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Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 3GPP project that provides

extensions and modifications


of the UMTS system to allow implementing a high data rate, low
latency, and
packet optimized radio access networks. Service Architecture Evolution
(SAE) is an
associated 3GPP project working on 3GPP core network evolution. The
focus is on the
packet switched domain, where data and voice services are supported
over the same
packet switched network.
The Nokia LTE/EPC system, applies flat network architecture as
illustrated in Figure 5. The radio network consists of a single node,
the eNB. In the core network, the Mobility Management Entity (MME)
takes the role of
SGSN in current GPRS networks, it is a control plane element.
Direct tunnel between
eNB and S-GW/P-GW allows user plane traffic to bypass the MME.
Different gateway
elements in EPC take the role of GGSN providing connectivity to
operator service
networks and the Internet.

There are two gateway functions which may or may not co-exist within a
single gateway
element:
Serving Gateway (S-GW), the user plane (U-plane) gateway to the EUTRAN
Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW), the user plane (U-plane) gateway
to the
PDN (for example, the Internet or the operator's IP Multimedia
Subsystem (IMS))

Between the eNB and core network entities there is Security Gateway
(SEG), which
provides security for the control plane, user plane, management plane,
and synchronisation
plane.

LTE overview
The LTE network architecture is called flat architecture. Flat architecture
means that UE
is connected to the eNB, and eNB is connected directly to the core
network. All radio
network controller functionalities are handled by the eNB. There is no
need to havasystem
additional
network
for those
functionalities
Management
traffic
to andelement
from LTE/EPC
network
elements
always goes
through NetAct.
Functional split
LTE fully implements radio function in the eNB, as illustrated in Figure 6
Functional split
between radio access and core network. Communication between eNB
and S-GW/MME
is done via transport network, see Figure 29 Uu user plane protocol stack
and Figure
31 Uu control plane protocol stack.

S1 flexibility
A single eNB can connect to multiple MMEs. This ability provides
flexibility and reliability
and is referred to as S1 Flex. The eNB connection options are illustrated
in Figure 7 EUTRAN and EPC with S1 Flex.

Multi-operator core network


The Flexi Multiradio BTS can be connected simultaneously to the
different Evolved
Packet Cores (EPCs) of different operators. This means that the LTE EUTRAN can be
shared between mobile network operators. This is done via the S1 Flex
mechanism
which allows eNB establishing multiple S1 links. Different core networks
can be connected
to the commonly shared eNBs. The operators are able to share the
resources of
a single Flexi Multiradio BTS. This means that the operators can reduce
CAPEX and
OPEX.
Network elements
The Evolved Packet System (EPS) is made up of the Evolved UTRAN
(E-UTRAN),
Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and connectivity to legacy 3GPP access
and non-3GPP
access systems.

eNB function
The eNB includes the majority of the LTE system function. The complexity
and related
cost of the system are minimized.
The eNB hosts the following functions:
Radio Network Layer 1 (Physical Layer)
error detection on the transport channel and indication to higher layers
FEC encoding/decoding of the transport channel
hybrid ARQ soft-combining
rate matching of the coded transport channel to physical channels
mapping of the coded transport channel onto physical channels
power weighting of physical channels
modulation and demodulation of physical channels
frequency and time synchronization
radio characteristics measurements and indication to higher layers
multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna processing
transmit diversity (TX diversity)
beamforming
RF processing

Radio Network Layer 2


PDCP: robust header compression (RoHC); Ciphering
RLC: RLC segmentation; Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)
MAC: MAC multiplexing
Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)
uplink timing alignment
packet scheduling
Radio Network Layer 3
Radio Resource Control:
Radio Bearer Control
Radio Admission Control
Idle and Connected Mode Mobility Control
Inter-cell Interference Coordination
Load Balancing
Inter-RAT RRM
Network related functions
routing of U-plane to S-GW
uplink QoS support at transport and bearer level

EPC architecture
The EPC network architecture is composed of the following main
elements compliant
with 3GPP Release 8 specifications and with open interfaces:
Mobility Management Entity (MME)
Serving Gateway (S-GW)
Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW)
Home Subscriber Server (HSS)
Policy Charging and Rules Function (PCRF)
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting function (AAA)
Mobility Management Entity (MME)
The 2G/3G SGSN evolves into the LTE MME. As a pure control plane
element, it
handles Non-Access Stratum (NAS) signaling and NAS signaling security.
The MME
also handles the signaling between core network nodes to support
handovers between
LTE and other 3GPP access networks, such as GSM or WCDMA.
The MME implements idle mode user equipment tracking and
reachability. It performs:
Packet Data Network (PDN) gateway and serving gateway selection
MME selection for handovers that include a change of MME

The MME supports subscriber roaming. It implements an


interface with the users Home
Subscriber Server (HSS). It authenticates the subscribers right
to access operator
network
resources. It also handles bearer management
MME functionality:
functions,
including
dedicated
authenticates
and authorizes
the user
bearer
establishment.
provides
roaming support with the S6a interface
manages and stores UE context
generates temporary identities and allocates them to UEs
manages mobility (idle and active mode)
manages Intra-LTE mobility
manages Inter-RAT mobility (between LTE and 2G/3G access networks)
provides optimized inter-system signaling for mobility between LTE and
HRPD
(applicable for PP2 operators): SR-VCC support for 1X CS-voice
(available in future
releases and applicable for PP2 operators only), and SR-VCC for 3GPP
(UTRAN/GERAN)
provides CS Fallback (CSFB) functionality towards GERAN, UTRAN,
or CDMA2000
provides support for MME and S-GW relocation (available in future
releases)

Serving Gateway (S-GW)


The S-GW terminates the LTE core user plane interface with the E-UTRAN.
User Equipment
(UE) is assigned to a single S-GW at a given point in time. The S-GW acts
as a
user plane gateway
for the LTE radio network in inter-eNB handovers
for inter-3GPP mobility (relaying traffic between the 2G/3G system and
The S-GW takes care of packet routing and forwarding. It handles idle
the PDN GW)
mode downlink
packet buffering and initiates the network-triggered service request
procedure. In
roaming cases, the Serving GW offers roaming support to home routed
traffic functionality:
and lawful
S-GW
interception
and
charging
capability
the visited
network.

serves as an
anchor
point
both for in
inter-eNB
handover
and for intra3GPP mobility
(that is handover to and from 2G or 3G)
provides default EPS bearer termination (applicable only for the IETF
variant)
provides dedicated non-GBR/GBR EPS bearer termination (applicable
only for IETF
variant)
provides roaming support with S8 interface
is responsible for packet forwarding, routing, and buffering of downlink

S-GW Continue...
is responsible for data forwarding to HSGW in the case of handover
from LTE to
HRPD (applicable only for pp2 operators only and available in future
releases)
is responsible for data forwarding from source S-GW to target S-GW in
the case
indirectData
data forwarding
Packet
Network Gateway (P-GW)
provides
lawful
interception
in allocates
roaming case
The
P-GW acts
as a
user plane support
anchor. It
an IP address for the UE.
The P-GW
applies policy enforcement to subscriber traffic and performs packet
filtering at the level
of individual users (for example, by deep packet inspection). The gateway
interfaces the
operators online and offline charging systems. It also provides home
agent functionality
for interworking between non-3GPP networks and when the interface
between the SGW
and P-GW is implemented using a mobile IP-based protocol.

P-GW functionality:
serves as a global mobility anchor for mobility between
3GPP and non-3GPP access
LTE and pre-release 8 3GPP access
provides default EPS bearer termination and IP address allocation
provides dedicated non-GBR/GBR EPS bearer termination
provides roaming support with S8 interface
supports S-GW relocation
responsible for policy enforcement and AMBR-based bandwidth
management
provides policy and charging control support with relevant PCRF
interfaces
provides charging support

The legacy network elements of interest to LTE/EPC are


the following:

Home Subscriber Server (HSS)


The HSS is the Core Network entity responsible for managing user
profiles, performing
the authentication and authorization of users. The user profiles managed
by HSS
consist of subscription and security information as well as details on the
physical
location of the user.
HSS functionality:
providing the user authentication and authorization information to the
MME

Policy Charging
and Rules Function (PCRF)
managing
user profiles
The
PCRF is responsible
foratbrokering
QoS Policy and Charging Policy on a
preserving
user location
MME level
perflow
storing of mobility and service data for every subscriber
basis.
In roaming
scenarios
it provides
services as hPCRF and as vPCRF.
permanent
and central
subscriber
database
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting function (AAA)
The AAA is responsible for relaying authentication and authorization
information to
and from non-3GPP access network connected to EPC.
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
is responsible for the transfer of packet data between the Core Network
and the

Nokia Siemens Networks portfolio


The Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPC architecture portfolio comprises the
following
network elements:
Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE
Flexi Network Server
Flexi Network Gateway
Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE
Nokia Siemens Networks LTE eNB is based on the Flexi Multiradio BTS.
The same
Flexi Multiradio System and RF Modules are used for WCDMA/HSPA and
for LTE. With
downloadable LTE SW, the Flexi Multiradio BTS is operating in LTE SW
mode.
With LTE447: SW support for RF sharing GSM-LTE feature it is possible for
Flexi Multiradio
RF Module to operate in concurrent GSM and LTE mode. This means that
one
Flexi Multiradio RF Module is transmitting both GSM/EDGE RF carriers
and LTE RF
carrier signals at the same 3GPP frequency band. Operator can run both
GSM and LTE

