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Subject : Z0294 / Computer Networks

: 2015

Session 06

Main Reference Session 05:
Forouzan, B.A., (2010).
Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition,
Chapter 13
Forouzan, B.A., (2010).
TCP/IP Protocol Suite, 4th Edition,
Chapter 3.1

Learning Outcomes

The students are able explain routing

principles and internetworking.



Allows the use one class of addresses for several
network segments
A subnetted address is comprised of three parts
Network address
Subnet address
Host address
Subnet address uses part of the host address for
subnet address assignment
Efficient use of IP addresses

A subnet mask is a special bit pattern that blocks off
the network portion of an IP address with an all-ones
The entire network address, including the network
prefix and the subnetting bits, is called the extended
network prefix.
This activity of stealing bits from the host portion of
further subdivide the network portion of an address
is called subnetting a network address, or subnetting.
A subnet mask that is larger than the default mask for
the address in use divides a single network IP
address into multiple subnetworks.

The network prefix identifies the number of bits in
the IP address, counting from the left that represents
the actual network address itself, and the additional
bits of subnetting represent the bits that were
borrowed from the host portion of that IP address to
extend the network portion.
When a computer on one subnet wishes to
communicate with a computer on another subnet,
traffic must be forwarded from the sender to a
nearby IP gateway to send the message on its way
from one subnet to another.

Extended Network Prefix
The combination of an addresss network and
subnet information.
Device can determine subnet to which address
belongs by interpreting the extended network
Subnet Mask
Special 32-bit number, when combined with a
devices IP address, informs the rest of the
network about the network to which the device is

Subnet mask composed of four octets and can be
expressed in either binary or dotted decimal notation
Octet of all 1s
Represents part of the extended network prefix
that uses that subnet mask.
Octet of all 0s
Represents corresponding octets that are
assumed to represent host information.
Binary Notation
Dotted Decimal Notation

Class B 166.144
First two octets for network info.
Last two octets for host info
Default subnetmask
Assigning third octet to subnet info:
subnet mask
Creates 254 Class C networks from single Class B
Range of IP Address

Default mask and subnet mask

Subnet Mask

Subnetted IP address and its subnet mask

Subnet Masking
Constant-length subnet masking (CLSM)
Each subnet includes the same number of
Simple division of the address space by
subnetting into multiple equal segments
Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM)
A single address is subdivided into multiple
Each subnets need not all be the same size

Variable-length subnetting

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)

CIDR gets its name from the notion that it ignores the
traditional A, B, and C class designations for IP
addresses, and can therefore set the network-host ID
boundary wherever it wants to, in a way that simplifies
routing across the resulting IP address spaces

Slash notation

Slash notation is also called CIDR notation

A block in classes A, B, and C can easily be
represented in slash notation as A.B.C.D/ n
where n is either 8 (class A), 16 (class B), or
24 (class C)

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)

Creating a CIDR address is subject to the following

All the addresses in the CIDR address must be
When address aggregation occurs, CIDR address
blocks work best when they come in sets that are
greater than one, and equal to some lower-order bit
pattern that corresponds to all ones.
CIDR addresses are commonly applied to Class C
To use a CIDR address on any network, all routers in
the routing domain must understand CIDR notation.