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PPT

PPT

Module
Module 99
Formats
Formatsfor
for Letters,
Letters,
Formats
for
Letters
Memos,
Memos, and
andE-Mail
E-Mail
and
Memos
Messages
Messages

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9-2

Formats
Formats for
for Letters
Letters and
and Memos
Memos
To learn how to
Choose and use standard formats.
Use nonsexist courtesy titles.
Create a professional image.

9-3

Formats
Formats for
for Letters
Letters and
and Memos
Memos
Start by answering these questions:
What are the standard formats for
letters?
What courtesy titles should I use?
How should I set up memos?
How should I set up e-mail
messages?

9-4

Standard
Standard Components
Components for
for
Letters
Letters
Block vs. Modified Block
Salutation
Complimentary Close
Mixed vs. Open Punctuation
Subject Line vs. Reference Line

9-5

Courtesy
Courtesy Titles
Titles
Use Ms. or Mr. unless the reader
has a professional title.
Professional titles include Dr., Rev., Prof.,
and Senator.

Use a complete name if you dont


know gender.
Robin Sanders instead of Mr. or Ms.
Sanders.

9-6

Courtesy
Courtesy Titles
Titles continued
continued

When you dont know the


readers name or gender, use
The readers position or job title.
Dear Human Resources Manager

The general group to which the reader


belongs.
Dear Concerned Citizen

9-7

Courtesy
Courtesy Titles
Titles continued
continued
Omit the salutation and use a subject line
instead.
Subject: An investment opportunity

9-8

Standard
Standard Formats
Formats for
for Memos
Memos
Standard memo format mimics
block letter format, but
Use Date/To/ From/Subject block. In
general, initial next to your name.
Requires subject lines.
Doesnt indent paragraphs or use
headings for the first paragraph.

9-9

Standard
Standard Formats
Formats for
for E-Mail
E-Mail
Standard formats are
evolving.
The format depends on the
e-mail program.
Most programs prompt you
to supply the address and
subject line.
Most programs allow you to
send attachments, as well
as computer copies (cc.).

9-10

9-11

Informative
Informative and
and Positive
Positive
Messages
Messages
To learn how to
Write effective subject lines.
Organize informative and positive
messages.
Continue to develop strong reader
benefits.

9-12

Informative
Informative and
and Positive
Positive
Messages
Messages
To learn how to
Write goodwill endings.
Write common kinds of informative
and positive messages.
Continue to analyze business
communication situations.

9-13

Informative
Informative and
and Positive
Positive
Messages
Messages
Start by answering these questions:
Whats the best subject line for an
informative or positive message?
How should I organize informative
and positive messages?
When should I use reader benefits in
informative and positive messages?

9-14

Informative
Informative and
and Positive
Positive
Messages
Messages
Start by answering these questions:
What kinds of informative and
positive messages am I likely to
write?
How can PAIBOC help me write
informative and positive messages?

9-15

Purposes
Purposes of
of Informative
Informative and
and
Positive
Positive Messages
Messages
Primary Purposes
To give information
or good news.
To have the reader
read, understand,
and view information
positively.
To deemphasize
negative elements.

9-16

Purposes
Purposes of
of Informative
Informative and
and
Positive
Positive Messages
Messages
Secondary Purposes
To build a good image of the writer.
To build a good image of the writers
organization.
To cement a good relationship
between the writer and reader.
To reduce or eliminate future
correspondence on the same subject.

9-17

Types
Types of
of Informative
Informative and
and
Positive
Positive Messages
Messages
Transmittals
Confirmations
Summaries
Adjustments
Thank-You Notes

9-18

Subject
Subject Lines
Lines for
for Informative
Informative
and
and Positive
Positive Messages
Messages
Make subject lines specific.
Subject: Interview Questions for Job
Candidate Toni James.

Make subject lines concise.


Subject: Lets Hire Toni James.

Make subject lines appropriate for the


pattern of organization.
In general, provide the same information
that you would in the first paragraph.

9-19

Informative
Informative and
and Positive
Positive
Messages
Messages
Follow this pattern:
Give any good news and summarize the main
points.
Give details, clarification, background.
Present any negative elementsas positively
as possible.
Explain any reader benefits.
Use a goodwill ending: positive, personal,
and forward-looking.

9-20

Use
Use Reader
Reader Benefits
Benefits
When youre presenting policies.
When you want to shape readers
attitudes.
When stressing benefits presents
readers motives positively.
When some of the benefits may
not be obvious to readers.

9-21

PAIBOC
PAIBOC
P What are your purposes in
writing?
A Who is (are) your audiences?
I

What information must your


message include?