As shown in Figure 8 Flexi Multiradio BTS site solution, the complete


macro high power
outdoor 1+1+1 @ 60 W Flexi Multiradio BTS consists of:
system module
3-sector RF module for 60 W per sector/cell
optional AC/DC and battery module

The full LTE BTS (DC powered) is as light and as small as about 50 kg
and 50 liters.
The Flexi Multiradio BTS modules can be used very flexibly with different
BTS configurations,
with optional AC/DC and battery back-up module, and the operator's own
site
equipment, for an integrated site solution. Ultimate LTE capacity can be
achieved with
optional 2TX MIMO configuration.
A complete macro high power outdoor 1+1+1 @ 60 W + 60 W Flexi
Multiradio BTS
consists of:
system module
Multiradio
BTS provides
radio
downlink output
The
two Flexi
3-sector
RF modules
for 60 Wvery
+ 60high
W per
sector/cell
when
using
the
power
optional
AC/DC
and
battery module
Flexi 210W 3-sector Radio Module. In the 3-sector BTS, all RF functions
are integrated
to one single outdoor installable 3U high module. With two 3-sector RF
Modules in 2TX
MIMO configuration, TX power is 120W per sector/cell (60 W + 60 W).

Another option especially for feederless and distributed LTE BTS sites is
the Flexi Multiradio
Remote Radio Head (RRH) that can support one sector with the
following integrated
features:
two transceivers to support 2TX MIMO
40W + 40W output power at antenna connectors
two linear power amplifiers
two RF filters for TX/RX
2 way RX diversity
wide bandwidth support (up to 20 MHz depending on 3GPP band RF
variant)
-48 V DC input power supply
no fans
OBSAI optical interface to the BTS system module
antenna tilt support

The Flexi Multiradio BTS provides the following installation options:


wall installation
floor installation
any legacy cabinet installation
pole installation
inside constructions

External interfaces of the Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE


The external interfaces (see Figure 11 External interfaces of the Flexi
Multiradio BTS
LTE) of the Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE include:
LTE-Uu interface between eNBs and UEs, acting as the user and control
plane
between E-UTRAN and UEs.
S1-MME interface between eNBs and MME, carrying control plane traffic
between
E-UTRAN and MME.
S1-U interface between eNBs and S-GW, carrying user plane traffic
between EUTRAN
and S-GW.
O&M interface between eNBs and NetAct via iOMS
O&M interface between eNB and BTSSM

Flexi Network Server


Flexi Network Server (Flexi NS) is a high transaction capacity product on
top of
Advanced TCA (ATCA) hardware (see Figure 12 Flexi Network Server). It
is optimized
for all-IP flat architecture, and is used for control plane-only mobility
management entity
(MME) functionality.
The Flexi NS is an essential part of the Nokia Siemens Networks LTE and
EPS end-toend
offering. The MME has a similar role in LTE as 2G/3G SGSN has in 2G/3G
networks.
Flexi NS implements high transaction and connectivity capacity to
accommodate the
increased signaling load and higher service penetration in an operators
subscriber
base. The product footprint is small, so you can install up to three high
capacity units in
a standard 19 rack. Flexi NS is power efficient, offering reduction in
energy consumption.

Flexi Network Gateway


The new Flexi NG product family targets current and future mobile networks
as well as
converged networks. It is targeted to support high-speed packet access
(HSPA),
evolved high-speed packet access (HSPA+), Internet high-speed packet
access (IHSPA)
and Long Term Evolution (LTE) access networks. Different applications, such
as
gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) or Evolved Packet Core (EPC) gateway,
can be
installed on same platform.
Flexi NG provides high throughput and signaling capacity to accommodate
the traffic
growth in next generation networks. The key to Flexi NG performance is in
the use of
multi-core packet processor (MPP) technology in the control plane and in the
user plane.
MPPs are designed for fast networking applications and contain several
hardware units
that accelerate packet data processing. MPP technology is highly flexible and
scalable,
and enables faster development cycles.
Flexi NG is based on the Nokia Siemens Networks AdvancedTCA (ATCA)
hardware platform.

EPS overall architecture


EPS solutions for 3GPP access are typically selected by operators who
want to introduce
EPS as smooth evolution to their existing 2G/3G infrastructure. EPS
solutions for
non-3GPP access are typically selected by operators who want to
maximize the deployment
of generic, non-3GPP protocols and to minimize the deployment of 3GPP
specific
protocols.
The EPS architecture has three key aspects which address the
performance requirements
for LTE/EPC:
reduction of the number of network elements on the data path,
compared
to
There
are various
architecture reference models specified in 3GPP TS
GPRS/UMTS
23.402:
streamlining
of RAN
function,
bywith
providing
it in
EPS
architectures
for 3GPP
access
GTP-based
S5a single node
separation
of the for
control
userwith
plane
network elements
(MME
and SEPS
architectures
3GPPand
access
PMIP-based
S5/S8 (IETF
variants)
GW).
EPC architecture for interworking with Gn/Gp SGSN
Non-roaming architectures for EPS for Non-3GPP access
Roaming architectures for EPS for 3GPP access (GTP variants)
Roaming architectures for EPS for non-3GPP access

EPS architectures for 3GPP access with GTP-based S5


The GTP-based (with GTP S5 reference point) EPS solution for
3GPP access is typically
selected by the operators who want to introduce EPS as smooth evolution
to their
existing 2G/3G infrastructure.

EPS architectures for 3GPP access with PMIP-based S5/S8 (IETF


variants)
The IETF based (with PMIPv6 S5/S8 reference point) EPS solution for
3GPP access is
typically selected by the operators who want to maximize the
deployment of generic,
IETF defined protocols and to minimize the deployment of 3GPP-specific
(for example,
GTP) protocols.
The IETF variant can be deployed for both 3GPP and non-3GPP access

EPC architecture for interworking with Gn/Gp SGSN

Intra PLMN roaming and inter access mobility between Gn/Gp 2G and/or 3G SGSNs
and an MME/S GW are enabled by:
Gn function as specified between two Gn/Gp SGSNs, which is provided by the
MME
Gn function as specified between Gn/Gp SGSN and Gn/Gp GGSN that is provided
by the P GW
All this Gn function is based on GTP version 1 only. The architecture for
interoperation
with Gn/Gp SGSNs in the non-roaming case is illustrated in Figure 17 Non-roaming
architecture for interoperation with Gn/Gp SGSNs.
Inter access mobility can be build introducing overlay to existing Packet Core
elements
via Gn interfaces. The benefit is that there is no need to change the existing
2G/3G live
deployment when introducing LTE.
Inter access mobility can be build introducing overlay to existing Packet Core
elements
via Gn interfaces. The benefit is that there is no need to change the existing
2G/3G live
deployment when introducing LTE.

Non-roaming architectures for EPS for Non-3GPP access


The following considerations apply to interfaces where they occur in Figure
18 Nonroaming
architecture with EPS using S5, S2a, S2b, Figure 19 Non-roaming
architecture
with EPS using S5, S2c, Figure 23 Roaming architecture for EPS using S8,
S2a, S2b home routed, Figure 24 Roaming architecture for EPS using PMIP-based S8,
S2a, S2b
(chained PMIP-based S8-S2a/b) - home routed, Figure 25 Roaming
architecture for
EPS using S8, S2c - home routed, Figure 26 Roaming architecture for EPS
using S8,
S2a, S2b - home routed, and Figure 27 Roaming architecture for EPS using
S5, S2c local breakout:
S5 can be GTP-based or PMIP-based.
Gxc is used only in the case of PMIP variant of S5 or S8.
Gxa is used when the Trusted non-3GPP Access network is
owned by the same
operator.
Gxa is terminated in the Trusted non-3GPP access if supported.
S2c is used only for DSMIPv6 bootstrapping and DSMIPv6 De-Registration

SWu shown in Figure 18 Non-roaming architecture with EPS using S5, S2a,
S2b also
applies to architectural reference models in Figure 19 Non-roaming
architecture with
EPS using S5, S2c and Figure 23 Roaming architecture for EPS using S8,
S2a, S2b home routed to Figure 27 Roaming architecture for EPS using S5, S2c local breakout,
but is not shown for simplicity.

Roaming architectures for EPS for 3GPP


access (GTP variants)

Roaming architectures for EPS for non-3GPP


access

The following are some additional considerations for the use of Gxc:
Gxc is used only in the case of PMIP-based S8 and for 3GPP access.
Gxc is not required for Trusted Non-3GPP IP Access; Gxa is used
instead to signal
the QoS policy and event reporting.

LTE/SAE interfaces
Figure 28 EPS architecture shows the overall Evolved Packet System
(EPS) architecture,
not only including the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and Evolved UMTS
Terrestrial
Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN), but also other elements, to show
the relationship
between them.

