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Power Electronics

Chapter 3
AC to DC Converters
(Rectifiers)

Power Electronics

Outline
3.1 Single-phase controlled rectifier
3.2 Three-phase controlled rectifier
3.3 Effect of transformer leakage inductance on
rectifier circuits
3.4 Capacitor-filtered uncontrolled rectifier
3.5 Harmonics and power factor of rectifier circuits
3.6 High power controlled rectifier
3.7 Inverter mode operation of rectifier circuit
3.8 Realization of phase-control in rectifier circuits

Power Electronics

3.1 Single-phase controlled


(controllable) rectifier
3.1.1 Single-phase half-wave controlled rectifier
3.1.2 Single-phase bridge fully-controlled rectifier
3.1.3 Single-phase full-wave controlled rectifier
3.1.4 Single-phase bridge half-controlled rectifier

Power Electronics

3.1.1 Single-phase half-wave


controlled rectifier
u2

Resistive load

b)

0
ug

V T

T
u1

uVT

u2

c)

id
ud

t1

0
ud

d)

uVT

a)
1
Ud
2

2U 2 sin td (t )

e)

2U 2
1 cos
(1 cos ) 0.45U 2
2
2

(3-1)

Half-wave, single-pulse
Triggering delay angle, delay angle, firing angle

Power Electronics

3.1.1 Single-phase half-wave


controlled rectifier
Inductive (resistor-inductor) load
u2

VT

T
a)

u1

id

b)

t1

ug

uVT
u2

c)

ud

0
ud
+

d)

id
e)
0

uVT
f)

Power Electronics

Basic thought process of time-domain


analysis for power electronic circuits
The time-domain behavior of a power electronic
circuit is actually the combination of consecutive
transients of the different linear circuits when the
power semiconductor devices are in different states.
VT

VT
L
u2

L
u2
R

R
b)

a)

did
L
Rid
dt

2U 2 sin t

(3-2)

t = id= 0
R

(t )
2U 2
2U 2
id
sin( )e L

sin(t )
Z
Z

(3-3)
6

Power Electronics

Single-phase half-wave controlled


rectifier with freewheeling diode
u

Inductive load (L is large enough)


VT

a) u 1

u2

i VDR

I VDR

c)

(3-5)
(3-6)

I d (3-7)
2


I d2 d (t )
Id
2

(3-8)

t
Id

d)
O
iV T

I d2 d (t )

t1

O
id

ud


I dVT
Id
2

I dVDR
Id
2
1
2

O
ud
L

VDR

I VT

b)

id

u VT

e)
iV

O
D

t
Id
-

f)
u

O
V T

g)

Maximum forward voltage, maximum reverse voltage


Disadvantages:
Only single pulse in one line cycle
DC component in the transformer current

Resistive load

ud
id

T
u1

VT 3

i2

VT 1

b)

id

uVT

ud

u2

c)

VT4

b
VT2

Power Electronics

3.1.2 Single-phase bridge


fully-controlled rectifier
u d(id)

1 ,4

0
i2

d)

a)

For thyristor: maximum forward voltage, maximum reverse


voltage
Advantages:
2 pulses in one line cycle
No DC component in the transformer current
8

Power Electronics

3.1.2 Single-phase bridge fullycontrolled rectifier


Resistive load
Average output (rectified) voltage

1
2 2U 2 1 cos
1 cos
U d 2U 2 sin td(t )
0.9U 2

2
2

(3-9)

U
2 2U 2 1 cos

U 1 cos
Average
current
I d d output
0.9 2

1
U 2 1 cos
I

0
.
45
dVT thyristor
d
For
2
R
2
1
2

I VT

2U 2
U
sin t ) 2 d (t ) 2
R
2R

1

sin 2
2

For
transformer
U
1 2U 2
II
(
sin t ) 2 d (t ) 2
2

1

sin 2
2

(3-10)

(3-11)
(3-12)
(3-13)9

T
u

id

O
Id

id

a
u

L
d

iV

1 ,4

iV

2 ,3

O
V T

Id
Id

O
i2

R
VT4

VT3

i2

VT1

Inductive load
(L is large enough)

VT2

Power Electronics

3.1.2 Single-phase bridge


fully-controlled rectifier

Id

Ud

Id

t
b )

1
2 2
2
U
sin

t
d
(

t
)

