Chapter 3
AC to DC Converters
(Rectifiers)
Power Electronics
Outline
3.1 Singlephase controlled rectifier
3.2 Threephase controlled rectifier
3.3 Effect of transformer leakage inductance on
rectifier circuits
3.4 Capacitorfiltered uncontrolled rectifier
3.5 Harmonics and power factor of rectifier circuits
3.6 High power controlled rectifier
3.7 Inverter mode operation of rectifier circuit
3.8 Realization of phasecontrol in rectifier circuits
Power Electronics
Power Electronics
Resistive load
b)
0
ug
V T
T
u1
uVT
u2
c)
id
ud
t1
0
ud
d)
uVT
a)
1
Ud
2
2U 2 sin td (t )
e)
2U 2
1 cos
(1 cos ) 0.45U 2
2
2
(31)
Halfwave, singlepulse
Triggering delay angle, delay angle, firing angle
Power Electronics
VT
T
a)
u1
id
b)
t1
ug
uVT
u2
c)
ud
0
ud
+
d)
id
e)
0
uVT
f)
Power Electronics
VT
L
u2
L
u2
R
R
b)
a)
did
L
Rid
dt
2U 2 sin t
(32)
t = id= 0
R
(t )
2U 2
2U 2
id
sin( )e L
sin(t )
Z
Z
(33)
6
Power Electronics
a) u 1
u2
i VDR
I VDR
c)
(35)
(36)
I d (37)
2
I d2 d (t )
Id
2
(38)
t
Id
d)
O
iV T
I d2 d (t )
t1
O
id
ud
I dVT
Id
2
I dVDR
Id
2
1
2
O
ud
L
VDR
I VT
b)
id
u VT
e)
iV
O
D
t
Id

f)
u
O
V T
g)
Resistive load
ud
id
T
u1
VT 3
i2
VT 1
b)
id
uVT
ud
u2
c)
VT4
b
VT2
Power Electronics
1 ,4
0
i2
d)
a)
Power Electronics
1
2 2U 2 1 cos
1 cos
U d 2U 2 sin td(t )
0.9U 2
2
2
(39)
U
2 2U 2 1 cos
U 1 cos
Average
current
I d d output
0.9 2
1
U 2 1 cos
I
0
.
45
dVT thyristor
d
For
2
R
2
1
2
I VT
2U 2
U
sin t ) 2 d (t ) 2
R
2R
1
sin 2
2
For
transformer
U
1 2U 2
II
(
sin t ) 2 d (t ) 2
2
1
sin 2
2
(310)
(311)
(312)
(313)9
T
u
id
O
Id
id
a
u
L
d
iV
1 ,4
iV
2 ,3
O
V T
Id
Id
O
i2
R
VT4
VT3
i2
VT1
Inductive load
(L is large enough)
VT2
Power Electronics
Id
Ud
Id
t
b )
1
2 2
2
U
sin
t
d
(
t
)
Commutation
Thyristor voltages and currents
Transformer current
1 ,4
a)
(315)
10
Power Electronics
id
ud
E
R
ud
E
id
Id
O
a)
b)
Discontinuous current id
11
Power Electronics
id
O
2 2U 2
3 U 2
L
2.87 10
I dmin
I dmin
(317)
12
Power Electronics
i1
u1
VT
u2
u 2 VT
ud
ud
O
i1
a)
b)
u2
VT 2
ud
VD4
O
ud
id
VDR
i2
VT 1
b)
VD3
Power Electronics
O
id
i V TO
iV D1
Id
i V TO
iV D
Id
i V DO
O
i2
O
Halfcontrol
Comparison with fullycontrolled rectifier
Additional freewheeling diode
Id
Id
Id
t
t
Id
14
VD3
VT1
lo a d
VD4
u2
VT2
Power Electronics
15
Power Electronics
16
Power Electronics
17
Power Electronics
ud
R
ua
ub
t2
uc
t3
VT
uG
VT
VT
O
ud
O
iVT
O
uVT
id
Commoncathode connection
Natural commutation point
uab
uac
18
Power Electronics
Resistive load, = 30
u2
ua
ub
uc
VT
ud
R
VT
VT
uG
O
ud
O
iVT
t1
id
O
uVT u
1 ac
uab
uac
19
Power Electronics
Resistive load, = 60
u2
ud
R
VT
VT
VT
ua
ub
uc
uG
O
ud
id
iVT
t
20
Power Electronics
1
Ud
2
3
2U 2 sin td (t )
3 6
U 2 cos 1.17U 2 cos
2
(318)
2U 2 sin td (t )
3 2
(319)
21
Power Electronics
u2
a
b
V T2
c
V T
ud
3
id
R
u
O
ib
O
ic
O
id
V T
ac
1
Ud
2
3
ia
eL
VT
ac
ab
(318)
3 6
2U 2 sin td (t )
U 2 cos 1.17U 2 cos
2
I 2 I VT
I d 0.577 I d (323)
3
U FM U RM 2.45U 2
(325)
I VT(AV)
I VT
0.368 I d (324)
1.57
22
Power Electronics
ia
VT1
id
n
VT 4
d1
VT
VT3
VT 5
c
VT
load
ud
d2
Commoncathode group and commonanode group
of thyristors
Numbering of the 6 thyristors indicates the trigger
sequence.