Interfaces shown in Figure 28 EPS architecture are logical interfaces, they


have no
close relation with the physical network structure and transmission. The
connectivity
between nodes is handled by IP network.

Radio network interfaces


LTE-Uu interface
The LTE UMTS air interface (that is LTE-Uu interface) is the radio
interface between the
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) and
the User Equipment
(UE). The Uu interface adopts the communication between eNode
B and the UE.
It comprises the Control Plane (C-plane) for signaling and the User
Plane (U-plane) for
the transfer of user data. The Uu interface is needed to set up,
reconfigure, and release
radio bearer services including the LTE Frequency Division Duplex
(FDD) and LTE Time
Division Duplex (TDD) services.

S1 interface
The S1 interface connects the E-UTRAN to the Core Network (CN). It is
specified as an
open interface that divides the system into radio-specific E-UTRAN and
Evolved Packet
Core (EPC) which handles switching, routing and service control.
The S1 interface has two different instances:
S1-U (S1 user plane) for connecting the eNB and the Serving Gateway
(S-GW)
The following functions are supported over S1-MME and S1-U to fulfil the
S1-MME (S1 control plane) for connecting the eNB and the Mobility
S1 interface
Management
capabilities:
Entity (MME)
S1 UE context management function which supports the
establishment of the necessary
overall initial UE context including E-RAB context, security context,
roaming restriction, UE S1 signaling connection ID(s), in the eNB to
enable fast idle-to-activetransition.
E-RAB management functions are responsible for establishing,
modifying and
releasing E-UTRAN resources for user data transport once a UE context
is available
in the eNB. The establishment and modification of E-UTRAN resources is
triggered
by the MME and requires respective QoS information to be provided to

S1 link management function


GTP-U tunnels management function
This function is used to establish and release GTP-U tunnels between the
EPC
and the E-UTRAN upon an E-RAB service request. This involves assigning
a
tunnel identifier for each direction.
S1 signaling link management function
The S1 signaling link management function provides a reliable transfer of
the
radio network signaling between E-UTRAN and EPC.
Mobility functions for UEs in LTE_Active
Intra-LTE handover
This function supports mobility for UEs in LTE_ACTIVE and comprises the
preparation,
execution, and completion of handover via the X2 and S1 interfaces.
The Inter-3GPP-RAT handover
This function supports mobility to and from other 3GPP-RATs for UEs in
LTE_ACTIVE and comprises the preparation, execution, and completion of
handover via the S1 interface.
Mobility to CDMA2000 System
This function supports mobility to and from other non-3GPP radio

Paging function supports the sending of paging requests to the eNodeBs


having one
or more cells which correspond to one of the TAs in which the UE is
registered.
Roaming and area restriction support functions
The S1 interface supports the transfer of restriction information from the
EPC to the
eNB in terms of restricted Tracking Areas for the UE in the network.
S1 interface management function
Coordination functions
Security function
Service and network access function
UE tracing function which allows tracing of various events related to the
UE and itsactivities.
This is an O&M functionality
RAN Information Management function

X2 interface
The X2 interface is used to logically connect two eNBs within the EUTRAN. It is specified
as an open interface in order to facilitate:
Inter-connection of eNBs supplied by different manufacturers
Support of continuation between eNBs of the E-UTRAN services offered
via the
S1interface
Separation of X2 interface radio network functionality and transport
network functionality
The
main functions
of the X2 interface
to facilitate
the introduction
of future are:
technologies
Intra LTE-Access-System mobility support for UE in LTE_ACTIVE allows the
eNB
tohand over the control of a certain UE to another eNB.
Context transfer from source eNB to target eNB allows transferring
information
required to maintain the E-UTRAN services for an UE in LTE_ACTIVE from
source to target eNB.
Control of user plane tunnels between source eNB and target eNB allows
establishing
and releasing tunnels between source and target eNB to allow for data
forwarding.
Handover cancellation allows informing an already prepared target eNB

Load management allows exchanging overload and traffic load


information
betweeneNBs, such that the eNBs can control the traffic load
appropriately.
Inter-cell interference coordination allows keeping inter-cell interference
under
control. For this neighboring eNBs exchange appropriate information
allowing thoseeNBs
to make radio resource assignments so that interference is mitigated.
Uplink interference load management allows indicating an uplink
interference
overload and resource blocks especially sensitive to inter-cell interference
between neighbouring eNBs, such that neighbour eNBs can co-ordinate
with
each other such that the mutual interference caused by their uplink radio
resource allocations is mitigated.
Downlink interference avoidance allows an eNB to inform its neighbour
eNBs
about downlink power restrictions in its own cells, per resource block for
interference
aware scheduling by the neighbour eNBs.
General X2 management and error handling functions allow for
managing of signaling

Core network interfaces


The EPC network architecture is
composed of the following main elements compliant with 3GPP Release 8
specifications
and with open interfaces:
Mobility Management Entity (MME)
Serving Gateway (S-GW)
Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW)
The Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPC architecture portfolio comprises
the following
network elements:
Flexi Network Server - MME
Flexi Network Gateway
All core interfaces are supported either by Flexi Network Server - MME
or Flexi Network Gateway.

Protocol stacks
This section describes the protocol stacks for the control and user plane of
the most
important reference points of the LTE/EPC systemRadio protocol architecture
Uu user plane protocol stack

The Radio Bearer is responsible for transport of data between UE and eNB
over the
LTE-Uu interface using the PDCP protocol (see Figure 29 Uu user plane
protocol stack).

User data transport over the Radio Bearer is managed by Packet Data Convergence
Protocol (PDCP) [TS36.323] and Radio Link Control (RLC) [TS36.322] in the UE and
eNB. Figure 30 U-plane operation of PDCP and RLC illustrates the processing
performed on packets within PDCP and RLC.

For U-plane traffic, the PDCP layer is responsible for:


management and assignment of PDCP sequence numbers that are
attached to
packets
in-sequence delivery of upper layer SDUs during inter-eNB
handover via the X2
interface using the PDCP
detection and elimination of duplicate lower layer SDUs during intereNB handover
via the X2 interface
IP header compression and decompression for data transferred over
the LTE-Uu,
using RoHCv2 [RFC 4995]
application of U-plane security (if required), which encrypts or
The
RLC layer
is responsible
for:
decrypts
U-plane
data

segmentation
of RLC SDUs into RLC PDUs whose size
transferred
overand
the re-assembly
LTE-Uu
match
the of PDCP SDUs at inter-eNB handover via the X2 interface
forwarding
block size used by the physical radio layer. This may involve the
concatenation of
small RLC SDUs into larger blocks.
RAN Packet Reordering of packets that are received out of sequence so
that RLC
PDUs are concatenated in the correct order before delivering the SDU to
PDCP.

The S1-U Bearer is used for transport of user data between eNB and S-GW
over the
S1-U using GTP-U protocol (see Figure 29 Uu user plane protocol stack).
Each S1Bearer consists of a pair of GTP-U tunnels (one for uplink and one for
downlink). The
eNB performs mapping between Radio Bearer IDs (RBID) and GTP-U tunnel
endpoints

The RRC protocol (eNB <> UE) [TS36.331] is responsible for the transfer
of signaling
information between the eNB and UE. It consists of common cell wide
broadcast information and dedicated signaling specific to an individual
UE. It is used for:
AS Signaling Connection Control
Radio Bearer Control Signaling
Mobility Handling
UE Measurement
UE Power Control
UE Security Signaling
Transport of NAS Messages
Distribution of Cell and System Information Broadcast
Distribution of Paging Signaling

RRC signaling is transported over the LTE-Uu interface using the Packet
Data Convergence
Protocol (PDCP) and the Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol in a
similar way to Uplane
data. This is illustrated in Figure 32 C-plane operation of PDCP. Note that
MAC*
is the Message Authentication Code added by integrity protection in PDCP
and ciphering
is optional.
For more details on RLC, see Figure 30 U-plane operation of PDCP and RLC.
For C-plane signaling the PDCP layer is responsible for:
maintenance and assignment of PDCP sequence numbers that are
attached to
packets
application of C-plane integrity protection
application of C-plane ciphering

The S1AP protocol (eNB <> MME)


The S1AP protocol (eNB <> MME)[TS36.413] is responsible for
transferring signaling
information between the eNB and MME over the S1-MME interface.
RL40 introduces a mechanism designed to avoid network congestion in
case of S1MME link overload. If an MME is in overload state it indicate its condition to
either all or
a randomly selected number of its eNBs. These eNBs are instructed to
reject connection
establishemnt requests that require interaction with the MME. Such
behaviour allows to
lower packet rate on the overloaded S1-MME link.
S1AP is carried using the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [RFC
4960]. It
is used for:
QoS Bearer Management (Activation, Modification, and Deactivation of
EPS
Bearers)
UE Context Management (Release, Modification)
Paging Distribution Signaling
Mobility Signaling
Security Mode Signaling
S1 Interface Management (Setup, Reset, Reset Resource, Overload and

NAS Signaling Protocols (MME <> UE)


provide C-plane signaling between the UE and
MME which is not processed by the eNB. NAS messages are encapsulated
into the
RRC and S1AP protocols to provide direct transport of NAS signaling
between the MME
and UE. The eNB is responsible for mapping NAS messages between the
RRC and
S1AP protocols. NAS messages are involved during the following
procedures:
Allocation of S-TMSI
Identification
Authentication
Attach, Detach, Tracking Area Update
Bearer Handling
Service Request
Paging
Handover

EPS protocol architecture

1-U user plane protocol stack

X2 user plane protocol stack

From a U-plane perspective, the X2 interface is used for forwarding user data
between
the source eNB and target eNB during lossless inter-eNB handover. A GTP-U tunnel is
established across the X2 interface between the source eNB and the target eNB.
Thus, the protocol stack is the same as that over the S1-U.
The source eNB forwards all outstanding downlink PDCP SDUs and still incoming S1
downlink SDUs in original sequence to the target eNB via the X2 GTP-U tunnel. The
target eNB will start to transmit downlink user data received at S1 in the usual way
after all forwarded data was transmitted. Any uplink PDCP SDUs received in
sequence by the source eNB are forwarded directly to the S-GW in the normal
manner, but any uplink PDCP SDUs received by the source eNB out of sequence will
be discarded (the UE will retransmit them).