U 2 cos 0.9U 2 cos


2

Commutation
Thyristor voltages and currents
Transformer current

1 ,4

a)

(3-15)

10

Power Electronics

Electro-motive-force (EMF) load


With resistor

id

ud
E
R

ud
E

id

Id

O
a)

b)

Discontinuous current id
11

Power Electronics

Electro-motive-force (EMF) load


With resistor and inductor
When L is large enough, the output voltage and
current waveforms are the same as ordinary
inductive load.
When L is at a critical value
ud

id
O

2 2U 2
3 U 2
L
2.87 10
I dmin
I dmin

(317)

12

Power Electronics

3.1.3 Single-phase full-wave


controlled rectifier

i1
u1

VT
u2
u 2 VT

ud

ud

O
i1

a)

b)

Transformer with center tap


Comparison with single-phase bridge fully-controlled rectifier
13

u2

VT 2

ud

VD4

O
ud

id
VDR

i2

VT 1

b)

VD3

Power Electronics

3.1.4 Single-phase bridge


half-controlled rectifier

O
id

i V TO
iV D1

Id

i V TO

iV D

Id

i V DO

O
i2
O

Half-control
Comparison with fully-controlled rectifier
Additional freewheeling diode

Id

Id

Id

t
t

Id

14

VD3

VT1

lo a d

VD4

u2
VT2

Power Electronics

Another single-phase bridge


half-controlled rectifier

Comparison with previous circuit:


No need for additional freewheeling diode
Isolation is necessary between the drive circuits of the two
thyristors

15

Power Electronics

Summary of some important


points in analysis
When analyzing a thyristor circuit, start from a diode
circuit with the same topology. The behavior of the
diode circuit is exactly the same as the thyristor circuit
when firing angle is 0.
A power electronic circuit can be considered as
different linear circuits when the power semiconductor
devices are in different states. The time-domain
behavior of the power electronic circuit is actually the
combination of consecutive transients of the different
linear circuits.
Take different principle when dealing with different load
For resistive load: current waveform of a resistor is the same
as the voltage waveform
For inductive load with a large inductor: the inductor current
can be considered constant

16

Power Electronics

3.2 Three-phase controlled


(controllable) rectifier
3.2.1 Three-phase half-wave controlled rectifier
(the basic circuit among three-phase rectifiers)
3.2.2 Three-phase bridge fully-controlled rectifier
(the most widely used circuit among three-phase
rectifiers)

17

Power Electronics

3.2.1 Three-phase half-wave


controlled rectifier
Resistive load, = 0
u2
O t1

ud
R

ua

ub

t2

uc

t3

VT

uG

VT

VT

O
ud

O
iVT

O
uVT

id

Common-cathode connection
Natural commutation point

uab

uac

18

Power Electronics

Resistive load, = 30
u2

ua

ub

uc

VT

ud
R

VT

VT

uG

O
ud
O
iVT

t1

id

O
uVT u

1 ac

uab

uac

19

Power Electronics

Resistive load, = 60
u2

ud
R

VT

VT

VT

ua

ub

uc

uG
O
ud

id

iVT

t
20

Power Electronics

Resistive load, quantitative analysis


When 30, load current id is continuous.
5

1
Ud
2
3

2U 2 sin td (t )

3 6
U 2 cos 1.17U 2 cos
2

(3-18)

When 30, load current id is discontinuous.


1
Ud
2
3

2U 2 sin td (t )

3 2

U 2 1 cos( ) 0.675 1 cos( )


2
6
6

(3-19)

Average load current


U
(3-20)
Id d
R
Thyristor voltages
1- resistor load 2- inductor load
3- resistor-inductor load

21

Power Electronics

Inductive load, L is large enough


u

u2

a
b
V T2
c

V T

ud
3

id
R
u

O
ib

O
ic

O
id

V T

ac

Load current id is always continuous.