23
Power Electronics
Resistive load, = 0
u
2
d1
t1
O
u
= 0 u
d2
u ab
2L
ud
u ac
u bc
u ba
u ca
u cb
ab
ac
i VT
u
O
VT
u
1
ab
ac
bc
ba
ca
cb
ab
t
ac
ab
ac
24
Power Electronics
Resistive load, = 30
u
= 30
d1
d2
t1
O
u
u ab
u ac
u bc
u ba
u ca
u cb
ab
ac
VT
ab
ac
bc
ba
ca
cb
ab
ac
ia
ab
ac
25
Power Electronics
Resistive load, = 60
u d1
= 60
ua
ub
uc
t1
O
u d2
ud
u ab
u ac
u bc
u ba
u ca
u cb
u ab
u VT
u ac
u ac
u ac
u ab
26
Power Electronics
Resistive load, = 90
ud1
ua
ub
uc
ua
ub
O
ud2
ud
uab uac
id
O
iVT
O
ia
27
Power Electronics
Inductive load, = 0
u 2 = 0 u a
u d1
ub
uc
O t1
u d2
u 2L
ud
t
u ab u ac
u bc u ba
u ca u cb
u ab
u ac
id
i VT
O
1
28
Power Electronics
Inductive load, = 30
u d1
O
u d2
ud
= 30 u
a
ub
uc
t1
t
u ab u ac
u bc u ba
u ca u cb
u ab u ac
id
O
ia
29
Power Electronics
Inductive load, = 90
= 90
u d1
ub
uc
ua
t1
O
u d2
ud
u ab
u ac
u bc
u ba
u ca
u cb
u ab
u ac
u VT
u ac
u ac
O
u ab
30
Power Electronics
Quantitative analysis
Average output voltage
2
Ud
(326)
U d
6U 2 sin td (t ) 2.34U 2 1 cos( )
(327)
3
3
Id
Ud
R
(320)
Transformer current
1 2 2
2
2
I2
I d ( I d )
2
3
3
Thyristor voltage and current
2
I d 0.816 I d
3
(328)
Id
Ud E
R
(329)
31
Power Electronics
a
ik
ia
ib
ic
c
u
V T
V T
id
V T
ic
ia
ib
ic
ia
Id
32
Power Electronics
Id
ia = Idik :
Id
Id
i b = ik
Commutation angle
Output voltage during commutation
dik
dik ua ub
ud ua LB
ub LB
dt
dt
2
(330)
33
Power Electronics
Quantitative calculation
Reduction of average output voltage due to the
commutation process
di k
1 56
3 56
U d
(ub ud )d(t ) 5 [u b (u b LB )]d(t )
5
2 / 3 6
2 6
dt
3
5
6
5
6
di
3
LB k d(t )
dt
2
Id
LBdik
Id
2X BId
3
X BId
2
(331)
(336)
6U 2
XB ,
For 90o , ,
34
Power Electronics
U d
Singlephase full
wave
XB
cos cos( )
Id
Id X B
2U 2
Singlephase
bridge
2X B
Threephase
halfwave
Id
3X B
Id
2
Threephase
bridge
3X B
Id
2I d X B
2X BId
2X B Id
2U 2
6U 2
6U 2
mpulse recfifier
mX B
Id
2
Id X B
2U 2 sin
Conclusions
Commutation process actually provides additional working states
of the circuit.
di/dt of the thyristor current is reduced.
The average output voltage is reduced.