S1-MME control plane protocol stack

2 control plane protocol stack

The X2 interface is used during handovers and to exchange cell/eNB


specific information
between the eNBs. IPSec is contained within the IP part of the protocol
stack. LTE
uses IPSec tunnel mode. For QoS provision in IPSec tunnel mode, the
DiffServ Code
Point (DSCP) is available in plain text in the outer IP header.
NAS messages are not transferred between eNBs during handover;
therefore, there is
no need for NAS in the X2 protocol stack.
The X2AP protocol (eNB <> eNB) [TS36.423] is responsible for
transferring signaling
information between neighboring eNBs over the X2 interface. X2AP is
carried using
SCTP. This signaling is used for Handover Signaling, Inter-cell RRM
Signaling
S5/S8 control
and X2plane protocol stack (GTP variant)
Interface Management (Setup, Reset, Reset Resource and Error
Indication).
The X2 eNB Configuration Update functionality allows the eNB to send and
recieve
updated configuration information without the need for X2 link reestablishment when
application-level configuration information transmited during the
establishemtn of X2 link

S5/S8 control plane protocol stack (IETF variant)

S10 control plane protocol stack

S11 control plane protocol stack

S6a control plane protocol stack

S13 control plane protocol stack

SBc control plane protocol stack

Protocol architecture for interfaces for legacy 3GPP interworking

LTE multiple access radio interface (FDD)


Different technologies for uplink and downlink
The main benefits of each technology are summarized in Table 2
Benefits of OFDMA
and SC-FDMA.

Modulation schemes for uplink and downlink


The different modulation schemes of OFDMA and SC-FDMA are illustrated
in Figure
50 OFDMA and SC-FDMA modulation schemes. For clarity, this example
uses only four
(M) subcarriers over two symbol periods with the payload data
represented by quadra-ture phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation.
However, real LTE signals are allocated in units of 12 adjacent

The most obvious difference between the two schemes is that, the OFDMA
transmits
the four QPSK data symbols in parallel, one per subcarrier, while SC-FDMA
transmits
the four QPSK data symbols series at four times the rate, with each data
symbol occupying M x 15 kHz bandwidth.
Visually, the OFDMA signal is clearly multi-carrier with one data symbol
per subcarrier,
whereas the SC-FDMA signal appears to be more like a single-carrier with
each data
symbol being represented by one wide signal

Signal generation and reception


OFDMA and SC-FDMA partly share the same signal generation and
reception steps.
Different to OFDMA, SC-FDMA begins with a special pre-coding process
from the time
domain to the frequency domain but then continues in a manner similar
to OFDMA, as
illustrated in Figure 51 OFDMA and SC-FDMA signal generation and
reception (simplified
model). After that, an IDFT is performed to convert the frequencyshifted signal to
the time domain and CP (Cyclic Prefix) is inserted to provide
fundamental robustness of
OFDMA against the multipath

Key components of the LTE radio interface


In addition to the OFDMA and SC-FDMA concepts there are the following
key components
of the LTE radio interface:
The highest available modulation scheme of 64 QAM (mandatory in
the Downlink
and optional in Uplink) provides a significant advantage over HSPA Rel-6.
The turbo convolutional coder improves coding gain by 1 to 2 dB
compared to a conventional
convolutional coder.
LTE Rel-8 supports multi antenna schemes for MIMO and TX diversity.
For details,
see 2.9 Multi-antenna techniques.
Inter-cell interference coordination and interference cancellation enable
exploiting
multi antenna configurations. For details see 2.11 Interference mitigation.
The frequency-selective Packet Scheduler (PS) is channel-aware and
dynamically
allocates to the UE a certain number of PRBs in accordance to QoS
criteria.
With LTE46: Channel Aware Scheduler (UL) feature, the scheduling
criterion in the
frequency domain is defined by the relative signal strength. Additionally
the UL

OFDM concept
OFDM makes use of a large number of closely spaced orthogonal
subcarriers that are
transmitted in parallel, rather than to transmit a high-rate stream of data
with a single
carrier. Each subcarrier is modulated with a conventional modulation
scheme (such as
QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM) at a low symbol rate. The combination of
hundreds or thousands
of subcarriers enables data rates similar to conventional single-carrier
modulation
schemes in the same bandwidth.
These
characteristics
enable much
more flexible spectrum usage than in
Orthogonality
in the frequency
domain:
CDMA-based
ideally eliminates intra-cell interference
systems
like
UTRA.
(for efficiency
FDD) supports carrier bandwidths of
allows a
very
high LTE
spectral
1.4
MHz,
3 MHz,
5 guard bands within the nominal bandwidth
allows
rather
small
MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz, and 20 MHz.
Orthogonality is also the reason why Multiple-Input Multiple-Output
(MIMO) techniques
are better supported in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM)
systems than
in CDMA-based systems. On the time axis, an OFDM transmitter sends a
sequence of

OFDM receiver and transmitter are based on the Discrete or Fast Fourier
Transform
(FFT) algorithm. In the frequency domain, multiple adjacent tones
or subcarriers are
each independently modulated with data. Then in the time domain, guard
intervals are
inserted between each of the symbols to prevent inter-symbol interference
at the
receiver caused by multipath delay spread in the radio channel.

Disadvantages of the OFDM concept are:


The subcarriers are closely spaced, making OFDM sensitive to frequency
errors and
phase noise. For the same reason, OFDM is also sensitive to Doppler shift,
which
causes interference between the subcarriers.
Pure OFDM also creates high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), and
OFDMA
that is principles
The E-UTRA system uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
why a modification of the technology called SC-FDMA is used in the uplink
(OFDMA) for the Downlink, which divides the available bandwidth into many narrow,

(OFDMA) for the Downlink, which divides the available bandwidth into many narrow,
mutually orthogonal sub-carriers. OFDMA is a variant of orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing(OFDM), a digital multi-carrier modulation scheme that is widely used in
wireless systems but relatively new to cellular.
With standard OFDM, very narrow UE-specific transmissions can suffer from narrowband
fading and interference. In contrast to an OFDM transmission scheme, OFDMA allows
the access of multiple users on the available bandwidth. That is why for LTE the
downlink OFDMA is used, which incorporates elements of time division multiple access
(TDMA). Each user is assigned a specific time-frequency resource. OFDMA allows
subsets of the subcarriers to be allocated dynamically among the different users on the
channel, as shown in Figure 53 OFDM and OFDMA subcarrier allocation. As a
fundamental principle of E-UTRA, the data channels are shared channels, that is, for
each transmission time interval, a new scheduling decision is taken regarding which
users are assigned to which time/frequency resources during this transmission time
interval. The result is a more robust system with increased capacity. This is because of
the trunking efficiency of multiplexing low rate users and the ability to schedule users
by frequency, which provides resistance to multipath fading.

Note that not all of Physical Resource Blocks (PRBs) can be allocated to
users, because
some of PRBs are reserved for synchronization and common channels.

SC-FDMA principles
The E-UTRA system uses Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access
(SCFDMA)
for the Uplink, which combines the low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
(PAPR)
techniques of single-carrier transmission systems, such as GSM and CDMA,
with the
multipath resistance and flexible frequency allocation of OFDMA. The
single carrier
signal has a PAPR that is about 4 dB lower than a corresponding OFDM
signal; this
extends the UE battery life time. Thanks to transform precoding, each UE
creates a
single carrier signal.
As illustrated in Figure 54 DFT pre-coding and principle of SC-FDMA, data
symbols in
the time domain are converted to the frequency domain using a discrete
Fourier transform
(DFT). In the frequency domain, they are mapped to the desired location in
the
overall channel bandwidth before being converted back to the time
domain using an
inverse FFT (IFFT). Finally, the CP is inserted.

