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Dynamics

of
Rigid Bodies

DYNAMICS
PARTICLES

RIGID
BODIES

KINEMATICS

ABSOLUTE
MOTION

RELATIVE
MOTION

KINETICS

F-M-A

W-E

I-M

Terms:

Dynamics a branch of mechanics


which deals with the study of bodies in
motion
-Particle a mass point; it possesses a

mass but has no size


-Rigid bodies are bodies where its

distance between any two material


points of the body remains constant, that
is, the body does not deform

Terms:
-Kinematics the study of the

geometry of motion; causes of motion

-Kinetics deals with the relationship

between the forces acting on the body


and the resulting motion

Terms:
Absolute motion used when the
motion is described with respect to a
fixed reference frame
-Relative motion describes the

motion with respect to a moving


coordinate system

Terms:
FMA method force, mass,
acceleration; a straightforward
application of the Newton-Euler laws of
motion, which relate the forces acting on
the body to its mass and acceleration
-WE & IM methods work-energy and

impulse-momentum methods are


integral forms of Newton-Euler laws of
motion

Motion of a Particle
SB

B
S

SA
SB

SA

O
O

Newtons Laws of Motion of a


Particle
-1. A particle acted upon by a balanced

force system has no acceleration.


-2. A particle acted upon by an unbalanced
force system has an acceleration in line
with and directly proportional to the
resultant of the force system
-3. For every action, there is an equal and
opposite reaction; that is, the forces of
interaction between two particles are equal
in magnitude but opposite in direction

Fundamental Equation of Kinetics


for a Particle
P2
P1
W

P2
P1

Sample Problems
O Problem 1. The position of a particle that

moves along the x axis is defined by


x = -3t + 12t 6 m,
where t is in seconds. For the time interval
t=0 to t=3s,
(1) plot the position, velocity, and acceleration
as functions of time;
(2) calculate the distance traveled; and
(3) determine the displacement of the
particle.

Sample Problems
O Problem 2. The coordinates of a particle

undergoing the plane motion are


x = 15 - 2t m; y = 15 -10t + t m
Where t is the time in seconds. Find the
velocity and acceleration vectors at
(a) t=0s and (b) t=5s.

Rectilinear Translation

Rectilinear Translation
O Rectilinear Translation with Constant Acceleration

Rectilinear Translation
3 kinematic equations of motion with
constant acceleration
1.
2.
3.

s = vt + at
v = v + at
v = v + 2as

Rectilinear Translation
Freely Falling Bodies; Air Resistance Neglected
-kinematic equation:
s = vt + at

Rectilinear Translation
Freely Falling Bodies; Air Resistance Neglected
-Problem. As shown in the figure, a stone is thrown
vertically into the air from a tower 100 ft high at the same
instant that a second stone is thrown upward from the
ground. The initial velocity of the first stone is 50 ft/sec
and that of the second is 75 ft/sec. When and where will
the stones be at the same height from the ground?

Rectilinear Translation
O Rectilinear Translation with Variable Acceleration

CASE I. s = f(t) to find v and a


v = ds/dt

a = dv/dt

Rectilinear Translation
O Rectilinear Translation with Variable Acceleration

CASE II. a = f(t) to find v and s


dv = adt

ds = vdt

Rectilinear Translation
O Rectilinear Translation with Variable Acceleration

CASE III. v = f(t) to find a and s


a = dv/dt

ds = vdt

Rectilinear Translation
O Rectilinear Translation with Variable Acceleration

CASE IV. a = f(v) or v = f(s)


- indirect functions of time
a = dv/dt = f(v)

v = ds/dt

Rectilinear Translation
O Rectilinear Translation with Variable Acceleration

CASE V. a = f(s)
- far relationships of functions
vdv = ads

Rectilinear Translation
O Sample Problems.

1.Determine the velocity and accleration of a body


after 3 sec, if the motion is defined by the relation
s = 5t + 4t ft.
2.Determine the velocity and displacement of a body
after 2sec, if the motion is defined by the relation
a=2t ft/sec and if it is known that s=4ft and v=2ft/sec
when t=1sec

1.
O Rectilinear Translation (Motion

Along a Straight Line)


O Motion with constant
velocity(uniform motion)s=vt
O - See more at:

1.
Motion with constant acceleration
O vf=vi+at
O s=vit+1/2at2
O Vf^2=vi^2+2as

1.
O Free-falling body
O v=gt
O h=1/2gt^2
O V^2=2gh

Note: From motion with constant


acceleration, set vi = 0, vf = v, s = h,
and a = g to get the free-fall formulas. See more at:

O Motion with variable acceleration


O a=dv/dt
O v=ds/dt
O vdv=ads

2.

