
inadvertent osmotic effect.

Urea: Formed in the liver from the


breakdown of excess amino acids .
Urine: Urea + Water + Salts.
Excretory organs:
Lungs: Excrete carbon dioxide from
respiration
Kidney: Urea in urine storied in bladder
excreted through urethra. Made up of 1
million nephrons.
Skin: Urea excreted during sweating.

The renal artery connects to an arteriole which


brings blood to the glomerulus. The
glomerulus/glomerular capillaries lie inside the
bowmans capsule, and because pressure is so
high, there is ultrafiltration of the blood, which
forms glomerular filtrate as it is formed of water,
glucose salts, amino acids and urea. Proteins and
larger molecules do not fit. The glucose and
amino acids are reabsorbed back into the blood in
the proximal convoluting tubule via active
transport and a lot of water is too. More water is
reabsorbed in the Loop of Henle, and the distal
convoluting tubule and collecting duct reabsorb
water back into the blood, the permeability of
which is affected by ADH. Any waste (urine) goes
through the duct into the ureters to be excreted.

Homeostasis is the
maintenance of a constant
internal environment which
is stable and lets an organism
be independent of its external
environment.

Hormonal communication takes


longer, with receptors it is
much quicker more responsive
and instantaneous.

If the concentration of blood in the


body is too high, the hypothalamus in
the brain detects it. The pituitary
gland secretes ADH (anti-diuretic
hormone) which binds to receptors in
the distal convoluted tubule and the
collecting duct to make it more
permeable so more water can be
reabsorbed which is detected by the
hypothalamus, and is an example of a
negative feedback.

Too low, and less ADH is secreted.

If you get too hot, your


thermoregulatory system deals with it.
Sweat is secreted onto the skin from
sweat glands, and as it evaporates you
are cooled, Your blood vessels
vasodilate. This means shunt vessels
shut and vessels dilate to allow blood to
the surface capillaries so more heat is
lost.
When it is too cold, your shunt vessels
open vessels vasoconstrict so blood
doesnt flow to surface and heat is not
lost.

What two parts do the


nervous system contain?

What are receptors.

Describe the path from


receptors to performing an
reflex activity

Describe what happens


when you touch a hot
object.

Describe a synapse and


how it works.

What are effectors?

Give examples of reflex


actions

Describe a sensory nerve,


relay nerve and a motor
neurone.

Receptors detect a change


in the environment
(stimulus) and produce
electrical impulses in
response. They respond to a
type of stimuli. E.g. touch,
chemicals, taste, light or
sound.

Central Nervous System


Brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system
Nerve cells from CNS/to CNS
around the body.

When you touch a hot object, touch


receptors register it and send a
signal via nerve impulses to
sensory nerves. These send signals
about the change in stimuli to the
relay nerve in the spinal cord and
that sends a signal to the motor
neurone to perform a reflex action
which jerks your hand away.

Receptors (receive a stimulus)


Nerve Impulse (what detects the
stimulus) Sensory Nerve (sends
signals to the relay nerve toward
CNS) Relay Nerve (in the spinal
cord, it sends a signal to the motor
neurone) Motor neurone (sends
signal from the CNS to the effector)
Effector (produces a response)

Effectors are parts of the


body - such as muscles
and glands. Such as a
gland releasing a
hormone, or a muscles
moving an arm.

A synapse is the gap between nerve


cells. Neurotransmitters cross these
by diffusing across the synapse and
transmitting the signal. It is
secreted from vesicles which bind
to receptors on the other nerve,
which generates the signal.

A motor neurone has a nucleus


surround by a cell body with dendrites
on the end. The body is connected to
an axon surrounded by a fatty myelin
sheath which is connected to an
effector.
A sensory neurone looks the same, but
the nucleus is surrounded by just a cell
body in the middle, with receptor
endings on one end and dendrites on
the other.
A relay nerve is just a cell body with a
nucleus and dendrites.

Sneezing
Coughing
Vomiting
Blinking
Withdrawal reflex

What are: Rods, cones, the


iris, pupil, conjunctiva, lens,
optic nerve, retina,
suspensory ligament, cilia
and fovea?

What happens to your eyes


during dim light and during
bright light?

What happens to your eyes


when looking at a distant
object and a near object?

What are tropisms and how


are plants positively
phototropic and positively
geotropic?

What is the chemical that


causes plants to grow? And
where is it produced and
how does light affect it?

Describe experiments to
show that auxin is needed
for growth.

Describe experiments to
show that auxin can work in
part of a leaf.

Describe an experiment to
show that plants are also
geotropic.

Bright light: Radial iris muscles


relax, circular ciliary muscles
contract, pupil appears smaller.
Dim light: Radial iris muscles
contract, circular ciliary muscles
relax, pupil appears larger.

Rods: Sensitive to dim light giving black and white


vision.
Cones: Sensitive to colour and there are red, green
and blue cones.
Iris: Circular, radial muscles which regulates light
by contracting as ciliary muscles relax.
Optic nerve: Sends impulses to visual cortex.
Retina: Light receptors at back of eye.
Suspensory ligament:
Ciliary muscles: Circular muscles around the eye
which relax as iris contracts.
Fovea: Centre of retina, where light is focused.
Lens: Focuses light onto retina.
Suspensory ligaments: Holds pupil in place.
Conjunctiva: Protects pupil.
Cornea: Refracts light.

A tropism is a movement in a plant


towards or away stimulus. Plants
move towards light and are
therefore positively phototropic,
and move away from gravity so are
negatively geotropic.

Distant object: Rays dont need to


refract that much so: Ciliary
muscles relax which stretches
suspensory ligaments, which makes
the lens flat and thin. Muscle
tension is high.
Near an object: Because near an
object there needs to be more
refraction: The ciliary muscles
contract, which relaxes the
suspensory ligament and makes the
lens fatter and rounder.

Have a control stem. Have another stem,


but cut off the tip and put it on a mica
sheet on top of the stem. There will be no
growth. However place a third tip on agar
jelly and it will grow, as auxin diffuses
through it.

Auxin is the chemical which causes


plant to grow. It is only found in the
tips of stems and shoots. Light
destroys Auxin, which means that
the shaded part grows and forces a
plant to grow towards the sun.

Place a plant on its side on a clinostat, but


with the drum stopped. It will grow
upwards. Do the same with another plant
on a clinostat, but have the drum rotating.
As the plant becomes confused and is
constantly trying to go upwards, it will
spiral.

Cut of the tip of a stem, and


place the tip on only half of the
stem. The auxin will only work
on that side, and it will bend to
the side.