LTE radio protocol architecture


The LTE UMTS air interface (LTE-Uu interface) is the radio interface
between the
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) and the User
Equipment (UE). The Uu interface adopts the communication between eNB
and the UE. It comprises the Control Plane (C-plane) for signaling and the
User Plane (U-plane) for the transfer of user data. The Uu interface is
needed tophysical
set up, reconfigure,
Downlink
channels and release radio bearer services including
LTE Frequency
Division
Duplex
(FDD) service.
the
Physical
broadcast
channel
(PBCH)
The coded BCH transport block is mapped to four subframes within a 40 ms
timeinterval.
Physical control format indicator channel (PCFICH)
Informs the UE about the number of OFDM symbols used for the PDCCHs
and must be transmitted in every subframe.
Physical downlink control channel (PDCCH)
Informs the UE about the resource allocation and Hybrid-ARQ information. It
also contains the Uplink scheduling grant.
Physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH)
Carries the Downlink shared channel (DL-SCH) and the Paging Channel (PCH).
Physical hybrid ARQ indicator channel (PHICH)
Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NACKs in response to Uplink transmission.
Synchronization channels (Primary SCH and Secondary SCH)

Uplink physical channels


Physical uplink control channel (PUCCH)
Carries ACK/NACKs in response to Downlink transmission as well as CQI reports,
and scheduling requests.
Physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH)
Carries the UL-SCH.
Physical random access channel (PRACH)
Carries the random access preamble.

The mapping of physical, transport and logical channels is illustrated in Figure


55 Mapping of physical, transport and logical channels.

Multi-antenna techniques
A key ingredient of the LTE air interface is the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output
(MIMO)
support to achieve the ambitious requirements for throughput and spectral
efficiency.
MIMO refers to the use of multiple antennas at transmitter and receiver side.
For the LTE downlink, a 2x2 configuration for MIMO is assumed as the
baseline configuration, that
is, two transmit antennas at the base station and two receive antennas at the
terminal
side. Configurations with four transmit or receive antennas are also
supported by LTE Rel-8. Different gains can be achieved depending on the
MIMO mode used. Table 3 Multi-antenna options in LTE gives an overview on
the typical LTE multi antenna configurations.

MIMO techniques
The typical MIMO configuration encompassing Dual-Codeword 2x2 DL SingleUser
(SU) MIMO Spatial Multiplexing is illustrated in Figure 56 2x2 MIMO
configuration. This
MIMO scheme targets at a duplication of the Downlink peak user data rate by
allowing
two independent parallel data streams to a single UE. This is also called
Spatial Multiplexing.
The two base station transmit signals, two UE receive signals, and four
channels form (for each and every subcarrier) a system of two equations with
two
unknown transmit signals. The two unknown transmit signals can be
calculated from the
estimated four channels, the possible transmit alphabet(s), and the two
receive signals

Whether or not two independent data streams can be transmitted efficiently


at the same
time depends on the channels as well as on how well the channels of the two
data streams decorrelate. Decorrelation of the channels strongly depends on

MIMO techniques comprise the following:


Downlink MIMO techniques
Uplink MIMO techniques
Multi-user MIMO techniques
Downlink MIMO techniques
For interoperability reasons, the Open Loop SU-MIMO scheme must be based
on the Large-delay Cyclic Delay Diversity (Large-delay CDD) precoding.
Operators may (statically) configure Transmit Diversity, MIMO Spatial
Multiplexing, or adaptive mode. Inadaptive mode, Open Loop 2x2 SU-MIMO
fallback is Space Frequency Block Coding (SFBC) transmit diversity.
Codebook-based (Closed Loop) SU-MIMO uses no-CDD precoding. Operators
may
(statically) configure Transmit Diversity, MIMO Spatial Multiplexing, or
adaptive mode.
In adaptive mode, Closed Loop 2x2 SU-MIMO fallback is 2x2 MIMO Spatial
Multiplexing
with a single codeword.
Under optimal conditions, 2x2 SU-MIMO doubles the peak user data rate.
Under realistic
conditions, 2x2 SU-MIMO results in a cell capacity enhancement of 10% for
macrocellular
to 40% for micro-cellular deployment scenarios. Closed Loop SU-MIMO is
wellsuited
for UE velocities below 30 km/h, while Open Loop SU-MIMO is naturally

Uplink MIMO techniques


Uplink SU-MIMO has not been standardized for LTE Rel-8. Nokia Siemens
Networks
will drive the standardization of Uplink SU-MIMO for LTE Rel-9/LTE-A as Uplink
SUMIMO
will increase the coverage area of higher Uplink data rates. The eNB will have
the
MIMO receiver already implemented for Uplink MU-MIMO, while potential
Uplink SUMIMO
Multi-user
MIMO techniques
Uplink
means thatare
tworelated
differentto
UEs
exploit
the
same physical
controlMulti-User
signalingMIMO
requirements
higher
UE
Categories
not Uplink
air
interface resources. Uplink MU-MIMO is supported in the 3GPP standard LTE Rel-8.
affecting
Uplink
is a capacity enhancement feature effective for loaded networks.
legacyMU-MIMO
Rel-8 terminals
Nokia Siemens Networks will implement Uplink MU-MIMO in a future release in
alignment
with the four receive antenna configurations supported at the eNB. Uplink MUMIMO
may either use 2 base station receive and for 4 base station receive antennas
depending on the actual antenna deployment.
For evaluation purposes, a Proportional Fair scheduler and a frequency-selective MIMO
scheduler have been compared, indicating various performance gains achievable with
two or four receive antennas. Results are better for higher system loads, as an
advanced eNB receiver can exploit best Uplink MU-MIMO if there are sufficient
appropriate
pairings of UEs. An initial implementation of the Uplink MU-MIMO scheduler starts
from semi-static pairing of UEs to allow for smooth integration with Hybrid Automatic
Repeat Request (HARQ) processing.
Downlink Multi-User MIMO has not been standardized in LTE Rel-8, as gains for

Antenna tilting
Antenna tilting is very effective in controlling co-channel interference by
suppressing
signal spillage. The vertical antenna pattern is also used to compensate the
near-far
effect because of propagation, which in turn can enhance the signal
distribution in the
cell. There are two ways of antenna tilting:
Electrical tilting can be controled remotely and may be integrated
into the Operations
Support System (OSS). The choice of antenna becomes very important
since
electrical and mechanical down tilting have different effects to the effective
shape of
the horizontal and vertical patterns.
Mechanical tilting is relatively cheap to implement since the
antenna always allows
the mounting to be adjusted vertically. The main drawback of mechanical tilt
is its
distortion in the horizontal pattern since it provides higher attenuation at the
main
lobe's azimuth direction. This is acceptable only if small tilts are required.

Network management architecture


The LTE/EPC network management architecture is described in Figure 59
LTE/EPC
network management architecture.

Management system traffic to and from LTE/EPC network elements always


goes through NetAct. The LTE RAN Element Manager has its own direct
interface. The interface between the Flexi Multiradio Base Station and NetAct
is based on the BTSOM protocol. It carries all the necessary data and
commands (for example, alarms, measurements, configuration and new
software data) to control the network element behavior remotely. The
interface between the Element Managers for MME and EPCGW is based on

NetAct offers an open northbound interface for other management systems


and
provides advanced tools for full-scale management functionality (FCAPS).
Textual and
graphic presentation of measurement data reporting is based on 3GPP
formats.
The LTE/EPC Element Managers can present alarm and measurement
information, for
Managing the LTE/EPC system with NetAct
example, active alarms. However, these capabilities are not on the same
NetAct,
level asthe
thenetwork management application for the Nokia Siemens
Networks
LTE/EPC system,
is a network
and service
management
NetAct capabilities.
The NetAct
southbound
interface
can be usedsolution
to
that
consists
of
numerous
tools
integrate other
for
handling
a number
of network
elements
and expanding
networks. It is
core
and access
network
elements
under common
management.
designed to
be able to handle an increase in both complexity of the network and volume
of traffic and data.
With NetAct, both the network and services within the network are managed
centrally,
that is, the operator can view the network element failures, service quality
indicators,
and traffic from one screen.
NetAct provides full FCAPS (Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, Security)
functionality comprising:
fault management
performance management

Mobility
EPS mobility management comprises functions and procedures that
maintain the connectivity
between UE and EPS as the UE moves between the coverage areas of
different
base stations or access networks. As far as possible, seamless mobility is
provided
so that the mobility is transparent to UEs and the applications they use. For
applications
that require it, the mobility is lossless. In other words, the packet loss
probability is very
low.
Mobility scenarios
A number of mobility scenarios is supported as illustrated in Figure 60 Mobility
scenarios
for LTE/EPC.
LTE Intra-RAT mobility comprises:
Intra-eNB mobility (handover between the cells within a certain eNB)
Inter-eNB mobility (handover between the adjacent eNBs).
Inter-RAT mobility comprises:
mobility between LTE and other 3GPP RATs (GERAN or UTRAN)
mobility between LTE and non-3GPP RATs (such as WLAN, WiMAX or 3GPP2 access
network (HRPD))

Mobility anchors

During mobility, the U-plane data path continuity to the PDN is maintained
using mobility
anchors as illustrated in Figure 61 Mobility anchor point. These are network
element instances which are permanent members of the U-plane path and
located such that the path from the anchor to the PDN does not change.