O Where

s= distance
h= height
v= velocity
vi= initial velocity
vf= final velocity
a= acceleration
g= acceleration due to gravity (g = 9.81 m/s2in SI = 32.2
ft/s2in English)
t= time

O Note:
ais positive (+) ifvis increasing (accelerate).
ais negative (-) ifvis decreasing (decelerate).
gis positive (+) if the particle is moving downward.
gis negative (-)if the particle is moving upward.

2.

Problem 1002

On a certain stretch of track, trains


run at 60 mph (96.56 kph). How far
back of a stopped train should be a
warning torpedo be placed to signal
an oncoming train? Assume that the
brakes are applied at once and
retard the train at the uniform rate of
2 ft/sec2(0.61 m/s2). - See more at:

2.

O English SystemInitial velocity

vi=60mph=60(2215)vi=88ft/sec

O Vf^2=vi^2+2as
O 0^2=88^22(2)s
O s=1936ft answer
O
O SI units
O Initial velocity
vi=96.56kph=96.56(13.6)vi=26.82m/sec

O Vf^2=vi^2+2as
O 0^2=26.82^22(0.61)s
O s=589.7m answer

2.

Problem 1003
A stone is thrown vertically upward
and return to earth in 10 sec. What
was its initial velocity and how high
did it go?

3.

O Return

in 10 seconds = 5 seconds upward + 5 seconds downward


SI Units

O Going

upward (velocity at the highest point is zero):


vf=vigt
O 0=vi9.81(5)
O vi=49.05m/sec answer

O Going downward (initial velocity is zero; free-fall):


h=1/2gt^2
O h=1/2(9.81)(5^2)
O h=122.625m answer
O
O English System
O Going upward (velocity at the highest point is zero):
vf=vigt0=vi32.2(5)
O vi=161ft/sec answer

O Going downward (initial velocity is zero; free-fall):


h=12gt2
O h=12(32.2)(52)
O h=402.5ft answer

Next meeting
O Problem 1004

A ball is dropped from the top of a


tower 80 ft (24.38 m) high at the
same instant that a second ball is
thrown upward from the ground with
an initial velocity of 40 ft/sec (12.19
m/s). When and where do they pass,
and with what relative velocity? - See
more at:

Curvilinear Translation
O Velocity in Curvilinear Motion

vector sum:
s=x+y
v=vx+vy
a=ax+ay

Curvilinear Translation
O Proof that velocity is tangent to the curve path

s=x+y
s=x+y
lim
t
0
t t t
ds/dt = dx/dt + dy/dt
v=vx+vy

Curvilinear Translation
O Proof that velocity is tangent to the curve path

v= vx+vy
x = vy / vx
tan = dy/dt = dy/dx
dx/dt
x

Curvilinear Translation
O Rectangular Components of Acceleration

v=vx+vy
v=vx+vy
lim
t
0
t t t
dv/dt = dvx/dt + dvy/dt
a=ax+ay

Curvilinear Translation
O Proof that acceleration is not tangent to the

curve path

a= ax+ay
tan x = ay / ax
tan = dvy/dt
dvx/dt
x

Curvilinear Translation
O Proof that acceleration is not tangent to the

curve path

d(dy/dt)
tan = dvy/dt =
dt
dvx/dt
d(dx/dt)
dt
x

dy
dx

Curvilinear Translation
O Flight of Projectiles(Air Resistance Neglected)

x component of flight:
ax=0, vox=vocos
vx=vox+axt
O vx=vox=vocos
x=voxt + 1/2 axt
O x= voxt = vocos . t

Curvilinear Translation
O Flight of Projectiles(Air Resistance Neglected)

y component of flight:
ay = -g, voy=vosin
vy=voy+ayt
O vy=vosin-gt
y=voyt + ayt
O y= vo sin . t - gt

Curvilinear Translation
O Sample Problem 1. A projectile is fired from

the top of a cliff 300ft high with a velocity of


1414 ft/sec directed at 45 to the horizontal.
Find the range on a horizontal plane through
the base of the cliff.

