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HOTS

HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE


TESTING & EVALUATING

WHAT IS HOTS
Higher order thinking skills include critical, logical,
reflective, metacognitive, and creative thinking. They are
activated when individuals encounter unfamiliar problems,
uncertainties,
questions,
or
dilemmas.
Successful
applications of the skills result in explanations, decisions,
performances, and products that are valid within the
context of available knowledge and experience and that
promote continued growth in these and other intellectual
skills.

Higher order thinking skills are grounded in lower order skills


such as discriminations, simple application and analysis, and
cognitive strategies and are linked to prior knowledge of
subject matter content. Appropriate teaching strategies and
learning environments facilitate their growth as do student
persistence,
self-monitoring,
and
open-minded,
flexible
attitudes.
This definition is consistent with current theories related to
how higher order thinking skills are learned and developed.
Although different theoreticians and researchers use different
frameworks to describe higher order skills and how they are
acquired, all frameworks are in general agreement concerning
the conditions under which they prosper.

THE REFINED BLOOMS


TAXONOMY
THE MAIN FOCUS OF HOTS
ARE THE TOP 4 LEVELS OF
THE BLOOMS TAXONOMY

APPLY
ANALYZE
EVALUATE
CREATE

A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE BLOOMS


TAXONOMY

LOTS LOWER ORDER THINKING


SKILLS

QUESTIONS ON APPLICATION- LEVEL 3 BLOOMS


TAXONOMY

QUESTIONS ON ANALYSIS LEVEL 4 BLOOMS


TAXONOMY

QUESTIONS ON EVALUATING- LEVEL 5 BLOOMS


TAXONOMY

QUESTIONS ON CREATING - LEVEL 6 BLOOMS TAXONOMY

Asking Good Questions


If we analyze of the types of questions we can ask, we see that not all questions elicit
the same type of thinking in students. A number of theorists have organized
intellectual activity into levels; one of the most well known of these organizational
strategies was authored by Benjamin Bloom in 1956 and is known as Bloom's
Taxonomy.
While questions which elicit lower level thinking are an important part of teaching,
they are useless unless they build toward questions which help kids develop higher
order thinking skills. Focus your attention on questions which require Level III,
Level IV, Level V, and Level VI thinking.

vel

Description

What We Do at This Level

Examples of Questions

Knowledge: Exhibit
memory of previously
learned material by recalling
facts, terms, basic concepts
and answers.

arrange, define, duplicate,


label, list, memorize, name,
order, recognize, relate,
recall, repeat, reproduce,
state

"What is...?""How would you


describe...?""Why did...?"How
would your show...?"

II

Comprehension:
Demonstrate understanding
of facts and ideas by
organizing, translating,
interpreting, giving
descriptions, and stating
main ideas.

classify, describe, discuss,


explain, express, identify,
indicate, locate,
recognize, report, restate,
review, select, summarize,
translate

"What facts or ideas


show...?""How would you
compare...?""How would your
classify...?"Can you explain
what is happening...?"

III

Application:Solve problems
to new situations by applying
acquired knowledge, facts,
techniques and rules in a
different way.

apply, choose, demonstrate,


dramatize, employ, illustrate,
interpret, operate, practice,
schedule, sketch, solve, use,
write

"What would result


if...?""What facts would you
select to show...?""What
approach would you use
to...?""How would you
use...?"

IV

Analysis:Examine and
break information into parts
by identifying motives or
causes. Make inferences and
find evidence to support
generalizations.

analyze, appraise, calculate,


categorize, compare,
contrast, criticize,
differentiate, discriminate,
distinguish, examine,
experiment, question, test.

"What inference can you


make...?""What is the
relationship
between...?""What evidence
can you find...?""What things
justify...?"

Synthesis: Compile
information together in a
different way by combining
elements in a new pattern or
proposing alternative
solutions.

arrange, assemble, collect,


compose, construct, create,
design, develop, formulate,
manage, organize, plan,
prepare, propose, set up,
write.

"What could be changed to


improve...?""How would you
test...?""What way would you
design...?""What outcome
would you predict for...?"

VI

Evaluation:Present and
defend opinions by making
judgments about information,
validity of ideas or quality of
work based on a set of
criteria.

appraise, argue, assess,


attach, choose compare,
defend estimate, judge,
predict, rate, core, select,
support, value, evaluate

"How could you


select...?""How could you
prove...?""How would you
prioritize...?""What
information would you use to
support...?"

TESTING YOUR UNDERSTANDING


TRY TO IDENTIFY UNDER WHICH LEVEL DOES THESE QUESTIONS COME
FROM

STIMULUS

THE END