5

1
Ud
2
3

ia

eL

VT

ac

ab

(3-18)
3 6
2U 2 sin td (t )
U 2 cos 1.17U 2 cos
2

Thyristor voltage and currents, transformer current

I 2 I VT

I d 0.577 I d (3-23)
3

U FM U RM 2.45U 2

(3-25)

I VT(AV)

I VT
0.368 I d (3-24)
1.57
22

Power Electronics

3.2.2 Three-phase bridge


fully-controlled rectifier
Circuit diagram

ia

VT1

id

n
VT 4

d1

VT

VT3

VT 5

c
VT

load

ud

d2
Common-cathode group and common-anode group
of thyristors
Numbering of the 6 thyristors indicates the trigger
sequence.
23

Power Electronics

Resistive load, = 0
u

2
d1

t1

O
u

= 0 u

d2

u ab

2L
ud

u ac

u bc

u ba

u ca

u cb

ab

ac

i VT
u

O
VT

u
1

ab

ac

bc

ba

ca

cb

ab

t
ac

ab

ac

24

Power Electronics

Resistive load, = 30
u

= 30

d1

d2

t1

O
u

u ab

u ac

u bc

u ba

u ca

u cb

ab

ac

VT

ab

ac

bc

ba

ca

cb

ab

ac

ia

ab

ac

25

Power Electronics

Resistive load, = 60
u d1

= 60

ua

ub

uc

t1

O
u d2
ud

u ab

u ac

u bc

u ba

u ca

u cb

u ab

u VT

u ac

u ac

u ac

u ab

26

Power Electronics

Resistive load, = 90
ud1

ua

ub

uc

ua

ub

O
ud2
ud

uab uac

ubc uba uca ucb uab uac ubc uba

id

O
iVT

O
ia

27

Power Electronics

Inductive load, = 0
u 2 = 0 u a
u d1

ub

uc

O t1
u d2
u 2L
ud

t

u ab u ac


u bc u ba


u ca u cb

u ab

u ac

id
i VT

O
1

28

Power Electronics

Inductive load, = 30
u d1

O
u d2
ud

= 30 u
a

ub

uc

t1

t

u ab u ac


u bc u ba


u ca u cb

u ab u ac

id
O
ia

29

Power Electronics

Inductive load, = 90

= 90

u d1

ub

uc

ua

t1

O
u d2
ud

u ab

u ac

u bc

u ba

u ca

u cb

u ab

u ac

u VT

u ac

u ac

O
u ab

30

Power Electronics

Quantitative analysis
Average output voltage
2
Ud

6U 2 sin td (t ) 2.34U 2 cos

(3-26)

For resistive load, When a > 60, load current id is discontinuous.


3

U d
6U 2 sin td (t ) 2.34U 2 1 cos( )
(3-27)
3
3

Average output current (load current)

Id

Ud
R

(3-20)

Transformer current
1 2 2
2
2
I2
I d ( I d )
2
3
3
Thyristor voltage and current

2
I d 0.816 I d
3

(3-28)

Same as three-phase half-wave rectifier

EMF load, L is large enough


All the same as inductive load except the calculation of average output
current

Id

Ud E
R

(3-29)
31

Power Electronics

3.3 Effect of transformer leakage


inductance on rectifier circuits
T

a
ik

ia

ib

ic

c
u

V T

V T

id

V T

ic

ia

ib

ic

ia

Id

In practical, the transformer leakage inductance has to be


taken into account.
Commutation between thyristors thus can not happen
instantly, but with a commutation process.

32

Power Electronics

Commutation process analysis


Circulating current ik during commutation
ub-ua = 2LBdia/dt
ik:

Id

ia = Id-ik :

Id

Id

i b = ik

Commutation angle
Output voltage during commutation

dik
dik ua ub
ud ua LB
ub LB

dt
dt
2

(3-30)

33

Power Electronics

Quantitative calculation
Reduction of average output voltage due to the
commutation process
di k
1 56
3 56
U d
(ub ud )d(t ) 5 [u b (u b LB )]d(t )
5

2 / 3 6
2 6
dt
3

5
6

5
6

di
3
LB k d(t )
dt
2

Id

LBdik

Calculation of commutation angle


cos cos( )

Id

2X BId

3
X BId
2

(3-31)

(3-36)

6U 2

XB ,

For 90o , ,
34

Power Electronics

Summary of the effect on rectifier circuits


Circuits

U d

Singlephase full
wave

XB

cos cos( )

Id

Id X B
2U 2

Singlephase
bridge

2X B

Threephase
half-wave

Id

3X B
Id
2

Threephase
bridge

3X B
Id

2I d X B

2X BId

2X B Id

2U 2

6U 2

6U 2

m-pulse recfifier

mX B
Id
2
Id X B
2U 2 sin

Conclusions
Commutation process actually provides additional working states
of the circuit.
di/dt of the thyristor current is reduced.
The average output voltage is reduced.
Positive du/dt
Notching in the AC side voltage

