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Governing Methods

To control load, the turbine can be either


NOZZLE CONTROLLED
or
THROTTLE CONTROLLED
with the unit in both cases operating at
constant pressure or variable pressure or a
combination of two

THROTTLE GOVERNING
In throttle controlled turbines, steam flow is
controlled by opening and closing of all the
control valves simultaneously to the extent
required by load and admitting the steam to
the group of nozzles located on the entire
periphery

NOZZLE GOVERNING
In nozzle controlled turbines, steam flow is
controlled by sequential opening or closing
of control valves allowing steam to flow to
associated nozzle groups

TYPES of GOVERNING SYSTEM

The governing system can be one of the


following types:
MECHANICAL
HYDRO-MECHANICAL
HYDRAULIC
ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC

MECHANICAL
In mechanical governing system, speed
transducer is mechanical centrifugal type
speed governor, which actuates control
valves through mechanical linkages.
Now-a-days purely mechanical governing
systems are not used for utility turbines.

HYDRO-MECHANICAL
In hydro-mechanical governing system ,
speed transducer is usually mechanical
centrifugal type speed governor.
It is connected to hydraulic system either
hydraulically or mechanically.
In hydraulic system, signal is amplified so
that control valve servomotors can be
actuated.

HYDRAULIC
In hydraulic governing system , speed transducer
is a centrifugal pump , whose discharge pressure is
proportional to square of speed.
This signal is sent to hydraulic converter /
transformer which generates signal proportional to
valve opening / closure required.
Before applying the signal to control valve
servomotors, the same is suitably amplified

ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC
This system provides very good
combination of electrical measuring &
signal processing and hydraulic controls.
It offers many advantages over other three
types of governing systems and is popular
in large steam turbine units due to growing
automation of turbine and generator sets.

CONSTANT PRESSURE /
VARIABLE PRESSURE MODE
In constant pressure mode, the steam pressure
upstream of control valves are kept constant at all
the loads.
In variable ( sliding ) pressure mode the control
valves remain fully open and the steam pressure
upstream of control valves varies proportionally
with load over a definite load range.

STEADY STATE REGULATION


For effective predetermined load sharing ,
DROOP in speed with respect to load is provided
in all steam turbines.
STEADY STATE REGULATION ( also called
PROPORTIONAL BAND, SPEED DROOP etc.)
is defined as the ratio of SPEED DROOP from no
load to full load to the nominal speed.

N max.

SPEED

N min.

100%

0%
LOAD
STEADY STATE REGULATION

TRANSIENT SPEED RISE


When total load rejection take place , speed
of turbo sets shoots up temporarily before
settling down to steady state value.
This temporary speed rise is called transient
speed rise and is expressed as percentage
speed rise of rated speed on full load throw
off.

TRANSIENT SPEED RISE

% Speed Rise

8
6
4
2

Time

DEAD BAND
Due to inherent inertia of the components of
governing elements and friction present in
governing system, certain motion of governing
system is lost before corrective signal can actuate
the control valves.
The lost of the motion is called DEAD BAND of
the system and is expressed as percentage of rated
speed.

HYDRAULIC GOVERNING
HYD. SPEED TRANS.
HYD. PRESS. SIGNAL

HYD. SPEED GOV.


HYD. PRESS. SIGNAL

HYD. AMPLIFIER
with F.U.Piston
HP SEC. OIL

IP SEC OIL

HPCV SERVO.

IPCV SERVO.

MECHANICAL COUPLING

MECHANICAL COUPLING

HPCV

IPCV

ELECTRO-HYD. GOVERNING
ELEC. SPEED SENSOR

ELECTRICAL SIGNAL

EHC
with F.U.Piston

HP SEC. OIL

HPCV SERVO.
MECHANICAL COUPLING

HPCV

IP SEC OIL

IPCV SERVO.
MECHANICAL COUPLING

IPCV