The mobility anchors for each mobility scenario are summarized in Table 4
Mobility scenarios
and anchor points.

Inter-eNB handover
Inter-eNB handovers are typically handovers that aim to minimize service interruption
and packet loss. Based on measurements received from the UE, the source eNB selects
a target eNB and initiates the handover. The signaling takes place over the X2
interface. If there is no X2 connectivity between the base stations, the signaling must
take place via the MME and via the S1-MME interface. These two alternatives are
illustrated in Figure 62 Inter-eNB handover with X2 interface and Figure 63 Inter-eNB
handover
without X2 interface.
The UE can access the target eNB after the resources have been reserved and the
bearers are set up. To avoid packet loss, the source eNB forwards all downlink packets
that are not yet acknowledged by the UE via the X2 interface to the target eNB. In
uplink, the UE will switch to the target cell and then re-transmit all packets which were
not acknowledged in the sequence before the handover.

Figure 63 Inter-eNB handover without X2 interface depicts how data forwarding


between source and target eNB takes place via S-GW, if direct data forwarding is not
possible via X2 interface.

Handover via S1
With S1-based handover, a UE can be handed over from one LTE cell to
another LTE
cell (of another eNB) without the usage of an X2 interface. X2 interface
between Source
and Target eNB may be not existing, not operable or its use for handover may
be forbidden
by O&M. S1-based handover is routed via the Core Network and therefore
provides the possibility for the Core to change the serving MME and/or the
serving SGW.
Inter-RAT handover (3GPP)
3GPP inter-radio-access-technology (inter-RAT) handovers differ from intra-LTE
intereNB
handovers in that there is no control plane (signaling) interface between the
eNB
and the non-LTE radio access network. Therefore, signaling between the
access
systems always takes place via MME and SGSN.
Inter-RAT handovers apply to UEs in RRC_CONNECTED mode only. UEs in idle
mode
apply cell reselection procedures, also towards the other RATs.
Like inter-eNB handovers, 3GPP inter-RAT handovers are typically backward
handovers.

Network Assisted Cell Change to GSM


The LTE to GSM Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) functionality of the Flexi
Multiradio
BTS allows for a service continuity of data services when changing from an LTE cell to a
GSM cell. NACC is only applicable to NACC capable multimode devices supporting both
LTE and GSM at the according frequency band. The UE capabilites are provided to the
eNB by the feature group indicator.
Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) to WCDMA
The LTE to WCDMA Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) functionality of the Flexi
Multiradio BTS allows for a service continuity of voice services to the CS domain when
changing from a LTE cell to a WCDMA cell. All non-voice services will be handed over to
the PS domain.

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) to GSM


The LTE to GSM Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) functionality of the Flexi
Multiradio BTS allows for a service continuity of voice services to the CS domain when
changing from a LTE cell to a GSM cell.
The SRVCC functionality does not support DTM/PSHO, that is established non-voice
bearers are not handed over to GSM. An operator configurable switch is supported
which determines whether to suspend the data session or not. The functionality is only
applicable for SRVCC capable multimode devices supporting both LTE and GSM at the
RRM functions
according frequency band.
Radio Resource Management (RRM) provides the following Layer 3 (L3) and above
(L3+) functions to the system:
Radio Bearer Control (RBC)
Radio Admission Control (RAC)
Connection Mobility Control (CMC)
Dynamic Resource Allocation (DRA)
Inter-cell interference RRM & load management (ICR)
Radio Configuration (RC)
Inter-RAT RRM (IRR)
In addition, RRM L3 functions use the following lower layer functions defined in L1/L2 to
alter the behavior of the system:
UL/DL Power Control
Congestion Control
DTX/DRX Control
Link Adaptation (Adaptive Modulation and Coding)
Link Quality Control
HARQ Control
MIMO and Aerial Control

State transitions
There are three sets of states defined for the UE based on the information
held by the
MME. These are:
EPS Mobility Management (EMM) states
EPS Connection Management (ECM) States
Radio Resource Control (RRC) States
EPS Mobility Management (EMM) states
EMM-DEREGISTERED: in this state the MME holds no valid location information
about the UE, though it may maintain some UE context when the UE moves to this
state, for example to avoid the need for Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA)
during every attach procedure. Successful Attach and Tracking Area Update (TAU)
procedures lead to transition to EMM-REGISTERED.
EMM-REGISTERED: in this state the MME holds location information for the UE at
least to the accuracy of a tracking area and the UE can receive services that require
registration in the EPS. In this state the UE performs TAU procedures, responds to
paging messages and performs the service request procedure if there is uplink data to
be sent.
The state transition diagram for the EMM states is the same for the UE and for the
MME
and is shown in Figure 69 EMM state transitions.

EPS Connection Management (ECM) States


ECM_IDLE: in this state there is no NAS signaling connection between the UE and the
network and there is no context for the UE held in the E-UTRAN. The location of the UE
is known within the accuracy of a tracking area and mobility is managed by tracking
area updates.
ECM_CONNECTED: in this state there is a signaling connection between the UE and
the MME which is provided in the form of a Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection
between the UE and the E-UTRAN and an S1 connection for the UE between the
EUTRAN and the MME. The location of the UE is known within the accuracy of a cell and
mobility is managed by handovers.

The state transition diagrams for the ECM states are different at the UE and
the MME
as shown in Figure 70 ECM state transitions.

Radio Resource Control (RRC) States


RRC_IDLE: In this state no signaling connection between UE and network
exists. UE performs cell reselections. Paging is needed when there is data in
downlink direction. RACH procedure is used on RRC connection
establishment.
RRC_CONNECTED: In this state a signaling connection exists between UE
and network. The mobility of UE is handled by the handover procedure. The
UE performs the tracking area update procedure.
UEs RRC connection can be maintained even if UE is inactive. RRC connection
may be released because of the following reasons:
UE is inactive for a long time
high mobility
When the maximum number of RRC connected UEs is reached, the longest
inactiveUE is released.
RRC Connection Re-establishment is supported as preferred resolution for temporary
Radio link failure or due to physical link failure during handover execution. The
Connection Re-establishment procedure is initiated by the UE in RRC connected in case
of radio link failure detection due to for example:
handover failure
integrity check failure indication from lower layers
RRC connection reconfiguration failure
The state transition diagrams for the RRC states is shown in Figure 71 RRC state
transitions.

Connection states for intra-RAT mobility


There are two states to be considered for intra-RAT mobility:
ECM_IDLE Connection State
ECM_CONNECTED Connection State
ECM_IDLE Connection State
In ECM_IDLE, the location of the UE is known only to the level of one or a small number
of Tracking Areas (TAs), as illustrated in Figure 72 Intra-RAT mobility in ECM_IDLE. The
UE will camp on a cell and perform measurements of this and other cells in the
neighbourhood. When it chooses to camp on a new cell, if it detects that the cell
belongs to a new TA, it sends a Tracking Area Update (TAU) to the MME via the cell's
eNB. If data from the PDN arrives at the S-GW, it signals the MME to page the UE. The
UE is paged in all cells belonging to the TAs in which it is known. The UE is allowed to be
registered in more than one TA in order to avoid frequent TAUs when it is moving in the
region of TA boundaries

ECM_CONNECTED Connection State


In ECM_CONNECTED, the principal form of mobility management is
backwards
handover as illustrated in Figure 73 Intra-RAT mobility in ECM_CONNECTED
which
aims to minimize service interruption and packet loss. Based on
measurements received from the UE, the current eNB (the source eNB)
selects a target eNB and initiates the handover.
The eNBs perform direct signaling over the X2 interface. The UE can
access the target eNB after the resources are reserved and the bearers are
set up. In
order to avoid packet loss, for those applications that require it, the source
eNB will
forward un-received DL packets (those which have yet to be sent to the UE or
yet be acknowledged by the UE) to the target eNB directly over X2. The
target will not deliver
packets received from the S-GW until it has delivered all forwarded packets.
Between
detaching from the source eNB and attaching to the target, the UE will buffer
UL
packets.
At the S-GW, late path switching is performed. This means that the downlink
path is not
switched to the target eNB before the handover is completed. Thus, packet

Tracking Areas
If the network wishes to communicate with a UE that is in EMM-REGISTERED and
ECM_IDLE states then it needs to have some information about where the UE is. This is
handled using the tracking area concept as illustrated in Figure 74 Multiple-TA
registration concept. Each cell belongs to a single tracking area (TA).
Different cells in a single eNB can belong to different tracking areas; however, each cell can
only belong to one tracking area.
A UE registers with a TA and the information of which TA the UE is registered with is held in the
MME which serves the TAs. An MME allocates the UE a Globally Unique Temporary UE Identifier
(GUTI) which includes an identifier for the MME that allocated it and an identifier for the UE that is
unique within the MME (and within the pool of MMEs). A shortened form of the GUTI is the S-TMSI
which uniquely identifies the UE within a given TA. Thus when a UE is in ECM_IDLE state, the MME
can request within a TA that the UE with the required S-TMSI (or IMSI) moves into ECM_CONNECTED
state. This is done by Paging. When a UE moves TAs it has to perform the Tracking Area Update
(TAU) procedure