Curvilinear Translation
O Sample Problem 2. A ball is thrown so that it

just clears a 10ft fence 60ft away. If it left the


hand 5ft above the ground and at an angle of
60 to the horizontal, what was the initial
velocity of the ball?

Curvilinear Translation
O Tangential and Normal Components of Acceleration

OC=VA
a= an+at magnitude
OE=VB tan = at / an inclination
CE=V at = dvt/dt velocity is
by components
V has a tangent and a normal

tangent to the path

v=vn+vt
then, it entails the magnitude of
lim v= vn+ vt
velocity and at=0 if the velocity is
t
0 t
t t
constant
dv/dt = dvn/dt + dvt/dt an = dvn/dt =v/r
a=an+at

Curvilinear Translation
O Kinetics of Curvilinear Translation.Dynamic Equilibrium

F=ma
R=W/g (a)
N=W/g (an) = W/g (v/r)
N=W/g (at)

Curvilinear Translation
O Banking of Highway Curves

tan

= (Wv/gr) = v/gr
W
tan(+ )=(Wv/gr)=v/gr

ideal angle of banking

friction force on a banked

curve

W
tan(- )= v/gr

point of slipping down

Curvilinear Translation
O Banking of Highway Curves

Sample Problem 1. The rated speed of a highway curve of


300ft radius is 40mph. If the coefficient of friction between
the tires and the road is 0.6, what is the maximum speed at
which a car can round the curve without skidding?

Work-Energy Method
O Is useful in computing the change in speed during a

displacement
O Involves a relation between force, displacement and
velocity
O WEM Equation:
F=ma
X=W/g (a) ; ads=vdv
Equating and eliminating a;
X = W/g (a)
vdv = ads
X ds = W/g (vdv)
X . s = W/g [ (v - v 0 )] = mv
Resultant Work
Kinetic Energy

Work-Energy Method
O The resultant work on a translating body is equal to the

corresponding change in kinetic energy


O Another definition of work is the product of the force in the
direction of the displacement multiplied by the
displacement
O Negative work means the displacement is opposite to the
direction of the force

Work-Energy Method
Application of Work Energy Method
W
v0
v1

v2

s1
Phase 1

s2
Phase 2

Phase 1:
X 1 . s 1
Phase 2:
X 2 . s 2

W/g v1 - W/g v 0

W/g v2 - W/g v 1

Work-Energy Method
Adding phases 1 and 2;

Phase 1:
X 1 . s 1
Phase 2:
X 2 . s 2

W/g v1 - W/g v 0

W/g v2 - W/g v 1

yields,
X 1 . s 1 + X 2 . s 2 = W/g v2 - W/g v 0

Work-Energy Method
Sample Problem 1. The 300 lb block rests upon a level plane
for which the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.20. Find the
velocity of the block after it moves 80 ft, starting from rest.
If the 100 lb force is then removed, how much farther will it
travel?

Work-Energy Method
Sample Problem 2. As shown in the figure, the 300 lb
counterweight B pulls the 200 lb block A up the 300degrees
incline; the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.20. If the
pulleys are considered frictionless and weightless,
determine the velocity of block A after it has moved 20 ft;
starting from rest. Also determine the tension in the chord
and the acceleration of block A.

h = 80 ft
vA= 0
vB= 40 ft/s
g = 32.2 ft/s2
From A to C (free-fall)
h1=12gt2
O h1=12(32.2)t2
O h1=16.1t2

O From B to C (upward motion)


From the formula s = vit + at2
h2=vBt12gt2
O h2=40t12(32.2)t2
O h2=40t16.1t2

O A to C plus B to C is equal to height of the tower


h1+h2=h
O 16.1t2+(40t16.1t2)=80
O 40t=80
O t=2sec

O h1=16.1(22)
O h1=64.4ft

O They pass each other after 2 seconds at 64.4 ft from the top of the tower. answer

O Velocity at C of stone from A (after 2 seconds)


vC1=gt=32.2(2)
O vC1=64.4ft/s

O Velocity at C of stone from B (after 2 seconds)


vC2=vBgt==4032.2(2)
O vC2=24.4ft/s the negative sign indicates that the stone is moving downward

O Relative velocity:
vr=vC1+vC2=64.424.4
O vr=40ft/sec answer
O