35

Power Electronics

3.4 Capacitor-filtered uncontrolled


(uncontrollable) rectifier
Emphasis of previous sections
Controlled rectifier, inductive load

Uncontrolled rectifier: diodes instead of thyristors


Wide applications of capacitor-filtered uncontrolled
rectifier

AC-DC-AC frequency converter


Uninterruptible power supply
Switching power supply

3.4.1 Capacitor-filtered single-phase uncontrolled


rectifier
3.4.2 Capacitor-filtered three-phase uncontrolled
rectifier
36

Power Electronics

3.4.1 Capacitor-filtered single-phase


uncontrolled rectifier
Single-phase bridge, RC load
id
V D
i2
u1

V D

u2
V D

V D

a)

i,u d
3

iC

iR

ud +

ud
i

b)

37

Power Electronics

3.4.1 Capacitor-filtered single-phase


uncontrolled rectifier
Single-phase bridge, RLC load
id
VD
i2
u

u
VD

L
+ uL VD 3
iC
+
ud
VD

a)

i2,u 2,u
iR
C

i2
R

b)

38

Power Electronics

3.4.2 Capacitor-filtered three-phase


uncontrolled rectifier
Three-phase bridge, RC load
ud

VD
T

ia

VD

VD

iC

ud +

b
c

VD

ia

id

VD

a)

VD

u ab u u ac
d

iR
C

R
id

O
b)

39

Power Electronics

3.4.2 Capacitor-filtered three-phase


uncontrolled rectifier
Three-phase bridge, RC load
Waveform when RC1.732
ia

ia

t O

id

id

t O

a RC=
3
b RC<

3
40

Power Electronics

3.4.2 Capacitor-filtered three-phase


uncontrolled rectifier
Three-phase bridge, RLC load

VD
T

VD

ia

VD

id

ia

a
b
c

O
iC
u d+

iR
C

ia

b)

O
VD

VD

a)

VD

c)

41

Power Electronics

3.5 Harmonics and power factor of


rectifier circuits
Originating of harmonics and power factor issues in
rectifier circuits
Harmonics: working in switching statesnonlinear
Power factor: firing delay angle causes phase delay

Harmful effects of harmonics and low power factor


Standards to limit harmonics and power factor
3.5.1 Basic concepts of harmonics and reactive power
3.5.2 AC side harmonics and power factor of
controlled rectifiers with inductive load
3.5.3 AC side harmonics and power factor of
capacitor-filtered uncontrolled rectifiers
3.5.4 Harmonic analysis of output voltage and current

42

Power Electronics

3.5.1 Basic concepts of harmonics


and reactive power
For pure sinusoidal waveform

u (t ) 2U sin(t u )

(3-54)

For periodic non-sinusoidal waveform

or

u (t ) ao (an cos nt bn sin nt )

(3-55)

n 1

u (t ) ao cn sin( nt n )

where

(3-56)

n 1

cn an 2 bn 2

an cn sin

n arctan(an / bn)

bn cn cos

Fundamental component
Harmonic components (harmonics)
43

Power Electronics

Harmonics-related specifications
Take current harmonics as examples
Content of nth harmonics

In
HRI n 100%
I1

(3-57)

In is the effective (RMS) value of nth harmonics.


I1 is the effective (RMS) value of fundamental component.

Total harmonic distortion


Ih
THDi 100% (3-58)
I1
Ih is the total effective (RMS) value of all the harmonic components.
44

Power Electronics

Definition of power and power factor


For sinusoidal circuits
Active power

1
P
2

Reactive power

uid (t ) UI cos

Q=U I sin

(3-59)

(3-61)

Apparent power

Power factor

S=UI

(3-60)

S 2 P2 Q2

(3-63)

P
S

=cos

(3-62)
(3-64)
45

Power Electronics

Definition of power and power factor


For non-sinusoidal circuits
Active power
P=U I1 cos1

(3-65)

Power factor
P UI cos 1 I 1
1
cos 1 cos 1
(3-66)
S
UI
I
Distortion factor (fundamental-component factor)

=I1 / I
Displacement factor (power factor of fundamental component)

1 = cos1
Definition of reactive power is still in dispute.