Tracking Area Update

The Tracking Area Update (TAU) procedure enables the EPC to track the location of
moving UEs while they are in the ECM_IDLE state. It takes place when a UE that is
registered with an MME and/or a SGSN selects an E-UTRAN cell.
The procedure is initiated by the UE if the UE changes thereby to a Tracking Area that
the UE has not yet registered with the network or if the P-TMSI update status is not
updated because of bearer configuration modifications performed between UE and
SGSN when Idle-mode Signaling Reduction (ISR) is activated. This procedure is
initiated by an ECM_IDLE state UE and may also be initiated if the UE is in
ECM_CONNECTED state.
The procedure is managed by the MME, which tracks the UE locations. NAS signaling is
used here with AS support limited to conveying NAS signaling messages between the
UE and MME. The UE needs to be attached to the network (be in EMM-REGISTERED

ISR Concept
The Idle-mode Signaling Reduction mechanism allows the UE remaining simultaneously registered
in an UTRAN/GERAN Routing Area (RA) and an E-UTRAN Tracking Area (TA) list. This allows the UE to
make cell reselections between E-UTRAN and UTRAN/GERAN without a need to send any TAU or
RAU request, as long as it remains within the registered RA and TA list. Consequently, ISR is a
feature that reduces the mobility signaling and improves the battery life of UEs. This is important
especially in initial deployments when E-UTRAN coverage will be limited and inter-RAT changes will
be frequent. The cost of ISR is more complex paging procedures for UEs in ISR, which need to be
paged on both the registered RA and all registered TAs. The HSS needs also to maintain two PS
registrations (one from the MME and another from the SGSN).

Multiple-TA Concept

The LTE system supports the concept of multi TA registration which is similar to the pre- LTE 3GPP
routing area concept, with the extension that the UE can be registered in more than one TA. The
MME is aware of the UE location to the granularity of one or more tracking areas (TA set). This is
illustrated in Figure 74 Multiple-TA registration
concept.

Triggers
The TAU procedure is not triggered as long as the UE stays in any of its
assigned
tracking areas. As soon as the UE enters a tracking area which is not in the
assigned
set, the TAU procedure is initiated. As a result, the UE's set of TAs is updated
or reassigned.
The MME is responsible for the assignment which may vary on per-UE basis.
This flexibility is beneficial in the sense that the TA load can be distributed
within the
network, and TAU signaling can be reduced at the TA borders (because of
reduction of
the so-called 'ping-pong' effect). The TAU procedure is also triggered
periodically after
expiration of the UE's internal timer.
The UE discovers which tracking area it is in by listening to the broadcast
channel. The
cell broadcasts only one Tracking Area Identifier (TAI). It should be noted
that a cell can
belong to only one TA, but the eNB can support several cells, some of which
could be
in different TAs. The TAI consists of MCC, MNC and TAC identifiers which
uniquely
identify country, operator and UE location.

Paging
A UE attached to the system and in ECM_IDLE state is traceable only to its
registered
TAs. Every time the EPC needs to contact such a UE, a paging procedure is
initiated.
This action provides the EPC with knowledge of the whereabouts of the UE
(that is,
which cell it belongs to). Paging consists of:
paging on S1 [3GPP-36.413]
paging on Uu/RRC paging function [3GPP-36.331]
including scheduling of Paging messages in the time domain
EPS bearers
based on UE-specific and cell-specific DRX settings
The EPS provides IP connectivity between a UE and a PLMN-external PDN. This is
Paging
usedConnectivity
to indicateService.
SystemThe
Information
changes
to idle
UEs. the
referred is
to also
as a PDN
PDN Connectivity
Service
supports
transport of one or more Service Data Flows (SDFs). For a GTP-based S5/S8
reference point it is provided simply by an EPS bearer running between the UE and the
P-GW. Figure 75 LTE/EPC service data flows illustrates the LTE/EPC service data flow in
more detail.

The EPS bearers correspond to the PDP context in 2G/3G networks, being
composed
of the sub-bearers as illustrated in Figure 76 LTE/EPC EPS high level bearer
model.
The EPS bearer is used to transport user data between the UE and the PGW/S-GW.
A radio bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between the UE and
the
eNB. If a radio bearer exists, there is a one-to-one mapping between an EPS
bearer
and
this radio
bearer.
An E-UTRAN
Radio
Access Bearer (E-RAB) refers to the concatenation of an S1

An S1 bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between the eNB and
bearer
the
and the corresponding radio bearer. When a data radio bearer exists, there is
Serving-Gateway
(S-GW).
a one-to-one

An S5/S8a
bearerthe
transports
thebearer
packets
of the
an EPS
between
the 76
mapping
between
data radio
and
EPS bearer
bearer/E-RAB.
Figure
Serving
LTE/EPC GW
EPS high level bearer model shows the EPS bearer services layered
and
the PDN Gateway (P-GW).
architecture.

Figure 76 LTE/EPC
EPS high level
bearer model

When the UE is active, all sub-bearers exist for the UE, but when it moves to
idle state,
S1 and radio bearers are released. However, EPS bearer and associated
contexts in
UE and EPS remain even though the UE is in idle state.
default EPS bearer is set up when UE attaches to the EPS network.
There will be one
default EPS bearer setup per PDN. The default EPS bearer is a Non-GBR
bearer and
it is always-on, that is, it is not released until the UE detaches from the
PDN. The
default EPS bearer's Traffic Flow Template (TFT) matches all packets, that
is,
it can
be
Bearer
management
used for any kind of traffic.
Bearer management provides the basic procedures to establish the default EPS bearer
In addition to default the EPS bearer, dedicated EPS bearers can be set
that provides an always-on service to the user. Bearer management is part of the LTE
up
forplane
the UE.
control
and handles the establishment, modification, and release of bearers.
The
dedicated
EPS includes:
bearer can be either a GBR or a Non-GBR bearer and they
Bearer management
are
set
establishment
and release of S1 bearers on the S1 interface
up
on network control,
for example
forofVoIP
establishment,
modification,
and release
datacalls.
radio bearers on the air interface
translation of S1AP QoS parameters to configuration parameters of the U-Plane in
eNB and UE, taking into account the UE capabilities and the QoS requirements of
already established EPS bearers of the UE
radio layer 2 configuration of SRB1 and SRB2

Bearer management supports:


establishment of one non-GBR EPS bearer upon Attach and upon UE or EPC
initiated Service Request
preparation of one non-GBR EPS bearer and SRBs during handover
provisioning of UE radio capabilities for radio bearer configuration
activation of AS security (all security algorithms)
service differentiation for non-GBR EPS bearers
establishment and release for multiple default and dedicated EPS bearers
support of the conversational voice EPS bearer that is mapped to a GBR
with RLCUM
control of robust header compression (ROHC)
rate capping - support of the UE AMBR by the S1AP Initial UE Context Setup
procedure
Transport and transmission
This chapter provides information about the following transport and
transmission issues:
LTE transport overview
Transport interface options
Transport switching in eNB
IP transport addressing
Traffic engineering
Synchronization
Transport admission control

LTE transport overview


The logical interfaces share the physical transport interface(s) at the eNB.
Typically, several instances of the X2 interface are present, one per adjacent
eNB. The eNB supports multiple S1-MME and multiple S1-U interfaces.
The relevant logical interfaces are:
X2-U, eNB to eNB for user plane traffic (GTP-U tunneling)
X2-C, eNB to eNB for control plane traffic (X2AP protocol)
S1-U, eNB to S-GW for user plane traffic (GTP-U tunneling)
S1-MME, eNB to MME for control plane traffic (S1AP protocol)
O&M i/f, eNB to O&M system for O&M data
Figure 77 Architecture of LTE transport below shows the SAE/LTE network
architecture
and the logical interfaces established in the transport layer.

All protocol stacks for User (U), Control (C), Synchronization (S), and
Management (M)
planes are based on IPv4. From a mobile backhaul perspective, the Flexi
Multiradio BTS LTE acts as an IP host. User IP packets are tunnelled between
BTS (eNB) and S-GW using GTP-U.
Figure 78 Transport Protocol Stack Overview gives an overview on the eNB
protocol
stacks used on the S1, X2 and O&M interfaces. Layer 3 is always based on
the IP protocol. Only Ethernet interfaces are supported, including electrical
and optical layer 1
variants.