Positive du/dt
Notching in the AC side voltage
35
Power Electronics
Power Electronics
V D
u2
V D
V D
a)
i,u d
3
iC
iR
ud +
ud
i
b)
37
Power Electronics
u
VD
L
+ uL VD 3
iC
+
ud
VD
a)
i2,u 2,u
iR
C
i2
R
b)
38
Power Electronics
VD
T
ia
VD
VD
iC
ud +
b
c
VD
ia
id
VD
a)
VD
u ab u u ac
d
iR
C
R
id
O
b)
39
Power Electronics
ia
t O
id
id
t O
a RC=
3
b RC<
3
40
Power Electronics
VD
T
VD
ia
VD
id
ia
a
b
c
O
iC
u d+
iR
C
ia
b)
O
VD
VD
a)
VD
c)
41
Power Electronics
42
Power Electronics
u (t ) 2U sin(t u )
(354)
or
(355)
n 1
u (t ) ao cn sin( nt n )
where
(356)
n 1
cn an 2 bn 2
an cn sin
n arctan(an / bn)
bn cn cos
Fundamental component
Harmonic components (harmonics)
43
Power Electronics
Harmonicsrelated specifications
Take current harmonics as examples
Content of nth harmonics
In
HRI n 100%
I1
(357)
Power Electronics
1
P
2
Reactive power
uid (t ) UI cos
Q=U I sin
(359)
(361)
Apparent power
Power factor
S=UI
(360)
S 2 P2 Q2
(363)
P
S
=cos
(362)
(364)
45
Power Electronics
(365)
Power factor
P UI cos 1 I 1
1
cos 1 cos 1
(366)
S
UI
I
Distortion factor (fundamentalcomponent factor)
=I1 / I
Displacement factor (power factor of fundamental component)
1 = cos1
Definition of reactive power is still in dispute.
46
Power Electronics
ud
a
u
Id
id
R
VT4
VT3
i2
VT1
id
VT2
Power Electronics
iVT O
Id
1,4
iVT O
Id
2,3
O
i2
a)
uVT
Id
t
t
t
Id
1,4
O
b)
48
Power Electronics
1
1
i2 I d (sin t sin 3 t sin 5 t )
3
5
4
1
Id
sin n t 2 I n sin n t
n 1,3,5, n
n 1, 3, 5,
(372)
where
2 2Id
In
n
n=1,3,5,
(373)
Conclusions
Only odd order harmonics exist
In 1/n
In / I1 = 1/n
49
Power Electronics
I1 2 2
0.9
I
(375)
Displacement factor
1 cos 1 cos
(376)
I1
2 2
1 cos 1
cos 0.9 cos
I
(377)
Power factor
50
Power Electronics
O
u d2
ud
= 30 u
a
ub
uc
t1
t
u ab u ac
u bc u ba
u ca u cb
u ab u ac
id
O
ia
51
Power Electronics
5
7
11
13
2 3
2 3
1
I d sin t
I d (1) k sin nt 2 I1 sin t (1) k 2 I n sin n t
n
n 6 k 1
n 6 k 1
ia
k 1, 2 ,3
where
I1
6
Id
I 6 I , n 6k 1, k 1, 2,3,L
n n d
k 1, 2 , 3
(379)
(380)
Conclusions
Power Electronics
I1 3
0.955
I
(381)
Displacement factor
1 cos 1 cos
(382)
Power factor
I1
3
1 cos 1 cos 0.955 cos
I
(383)
53
Power Electronics
54
Power Electronics
n mk
cos nt
ud
2 cos k
U d0 1 2
cos nt
n mk n 1
2U
(385)
where
U d0
2U 2 sin
(386)
2 cos k
bn
U d0 (387)
2
n 1
O
m
2
m
Power Electronics
(388)
UR
n mk
2
n
U 2 U d02
(389)
12
u %
48.2
18.27
4.18
0.994
0
56
Power Electronics
n mk
cos(nt n )
(392)
where
U d0 E
Id
R
bn
dn
zn
(393)
bn
R ( nL)
2
nL
n arctan
R
(394)
(395)
57
Power Electronics
Conclusions for = 0
Only mk (k is positive integer) order harmonics exist in
the output voltage and current of mpulse rectifiers
Magnitude of harmonics decreases as harmonic order
increases when m is constant.
The order number of the lowest harmonics increases as
m increases. The corresponding magnitude of the
lowest harmonics decreases accordingly.
