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General Connections In Ste

What Will You Gain From This


Presentation?

Why steel structures?


What is connections?
Components of connections
Design philosophy
Classification criteria of connections
Understanding different types of connections
Special connections

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Why Steel?
Steel allows for reduced frame construction time
and the ability to construct in all seasons
Steel makes large spans and bay sizes possible,
providing more flexibility
Steel is easier to modify and change to an extent
facility over its life
Steel is lightweight and can reduce foundation
costs
Steel is durable, long-lasting and recyclable

There is always a solution in steel -AISC


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General Connections In Ste

Connections

Connects different inter/intra-elements


Load transmission medium top to foundation
Decide behavior of structure Rigid / Flexible
Brittle failure
Cost of connections > steel work (60 40)
All chores
Analysis & Design - Appropriate
- Drawings Sufficient
- Execution - Practical

A structure is only strong as its weakest link N


Subramanian
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General Connections In Ste

Components of Connections

Connectors

Connecting
Part

Cutting, Drilling, Bolting, Welding of Plates, Cleats, Angle,


Rolled sections
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General Connections In Ste

Design Philosophy
Connections

Art

Determination of most efficient


load paths because all connections
are indeterminate

Science

Involves equilibrium, limit


states and
lower bound theorem

Strength : Forces are calculated applying equilibrium > Analysis


Stiffness : The stiffness of the connection affects the level of loading for which it should
be designed.
Rigid No influence of their deformations (High rotational stiffness)
Pinned connections - Flexible enough to accommodate rotations
Deformation Capacity : Qualitative & difficult to check
Ductile connections that have a great deformation capacity contribute to the
overall safety of the structure in the event that the connection becomes
overloaded. plastic design is employed with plastic hinges forming in the
connections

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General Connections In Ste

Classification of connections
Connections

Type of connecting
medium

1 Riveted
2 Bolted
3 Welded

Type of force
connection is
expected transfer

1 Axial
2 Shear
3 Moment

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Structural element
that made up the
connection

1
2
3
4

Single plate-angle
Double web angle
Seated angle
Stiffened seat

Type of members
the connection are
joining

1 Beam to beam
2 Column to
column
3 Beam to column
4 Base

General Connections In Ste

Based on location

1 Shop
2 Field

Based on connecting medium


Manufactured from
mild steel,
aluminium, copper,
brass and special
alloys.
Length > Grip
Heating up to 980OC
Cold rolled used in
aircraft industry
Intermediate
between friction and
bearing type
Similar to pile
Obsolete in structure
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General Connections In Ste

Based on connecting medium

Bolts are classified as Black bolts, Turned/close tolerance and HFSG


Grade = 3.6, 4.6, 4.8, 5.6, 5.8, 6.8, 8.8, 9.8, 10.9, 12.9. =12 to 68mm
Black bolts = Most commonly used, ductile, static condition, rough surface
Turned bolts = Machined surface, more expensive, dynamic conditions
HSFG Bolts = Proof load is used (no yield point), slip critical connections,
good where vibration & impact is induced, pretensioned

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General Connections In Ste

Based on connecting medium


Shearing of Bolts & plates

Vnsb (( fu / 3 )(nnAnb nsAsb ) )Ymb


Bearing of Bolts & Plates

Vnpb (2.5kbdtfu ) / Ymb


Bearing of plate, t<0.5bolt dia
Tension failure of Bolts & Plates

Tnb (0.90 fubAn ) / Ymb


failure of bolted connections
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Based on connecting medium


(a) Bearing
Connection
T

Bearing
stresses
T

(b) Friction
Connection
T
Clamping
Force, PO

Frictional
Force T

Tension
in bolt
T

Clamping Force,
PO bolted connections
Load transfer mechanism
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Based on connecting medium

(b) Fillet welds

(a) Groove welds

Ends shall be semi


circular

Section A-A

(d) Plug weld

Section A-A
(c) Slot weld

Types of welds
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Based on connecting medium


f1

w
w

Critical
plane

fu

fw 2 3 w 2

fd size * 0.707 * fy /( 3 * Ym)

In the design procedure the internal force on the


fillet weld is resolved into components parallel and
transverse to the critical plane of the weld throat
A uniform stress distribution is assumed on the
critical throat section of the weld, leading to the
normal stresses and shear stresses
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Type of force connection is expected


transfer

Axial force is transferred by shear through weld or bolts using


cover plates
Cover plates = 5/8 t

Axial Connections
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Type of force connection is expected


transfer

Axial Connections
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Type of force connection is expected


transfer

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General Connections In Ste

Curve 1: At a very low


moment it safely yields (M1
) and allows the connection
to rotate ( ) , This is
typical of top angle, web
framing angles,
connections
Curve 2 : Under working
load it elastically yields
sufficiently to provide the
necessary rotation of the
connection, and yet has
sufficient resistance to
develop the proper end
moment. Although thick
top angles have been
suggested for service as
semi-rigid connections,
they are impractical to
design and fabricate with
the desired built-in restraint
Curve 3 : Using a top
connecting plate detailed
to develop the full end
moment

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Type of force connection is expected


transfer

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Shear or Pin Connections


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Type of force connection is expected


transfer
Clip

b R / tw( fyw / Ymo)


R

Bearing
45O

b1 b (Tf rb)
Abr R /( fy / Ymo)

Seat angle
Stiffener

Stiffened & unstiffened seat angle connections


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Type of force connection is expected


transfer
Web Angle

Depth of cleat = (0.6 to


0.7 Db)
Minimum thickness of web
angle is 8mm, Db= 450
Thicker the angle = Stiffer
the angle

Single or double web angle connections


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Type of force connection is expected


transfer

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Moment Connections
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Type of force connection is expected


transfer
End plate

End plate connections


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Type of force connection is expected


transfer

End plate connections


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Type of force connection is expected


transfer

End plate connections


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Type of force connection is expected


transfer

Prying forces arises when a relatively thin plate deflects outward, thus
pressing the unsupported edges against the supporting piece
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Type of force connection is expected


transfer
Bolts in
tension (Prying
effect)

Bolts in single

shear

Shear is transferred by web


angle
F = M/Db
Find thickness of web of stub
Flange design Tension &
Prying effect

Split Beam/T- Stub connections


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Type of force connection is expected


transfer

R Mdi / di 2

T Myn / yi 2

Bracket connection
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Type of members the connection are


joining

Designed for M and V


Flange splice plate work as flange
Web splice plate work as web
Flanges transfer M
Web transfer V (Except slender web)
Flush end plate as end plate moment
connections

Beam splice
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Type of members the connection are


joining

Tension field Post buckling behaviour


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Type of members the connection are


joining

Axial force are


transferred in
accordance with the area
of flanges and web

Column splice
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Type of members the connection are


joining

Axial force are transferred in accordance with the area of flanges


and web

Column bases
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References
Owens & Cheal Structural Steel Work Connections

Euro code -3
AISC Connection Manual
Akbar Tamboli Handbook of Connection Design
Subramanian Design of Steel Structures
INSDAG Teaching Resources
ESDEP Notes -European Steel Design Education
Programme

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