9-22

PAIBOC
PAIBOC continued
continued
B What reasons or reader
benefits can you use to support
your position?
O What objections can you
expect your reader(s) to have?
C How will the context affect
reader response?

9-23

9-24

Negative
Negative Messages
Messages

To learn how to
Give bad news while retaining
goodwill.
Continue to write effective subject
lines.
Organize negative messages.
Write buffers.

9-25

Negative
Negative Messages
Messages

To learn how to
Write common kinds of negative
messages.
Continue to analyze business
communication situations.

9-26

Negative
Negative Messages
Messages
Start by answering these questions:
Whats the best subject line for a
negative message?
How should I organize negative
messages?
When should I consider using a
buffer?

9-27

Negative
Negative Messages
Messages
Start by answering these questions:
What are the most common kinds of
negative messages?
How can PAIBOC help me write
negative messages?

9-28

Negative
Negative Messages
Messages Include
Include
Rejections and refusals.
Policy changes that dont benefit
customers.
Insulting or intrusive requests.
Negative performance appraisals.
Product recalls.

9-29

P
Purposes
urposes of
of Negative
Negative Messages
Messages
continued
continued

Secondary Purposes
To build a good image of the writer.
To build a good image of the writers
organization.
To reduce or eliminate future
correspondence on the same subject.

9-30

For
For Bad
Bad News
News to
to Customers
Customers
Give the reason for the refusal
before the refusal itself when
readers will understand and
accept the reason.
Give the negative just once,
clearly.

9-31

For
For Bad
Bad News
News to
to Customers
Customers
continued
continued

Present an
alternative or
compromise, if one
is available.
End with a
positive, forwardlooking statement.

9-32

Purposes
Purposes of
of Negative
Negative Messages
Messages
Primary Purposes
To give the reader bad news.
To have the reader read,
understand, and accept the
message.
To maintain as much goodwill as
possible.

9-33

Alternatives
Alternatives
Offer the reader another way to
get whats wanted.
Suggest the writer really cares
about the reader.
Enable the reader to reestablish
psychological freedom.
Allow you to end on a positive
note.

9-34

For
For Bad
Bad News
News to
to Superiors
Superiors
Describe the problem.
Tell how it happened.
Describe the options
for fixing it.
Recommend a
solution and ask for
action.

9-35

For
For Bad
Bad News
News to
to Subordinates
Subordinates
Describe the problem.
If possible, ask for
input or action.
Present an alternative
or compromise, if one
is available.

9-36

Influences
Influences on
on Audience
Audience
Reaction
Reaction
Do you and the readers have a
good relationship?
Does the organization treat people
well?
Have readers been warned of
possible negatives?

9-37

Influences
Influences on
on Audience
Audience
Reaction
Reaction continued
continued
Have readers bought into the
criteria for the decision?
Do communications after the
negative build goodwill?

9-38

Types
Types of
of Buffers
Buffers
Start with any good news or positive
elements the letter contains.
State a fact or provide a chronology of
events.
Refer to enclosures in the letter.
Thank the reader for something he or
she has done.
State a general principle.

9-39

Three
Three Difficult
Difficult Negative
Negative
Messages
Messages
Rejections and Refusals
Disciplinary Notices and Negative
Performance Appraisals
Layoffs and Firings

9-40

9-41

Persuasive
Persuasive Messages
Messages
To learn how to
Choose and implement a
persuasive strategy.
Write effective subject lines for
persuasive messages.
Organize persuasive messages.
Identify and overcome objections.

9-42

Persuasive
Persuasive Messages
Messages
To learn how to
Write common kinds of persuasive
messages.
Continue to analyze business
communication situations.

9-43

Persuasive
Persuasive Messages
Messages
Start by answering these questions:
What is the best persuasive strategy?
What is the best subject line for a
persuasive message?
How should I organize persuasive
messages?
How do I identify and overcome
objections?

9-44

Persuasive
Persuasive Messages
Messages
Start by answering these questions:
What other techniques can make my
messages more persuasive?
What are the most common kinds of
persuasive messages?
How can PAIBOC help me write
persuasive messages?

9-45

Kinds
Kinds of
of Persuasive
Persuasive Messages
Messages
Orders and Requests
Proposals and Recommendations
Sales and Fund-Raising Letters
Job Application Letters
Reports (if they recommend
action)

9-46

Persuasive
Persuasive Messages
Messages
Primary Purposes
To have the reader act.
To provide enough information so
the reader knows exactly what to do.
To overcome any objections that
might prevent or delay action.

9-47

Persuasive
Persuasive Messages
continued
Messages continued
Secondary Purposes
To build a good image of the writer.
To build a good image of the writers
organization.
To cement a good relationship
between the writer and reader.
To reduce or eliminate future
correspondence on the same matter.