46

Power Electronics

Review of the reactive power concept


The reactive power Q does not lead to net transmission of
energy between the source and load. When Q 0, the rms
current and apparent power are greater than the minimum
amount necessary to transmit the average power P.
Inductor: current lags voltage by 90, hence displacement
factor is zero. The alternate storing and releasing of energy in
an inductor leads to current flow and nonzero apparent power,
but P = 0. Just as resistors consume real (average) power P,
inductors can be viewed as consumers of reactive power Q.
Capacitor: current leads voltage by 90, hence displacement
factor is zero. Capacitors supply reactive power Q. They are
often placed in the utility power distribution system near
inductive loads. If Q supplied by capacitor is equal to Q
consumed by inductor, then the net current (flowing from the
source into the capacitor-inductive-load combination) is in
phase with the voltage, leading to unity power factor and
minimum rms current magnitude.
47

Single-phase bridge fully-controlled rectifier


u2

ud

a
u

Id

id

R
VT4

VT3

i2

VT1

id

VT2

Power Electronics

3.5.2 AC side harmonics and power factor of


controlled rectifiers with inductive load

iVT O

Id

1,4

iVT O

Id

2,3

O
i2

a)
uVT

Id

t
t
t

Id

1,4

O
b)

48

Power Electronics

AC side current harmonics of single-phase bridge


fully-controlled rectifier with inductive load
4

1
1
i2 I d (sin t sin 3 t sin 5 t )

3
5
4
1
Id
sin n t 2 I n sin n t
n 1,3,5, n
n 1, 3, 5,

(3-72)

where

2 2Id
In
n

n=1,3,5,

(3-73)

Conclusions
Only odd order harmonics exist
In 1/n
In / I1 = 1/n
49

Power Electronics

Power factor of single-phase bridge fullycontrolled rectifier with inductive load


Distortion factor

I1 2 2

0.9
I

(3-75)

Displacement factor

1 cos 1 cos

(3-76)

I1
2 2
1 cos 1
cos 0.9 cos
I

(3-77)

Power factor

50

Power Electronics

Three-phase bridge fully-controlled rectifier


u d1

O
u d2
ud

= 30 u
a

ub

uc

t1

t

u ab u ac


u bc u ba


u ca u cb

u ab u ac

id
O
ia

51

Power Electronics

AC side current harmonics of three-phase bridge


fully-controlled rectifier with inductive load
2 3
1
1
1
1
I d [sin t sin 5 t sin 7 t sin 11 t sin 13t ]

5
7
11
13
2 3
2 3
1

I d sin t
I d (1) k sin nt 2 I1 sin t (1) k 2 I n sin n t

n
n 6 k 1
n 6 k 1

ia

k 1, 2 ,3

where

I1

6
Id

I 6 I , n 6k 1, k 1, 2,3,L
n n d

k 1, 2 , 3

(3-79)

(3-80)

Conclusions

Only 6k1 order harmonics exist (k is positive integer)


In 1/n
In / I1 = 1/n
52

Power Electronics

Power factor of three-phase bridge fullycontrolled rectifier with inductive load


Distortion factor

I1 3
0.955
I

(3-81)

Displacement factor

1 cos 1 cos

(3-82)

Power factor

I1
3
1 cos 1 cos 0.955 cos
I

(3-83)

53

Power Electronics

3.5.3 AC side harmonics and power factor of


capacitor-filtered uncontrolled rectifiers
Situation is a little complicated than rectifiers with
inductive load.
Some conclusions that are easy to remember:
Only odd order harmonics exist in single-phase circuit, and
only 6k1 (k is positive integer) order harmonics exist in
three-phase circuit.
Magnitude of harmonics decreases as harmonic order
increases.
Harmonics increases and power factor decreases as
capacitor increases.
Harmonics decreases and power factor increases as
inductor increases.