IP based protocol stacks enable lower transport cost and easier planning and
configuration.
On the other hand, RAN traffic becomes more vulnerable to hacker attacks,
so
security features are mandatory. Consequently, the Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE
supports
IPSec authentication and encryption for all traffic in M-, C-, S- and U-

The eNB must support at least one peer IP address per MME. With the SCTP
Multihoming
feature, the eNB supports two separate C-plane IP addresses of the MME.
The eNB support multiple S1-MME interfaces towards up to 16 MME nodes (S1
Flex
Synchronization
feature).
As per 3GPP requirement, the air interface at an eNB (in FDD or TDD mode)
needs to
be frequency synchronized with an accuracy of 50 ppb.In FDD mode, the Flexi
Multiradio
BTS LTE offers the configuration of several clock reference sources and a
priority
order among them.
Synchronisation source selection runs in two ways:
With input at the system control module. The eNB system control module
(FCM)
supports two external synchronization sources:
Global Positioning System (GPS)/Pulse Per Second (PPS) external reference
clock
2.048 MHz external reference clock; this signal is provided for the SYNC
input
at the eNB system control module, it has accuracy according to [ITU-TG.812]
With input at the transport subsystem. The eNB supports selection of two
synchronization

Operability
This chapter provides information about the
following operability issues:
Operability architecture
NetAct framework
BTS Site Manager
Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE management
functions
Flexi Multiradio BTS supplementary OAM
features
Flexi Multiradio BTS diagnosis
Self Organizing Network support

Operability architecture
The LTE/EPC network management system based on the NetAct OSS
framework has
been designed for scalability, supporting different network sizes. From a
users point of
view, managing the Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPC network is very similar
to that of
WCDMA when NetAct is in use. For an overview see Figure 86 LTE/EPC
Operation and
maintenance concept.

Flat operability architecture


In a legacy 2G and 3G network, relevant parts of the BTS operation and
maintenance
task are located in the BSC or the RNC. With the new LTE/EPC control plane
and user
plane architecture, the OAM task needs to be split and allocated between
eNB and the element- and network management layer. Nokia Siemens
Networks decided to go for a
flat integrated NetAct solution for the eNB element management instead of a
remaining
stand-alone solution.
As the NetAct frame is a multi-vendor management system by nature, it
provides various
mediation interfaces towards nodes to be managed. For the Flexi Multiradio
BTS, this is
done by the integrated Operation Mediation System (iOMS) as an integral
part of
NetAct.
With the integrated Operation & Mediation Function, NetAct can:
handle thousands of eNB-IP relationships
perform highly efficient parallel file transfer handling for:
PM counter upload,
(Bulk) file download (for example, SW distribution)

NetAct framework
NetAct provides advanced applications and services for multi technology and
multi
vendor network and service management; for example monitoring,
reporting, configuring
and optimizing. NetAct provides seamless management not only of LTE
access networks,
but also of different network technologies with integrated and inter working
tools,
which enables the operator to control costs while redeploying competencies
Examples
of functionality provided by NetAct for LTE:
and
graphic topology presentation
resources from 2G to 3G, HSPA, I-HSPA and LTE. Textual and graphical
basic administration, time management and access to local node/element
presentation
managers
of
measurement
data
reporting can be based on default Nokia Siemens
centralized
software
management
Networks
collection and storage of alarm and measurement data

alarm filtering
and reclassification,
modifiable
alarm manual
formats
or a format
customized by
the operator.
performance management tools and administration of measurements
network configuration visualization
the current radio network configuration as well as the planned configuration of the
radio network can be viewed, searched and modified
exporting the actual configuration to an external tool and importing plans from
external tools
plan provisioning, plan and template management, operations scheduling
uploading radio network configuration from eNB and core network into NetAct
database

possibility to compare actual plans - for reviewing changes what is


expected when
the plan is provisioned to the network or for verifying that planned changes
were
implemented correctly in the network
site configuration tool - for providing an easy-to-access storage for eNB site
configuration
files and other commissioning data. The application supports network rollout
by enabling effective commissioning of eNB.
graphical user interface:
All O&M services are managed by using a graphical user interface (GUI),
either via
local access or from a remote location. The NetAct comprises the
functionality to
launch a BTS Site Manager. GUIs are provided by:
the NetAct OSS framework
the BTS Site Manager (BTSSM) for BTS element manager (BTSEM) and the
transport manager (TRSEM)
as the NetAct frame is a multi vendor management system it provides
various mediation
interfaces on the south side towards nodes to be managed

BTS Site Manager


The BTS Site Manager (BTSSM) is the Element Manager for a single Flexi
Multiradio
BTS LTE, featuring a single SW application that is used for managing one or
more
network elements in the BTS site. As illustrated in Figure 87 Functional
overview of the
BTS Site Manager, the application integrates Transmission and BTS
Management into
one site-level management tool.

The BTSSM SW application hosts two management applications:


The eNB element manager (BTSEM) including antenna line and antenna
equipment
monitoring and remote electrical tilt management

IPsec support
Secure eNB control and bulk data communication between the Flexi
Multiradio BTS LTE
and other eNBs and Core Nodes is enabled by using IPsec to secure transport
and
application protocols. With IPsec, there is also support for separation between
different
types of traffic, like control plane traffic and user plane traffic from
management traffic,
by dedicated transport tunnels. The security of Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE
control, user,
synchronization and management plane interfaces is increased by providing
encryption,
integrity protection and communication peer authentication with IPsec
according RFC
4301. It is possible to enable/disable IPSec per connection, for example, per
neighbor
eNB, or per core security gateway, and to configure each connection
independently in
terms of security settings for each remote IPsec peer.
The supported IPsec capabilities follow 3GPP's recommendation TS 33.210 for
interworking
purposes and further appliance rules given by TS 33.401 and TR 33.821.
Since
IPSec standards include high numbers of selectable security parameters and

Migration to LTE VoIP


LTE/EPC is an entirely IP-based network, supporting normal voice calls using VoIP.
However, LTE VoIP introduction will take place gradually, and not in parallel with initial
LTE introduction for data connectivity. On the contrary, in most cases a smooth migration
from CS voice to LTE voice is assumed. This section describes CS-PS domain interworking
steps that can be identified in the migration path to LTE voice. Depending on the operator strategy
for voice and LTE rollout and its spectrum assets, some steps may be dropped. It is also possible
that some steps may co-exist in parallel.
The following migration steps are considered.
1. LTE used for high speed packet data access, CS voice over 2G/3G
2. Fallback to CS voice
3. Single radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)
4. LTE used for high speed packet data access only, VoIP over LTE
5. Emergency Call Handling

1. LTE used for high speed packet data access, CS voice over 2G/3G
At this phase the operator voice service is solely provided over CS network (see Figure 101 LTE/EPC
architecture with PS & CS domains completely separated). LTE access is used for data connectivity
only and there will be different terminals for voice (handsets) and data (data cards, etc). No voice
specific features need to be supported by the EPS system.

2. Fallback to CS voice
At this phase the LTE network is still used for data only (see Figure 102 LTE/EPC
architecture CS fallback). However, LTE capable Multiradio handsets emerge and these
handsets can be simultaneously registered to both LTE and 2G/3G CS network. When
voice calls are initiated or received, the handset is directed by the network to the CS
network to complete both mobile terminated and mobile originated voice calls. The
functionality to fallback from LTE to CS domain is referred to as CS Fallback (CSFB).
The CS Fallback procedure requires that eNB, MME and MSC network elements are
upgraded to support the procedure. The eNB decides which type of CS Fallback will be
used.

3. Single radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)


At this phase, the operator provides VoIP over LTE access and IMS is used as
enabling
SIP session control machinery for VoIP traffic (see Figure 104
LTE/EPC SRVCC architecture
for 3GPP accesses). However, as shown in Figure 103 Single radio voice call
continuity (SRVCC) principle, it is assumed that LTE coverage is not yet
complete and
thus interworking with underlaying legacy access technology is required.
From the voice
traffic perspective this implies handing over LTE VoIP call to CS voice call
provided by
the legacy access technology.o The handover functionality from VoIP to CS
domain is
referred to as Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC).

4. LTE used for high speed packet data access only, VoIP over LTE
Similar to step 3, at this phase the operator provides VoIP-over-LTE access
and IMS is
used as enabling SIP session control machinery for VoIP traffic (see Figure
106 LTE/EPC architecture with all-IP network deploying LTE). However, the
difference
compared to step 3 is that LTE coverage is complete and thus no interworking
with
underlying legacy CS access technologies is required. Furthermore, IMS is
used as a
generic SIP session control machinery for all services, thus removing the
need for a CS
service infrastructure. At this time the need for CSFB and SRVCC solutions
have disappeared.

5. Emergency Call Handling


At this phase the Emergency Call Handling functionality is introduced to
provide regulatory
requirements in initial phase of LTE implementation. To grant proper handling
of
emergency call UE will be redirected from LTE to another CS capable RAT
(WCDMA or
GSM). This action is triggered by MME sending CS Fallback High Priority
indication to
eNB. As a consequence UE will be redirected to another RAT.
Additionally the IMS Emergency Sessions functionality is used to provide
support for
IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) emergency sessions for UEs Release 9. Such
functionality
uses an Access Point Name (APN) which is dedicated for emergency and
comprises
typically one bearer for SIP signaling and one bearer for VoIP to provide a
voice
connection between user and an emergency center.
An IMS emergency session is established and kept with preference compared
to normal
sessions. The Flexi Multiradio BTS admits all IMS emergency sessions, that is
radio
bearers, RRC connections and EPS bearers until operator configurable
thresholds are

Thank You