9-48

Direct
Direct Requests
Requests
Use when
The audience will do as you ask
without resistance.
You need a response only from
people willing to act.
The audience is busy and may not
read all messages.
Your organizations culture prefers
them.

9-49

Direct
Direct Requests
Requests continued
continued
Follow this pattern.
Consider asking immediately for the
information or service you want.
Give readers all the information and
details they need to act on the
request.
Ask for the action you want.

9-50

Problem-Solving
Problem-Solving Messages
Messages

Use when
The audience is likely to object.
You need action from everyone.
You trust the audience to read the
entire message.
You expect logic to be more
important than emotion in the
decision.

9-51

Problem-Solving
Problem-Solving Messages
Messages
continued
continued

Follow this pattern


Describe the problem you both share.
Give the details of the problem.
Explain the solution to the problem.
Show that any negative elements are
outweighed by advantages.
Summarize any additional benefits.
Ask for the action you want.

9-52

Overcoming
Overcoming Objections
Objections
Specify how much time/money is
required.
Put the time/money in the context
of the benefits they bring.
Show that money spent now saves
money later.
Show benefits to another group or
cause.

9-53

Overcoming
Overcoming Objections
Objections continued
continued
Show that sacrifice is needed for a
higher goal.
Show that advantages outweigh
disadvantages.
Turn a disadvantage into an
opportunity.

9-54

9-55

E-Mail
E-Mail Messages
Messages and
and Web
Web
Writing
Writing
To learn how to
Format e-mail messages.
Use e-mail effectively.
Write effective subject lines for email messages.
Manage time.
Write for the Web.

9-56

E-Mail
E-Mail Messages
Messages and
and Web
Web
Writing
Writing
Start by answering these questions:
How should I set up e-mail
messages?
What kinds of subject lines should I
use for e-mail messages?
Should I write e-mail messages the
same way I write paper messages?

9-57

E-Mail
E-Mail Messages
Messages and
and Web
Web
Writing
Writing
Start by answering these questions:
What e-mail netiquette rules should I
follow?
How and when should I send
attachments?
What style should I use when writing
for the Web?

9-58

E-Mail
E-Mail Messages
Messages and
and Web
Web
Writing
Writing
Start by answering these questions:
Can I use blogging on the job?
What other technologies use the
Internet?
What e-mail netiquette rules should I
follow?
Should I worry about viruses?

9-59

When
When Writing
Writing E-Mail,
E-Mail, Remember
Remember
All principles of good business
writing still apply with e-mail.
While e-mail feels like talking, pay
attention to spelling and grammar.
You should proofread messages.
E-mail should interest the readers
in the subject line and first
paragraph.

9-60

E-Mail
E-Mail Subject
Subject Lines
Lines
Are specific, concise, and catchy.
Give good news in positive
messages.
Give negative news when its
serious, the reader needs the
information to act, or you report your
own errors.
Make the request clear in
persuasive messages.

9-61

For
For Proper
Proper Netiquette,
Netiquette, Never
Never
Flame your
audience.
Send unnecessary
e-mails.
Compose e-mail
messages when
youre angry or
upset.

9-62

Web
Web Writing
Writing
Business writing basics apply.
Be clear, concise, and
complete.
In general, keep the style
simple and conversational.

Readers skim.
Use short sentences and
paragraphs.
Use titles, headings and
bulleted lists.

9-63

Web
Web Writing
Writing
Work with designers on
format.
If links seem too many, they
probably are.
Test your design with potential
users.
Images should support text.
Avoid complex introductions that
slow loading a page.
Tell a story with titles and
captions.

9-64

Scannable
Scannable Text
Text
According to John Morkes and Jakob
Nielsen
Highlight key words.
Use meaningful subheadings.
Include bulleted lists.
Use one idea per paragraph.
Use inverted pyramid organization.
Use half the word count of a printed page.
Avoid marketese.

9-65

Blogging
Blogging
Blogs can be used for business.
Company may own the space.
Stay professional.
Avoid deeply personal information or
unflattering opinions about the company
or its employees.

Popular blog sites are blogger.com


and businessblogconsulting.com.

9-66

To
To Create
Create aa Blog
Blog for
for Business
Business
Jeff Wurio suggests
Identify your audience.
Decide where your blog should live.
Start talking.
Blog roll, or link to other sites and
blogs.
Emphasize words.
Keep it fresh.
Watch traffic closely.

9-67

Technology
Technology
Web-based technology
PDAs.
Cell phones.
Videoconferencing.

Technology changes
be flexiblebut
choose useful
technology.