54

Power Electronics

3.5.4 Harmonic analysis of output voltage


and current
ud0 U d0

n mk

cos nt

ud

2 cos k

U d0 1 2
cos nt
n mk n 1

2U

(3-85)

where
U d0

2U 2 sin

(3-86)

2 cos k
bn
U d0 (3-87)
2
n 1

O
m

2
m

Output voltage of m-pulse


rectifier when 0
55

Power Electronics

Ripple factor in the output voltage


Output voltage ripple factor
UR
u
U d0

(3-88)

where UR is the total RMS value of all the harmonic


components in the output voltage

UR

n mk

2
n

U 2 U d02

(3-89)

and U is the total RMS value of the output voltage


Ripple factors for rectifiers with different number of pulses

12

u %

48.2

18.27

4.18

0.994

0
56

Power Electronics

Harmonics in the output current


id I d

n mk

cos(nt n )

(3-92)

where

U d0 E
Id
R

bn
dn

zn

(3-93)

bn
R ( nL)
2

nL
n arctan
R

(3-94)

(3-95)

57

Power Electronics

Conclusions for = 0
Only mk (k is positive integer) order harmonics exist in
the output voltage and current of m-pulse rectifiers
Magnitude of harmonics decreases as harmonic order
increases when m is constant.
The order number of the lowest harmonics increases as
m increases. The corresponding magnitude of the
lowest harmonics decreases accordingly.

58

Quantitative harmonic analysis


of output voltage and current is
very complicated for 0.
As an example,
for 3-phase bridge
fully-controlled rectifier

ud U d

n 6 k

2 U2L

0.3
cn

Power Electronics

For 0

n =6

0.2
n =12

0.1

cos(nt n )

n =18
0

30

60

90

120

150

180

/( )

(3-96)
59

Power Electronics

3.6 High power controlled rectifier


3.6.1 Double-star controlled rectifier

3.6.2 Connection of multiple rectifiers

60

Waveforms When 0

Circuit
u

u
d1

T
a

ia

c
u

iP

O
d2

'

c' u

VT2

VT6

VT4

VT1

VT3

a'

id

1 I
2 d

1 I
6 d
u

'
c

'
a

'
b

'
c

VT5

Power Electronics

3.6.1 Double-star controlled rectifier

i a'

1 I
2 d

R
O

Difference from 6-phase half-wave rectifier

1 I
6 d

61

Power Electronics
VT

Effect of interphase reactor


(inductor, transformer)
u

ud1,ud2 u '
b

1
u
2

iP
VT

n 2'
b

d2

ua

uc'

ub

ua'

uc

ub'

n LP
+ - +n
1
L
u d1

a)

O t1

up
b)

60

360

u p ud2 ud1
ud ud2

(3-97)

1
1
1
u p ud1 U p (ud1 ud2 ) (3-98)
2
2
2
62

Power Electronics

Quantitative analysis when = 0


ud1

3 6U 2
1
2
1
[1 cos 3t cos 6t cos 9t ]
2
4
35
40

ud2

3 6U 2
1
2
1
[1 cos 3( t 60) cos 6( t 60) cos 9( t 60)
]
2
4
35
40

3 6U 2
1
2
1
[1 cos 3 t cos 6 t cos 9 t
]
2
4
35
40

3 6U 2 1
1
up
[ cos 3t cos 9t ]
2
2
20

ud

3 6U 2
2
[1 cos 6t ]
2
35

(3-99)

(3-100)

(3-101)
(3-102)

63

Power Electronics

Waveforms
when > 0

u d 30 u
a

O
ud

Ud 1.17U 2 cos

O
ud

60

u c'

ub

u a'

uc

u b'

t
u c'

90 u '
c

ub

u a'

uc

u b'

t
ub

u a'

uc

u b'

64

Power Electronics

Comparison with 3-phase half-wave


rectifier and 3-phase bridge rectifier
Voltage output capability
Same as 3-phase half-wave rectifier
Half of 3-phase bridge rectifier

Current output capability


Twice of 3-phase half-wave rectifier
Twice of 3-phase bridge rectifier

Applications
Low voltage and high current situations
65

Power Electronics

3.6.2 Connection of multiple rectifiers

To increase the
output capacity
Connection
of multiple
rectifiers

Larger output voltage:


series connection

Larger output current:


parallel connection

To improve the AC side current waveform


and DC side voltage waveform

Power Electronics

Phase-shift connection of multiple rectifiers


Parallel connection

LP

VT

c1
b1
a1

c2
b2
a2

12-pulse rectifier realized by


paralleled 3-phase bridge rectifiers
67

Power Electronics
iA

Phase-shift connection of multiple rectifiers


Series connection
ia1

a1
I

id

u a1b1
A

b1

c1

I
L

b)