58
ud U d
n 6 k
2 U2L
0.3
cn
Power Electronics
For 0
n =6
0.2
n =12
0.1
cos(nt n )
n =18
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
/( )
(396)
59
Power Electronics
60
Waveforms When 0
Circuit
u
u
d1
T
a
ia
c
u
iP
O
d2
'
c' u
VT2
VT6
VT4
VT1
VT3
a'
id
1 I
2 d
1 I
6 d
u
'
c
'
a
'
b
'
c
VT5
Power Electronics
i a'
1 I
2 d
R
O
1 I
6 d
61
Power Electronics
VT
ud1,ud2 u '
b
1
u
2
iP
VT
n 2'
b
d2
ua
uc'
ub
ua'
uc
ub'
n LP
+  +n
1
L
u d1
a)
O t1
up
b)
60
360
u p ud2 ud1
ud ud2
(397)
1
1
1
u p ud1 U p (ud1 ud2 ) (398)
2
2
2
62
Power Electronics
3 6U 2
1
2
1
[1 cos 3t cos 6t cos 9t ]
2
4
35
40
ud2
3 6U 2
1
2
1
[1 cos 3( t 60) cos 6( t 60) cos 9( t 60)
]
2
4
35
40
3 6U 2
1
2
1
[1 cos 3 t cos 6 t cos 9 t
]
2
4
35
40
3 6U 2 1
1
up
[ cos 3t cos 9t ]
2
2
20
ud
3 6U 2
2
[1 cos 6t ]
2
35
(399)
(3100)
(3101)
(3102)
63
Power Electronics
Waveforms
when > 0
u d 30 u
a
O
ud
Ud 1.17U 2 cos
O
ud
60
u c'
ub
u a'
uc
u b'
t
u c'
90 u '
c
ub
u a'
uc
u b'
t
ub
u a'
uc
u b'
64
Power Electronics
Applications
Low voltage and high current situations
65
Power Electronics
To increase the
output capacity
Connection
of multiple
rectifiers
Power Electronics
LP
VT
c1
b1
a1
c2
b2
a2
Power Electronics
iA
a1
I
id
u a1b1
A
b1
c1
I
L
b)
II
30 lagging
B
c2
iab2
*
b2
0
3
3
1
I
3 d
Id
2
3
u a2b2
Id
0
(1+
R
II
iA
360
Id
2
I
3 d
c)
a2
180
i ab2
i ab2'
ud
*
0
i a2
Id
a)
i a1
2
3
) Id
d)
0
3
3
Id
(1+
3
3
)I d
68
Power Electronics
U d 2.34U 2 cos
VT14 VT13
VT24 VT23
VT34 VT33
VT22 VT21
VT12 VT11
Id
VT32 VT31
Power Electronics
+
b)
i
lo a d
Id
2 Id
c)
a)
Power Electronics
EG EM
Id
R
EM EG
Id
R
should be avoided
71
Power Electronics
1
0
u10
iVT
u20 VT2
2
iVT
ud
u10
u20
ud
iVT
0
VT2
Energy +
M EM
u10
id
ud
Energy
iVT
ud
u20
u10
R
M EM
+
u10
Ud>EM
t
id=iVT +iVT
1
iVT
O
id
id
iVT
iVT
a)
Ud EG
Id
R
Id
t
Ud<EM
O
id
id=iVT +iVT
iVT
iVT
iVT
b)
Id
Id
EM Ud
R
72
Power Electronics
EM U d
73
Power Electronics
ab
ac
bc
ba
=
3
u ca
u
cb
ab
ac
bc
ba
=
4
u ca
u
cb
ab
ac
bc
ba
=
6
u ca
u
cb
ab
ac
bc
t1 t2 t3
t
=
3
=
4
=
6
Power Electronics
Minimum inversion
angle (extinction angle)
min= + + 3109
i VT
i VT
i VT
L B VT
LB
VT
L B VT
1
2
id
ud
o
ua
ud
ub
uc
ua
ub
id
O
i VT
i VT
i VT
i VT
i VT
t
t
75
Power Electronics
Power Electronics
77
Electronics
Power
Power Electronics
78
Power Electronics
uB
uC
UAB
Ua
U
Usa  sc
TS
TR
Usb
Usb
Ub
D,y 511
D,y 11
Usc
ua
ub
Uc
Usa
For the typical circuit on page 20, the synchronous voltage of the gate
triggering control circuit for each thyristor should be lagging 180 to the
corresponding phase voltage of that thyristor.
79