II
30 lagging

B
c2

iab2
*

b2

0
3
3

1
I
3 d

Id

2
3

u a2b2

Id

0
(1+

R
II

iA

360

Id

2
I
3 d

c)

a2

180
i ab2

i ab2'

ud
*

0
i a2

Id

a)

i a1

2
3

) Id

d)
0

3
3

Id

(1+

12-pulse rectifier realized by


series 3-phase bridge rectifiers

3
3

)I d

68

Power Electronics

Quantitative analysis of 12-pulse rectifier


Voltage
Average output voltage
Parallel connection:

U d 2.34U 2 cos

Series connection: U d 4.68U 2 cos


Output voltage harmonics
Only 12m harmonics exist

Input (AC side) current harmonics


Only 12k1 harmonics exist

Connection of more 3-phase bridge rectifiers


Three: 18-pulse rectifier (20 phase difference)
Four: 24-pulse rectifier (15 phase difference)
69

VT14 VT13
VT24 VT23

VT34 VT33

VT22 VT21

VT12 VT11

Id

VT32 VT31

Power Electronics

Sequential control of multiple


series-connected rectifiers
u

+
b)

i
lo a d

Id
2 Id

c)

a)

Circuit and waveforms of series-connected


three single-phase bridge rectifiers
70

Power Electronics

3.7 Inverter mode operation of rectifiers


Review of DC generator-motor system

EG EM
Id
R

EM EG
Id
R

should be avoided

71

Power Electronics

Inverter mode operation of rectifiers


Rectifier and inverter mode operation of single-phase
full-wave converter
VT
VT1

1
0

u10

iVT

u20 VT2
2

iVT

ud

u10

u20

ud

iVT

0
VT2

Energy +
M EM
u10

id

ud

Energy

iVT

ud

u20

u10

R
M EM
+

u10

Ud>EM

t
id=iVT +iVT
1

iVT
O

id

id

iVT

iVT

a)

Ud EG
Id
R

Id

t
Ud<EM

O
id

id=iVT +iVT

iVT

iVT

iVT

b)

Id

Id

EM Ud
R

72

Power Electronics

Necessary conditions for the inverter


mode operation of controlled rectifiers
There must be DC EMF in the load and the direction
of the DC EMF must be enabling current flow in
thyristors. (In other word EM must be negative if
taking the ordinary output voltage direction as
positive.)

90 so that the output voltage Ud is also


negative.

EM U d

73

Power Electronics

Inverter mode operation of


3-phase bridge rectifier
u

ab

ac

bc

ba

=
3
u ca
u

cb

ab

ac

bc

ba

=
4
u ca
u

cb

ab

ac

bc

ba

=
6
u ca
u

cb

ab

ac

bc

t1 t2 t3
t

=
3

=
4

=
6

Inversion angle (extinction angle)


+ =180
74

Power Electronics

Inversion failure and minimum inversion angle


Possible reasons of
inversion failures
Malfunction of triggering
circuit
Failure in thyristors
Sudden dropout of AC
source voltage
Insufficient margin for
commutation of
thyristors

Minimum inversion
angle (extinction angle)
min= + + 3-109

i VT

i VT

i VT

L B VT
LB
VT
L B VT

1
2

id

ud

o
ua

ud

ub

uc

ua

ub

id
O

i VT

i VT


i VT

i VT

i VT

t

t

75

Power Electronics

3.8 Realization of phase-control in


rectifier circuits
Object
How to timely generate triggering pulses with
adjustable phase delay angle
Constitution
Synchronous circuit
Saw-tooth ramp generating and phase shifting
Pulse generating
Integrated gate triggering control circuits are very
widely used in practice.
76

Power Electronics

A typical gate triggering control circuit

77

Electronics
Power
Power Electronics

Waveforms of the typical


gate triggering control circuit

78

Power Electronics

How to get synchronous voltage for the gate


triggering control circuit of each thyristor
uA

uB

uC
UAB
Ua

U
Usa - sc

TS

TR

-Usb

Usb

Ub

D,y 5-11

D,y 11

Usc
ua

ub

uc - usa - usc usb


usc
- usb u sa

Uc

-Usa

For the typical circuit on page 20, the synchronous voltage of the gate
triggering control circuit for each thyristor should be lagging 180 to the
corresponding phase voltage of that thyristor.
79