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Chapter 34

Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity

Four anatomical features that characterize the phylum Chordata

1.Embryosallhaveacommonskeletalstructurecalleda
notochord.Thenotochordisaflexiblerodlocatedbetween
thedigestivetubeandnervechord.

a.Providesskeletalsupport.
b.Inmostvertebrates,itsreplacedbyajointedskeleton.
c.Remainsofthenotochordexistasdisksbetweenthe
vertebrae.

2.Dorsal,hollownervecord

a.Developsintothebrainandspinalcordoftheadult.

3.Pharyngealslits

Waterentersthroughthemouthandpassesoutthroughthe
slitsinthepharynx,withoutgoingthroughthedigestive
system.
i.Slitsfunctionassuspension-feedingdevicesinmany
invertebratechordates
ii.Slitshavebeenmodifiedinmoreevolvedvertebrates
for:
-Gasexchange
-Hearing
-Jawsupport

4.Postanaltail
Providespropulsionforswimming

B.Invertebratechordatesprovidecluestotheoriginof
vertebrates

1.SubphylumUrochordata

Adultissessileandfeedsviapharyngealslits.

SubphylumUrochordata:atunicate

2.SubphylumCephalochordata

a.Adultformshowschordatefeatures.
b.Adultsfeedandswim.

Subphylum
Cephalochordata:
thelancelet
Branchiostoma

II.Introductiontothevertebrates
A.Neuralcrest,enhancedcephalization,vertebralcolumn,
andaclosedcirculatorysystemcharacterizethesubphylum
Vertebrata

1.Neuralcrest

a.Embryonicfeaturethatallowsformanyuniquevertebrate
characteristics,e.g.bonesandcartilageareformedfromthe
neuralcrestcellsthroughoutthebody.
b.Formsalongthedorsalsideoftheembryo.

Figure34.6(p.683)Theneuralcrest,embryonicsourceof
manyuniquevertebratecharacters.

2.Skeletalelements,suchasthecranium(braincase),allow
forthebigevolutionaryfeatureofvertebrates,cephalization.
ThisgivesusthetermCraniates

3.Vertebralcolumnisthemainsupportforthebodyaxis.It
allowsforlargesize,fastmovement,andprotectionofthe
nervecord.

4.Theclosedcirculatorysystempumpsoxygenatedbloodto
cellsandallowsrapidmetabolism,rapidmovementtosearch
forfood,escapepredators.

B.Overviewofvertebratediversity

Figure34.7(p.684)Phylogenyofthemajorgroupsof
extantvertebrates.

**Notethethreesupergroups:
Gnathostomes,
Tetrapods,
Amniotes**

III.Jawlessvertebrates
A.Thesearethemostprimitivevertebrates.

B.Groupsincludehagfish(noskeleton,no
notochordinadult);lamprey(earlyversionofavertebral
column).

Figure34.8(p.685)Ahagfish.

Figure34.9(p.685)Asealamprey.

Lamprey on trout

IV.Fishesandamphibians
A.Vertebratejawsevolvedfromskeletalsupportsof
pharyngealslits
1.Animalsthatreplacedjawlessvertebrates,andare
Gnathostomes.

2.Membersofgrouphavetwopairsoffins.

3.Jawsandfinsallowedfishtobecomeactiveinpursuitof
foodandinbitingoffchunksofflesh.
4.Jawsevolvedfrommodificationsofskeletalelementsof
anteriorpharyngealgillslits.

Hypothesisfortheevolutionofvertebratejaws

5.Fisheswereprevalentabout360to400millionyears
ago-theAgeofFishes

6.Twogroupsarealivetoday:

a.ClassChondricthyes:Sharksandrayshave
cartilaginousskeletons

Figure34.11(p.688)Cartilaginousfishes.

Osteichthyes: Extant classes of bony fishes

Lake trout

Whitefish

Sturgeon

Great Lakes
Walleye
Some of the natives

Rainbow trout/brown trout


Alewife

Smelt

Great Lakes
Some Exotics
Ruffe

Bluegill

Yellow perch

Great Lakes
Some successors
Largemouth bass

D.Tetrapodsevolvedfromspecializedfishesthatinhabited
shallowwater Figure34.15(p.690)Theoriginof
tetrapods.
1.Thefirsttetrapodstospendmuchtimeonlandwere
amphibians.

Figure34.17(p.691)Amphibianorders.
OrderUrodelaSalamanders,retaintailsasadults
OrderAnuraFrogs,lacktailsasadults
OrderApodaCaecilians,lacklegs

2.Therewereearliertetrapods.Thesewerespecialized
fishthat
occupiedshallowponds,
breathedairbygulping,and
developedlobedwalkingfinsformovingfromonepond
toanother.

3.Whygoondryland?Therewerenoothercompetitors
forplantsandinsectsthatserveasfood.


4.Amphibiansneedtoreturntowatertolayeggsandfor
developmentoflarvae.

Figure34.18(p.692)Theduallifeofafrog.

V.Amniotes(includesreptiles,mammals,andbirds)

A.Evolutionoftheamnioticeggexpandedthesuccessof
vertebratesonland

Figure34.19(p.693)Theamnioticegg.

1.Amnioticeggsallowedvertebratestoseverthelinkwith
waterandlivetheirwholelivesonland.

2.Specializedmembranes,calledextra-embryonic
membranesthatfunctioningasexchange,wastestorage,
andtransferofnutrients.
a.Membranesdevelopfromtissuesderivedfromthe
embryo.
b.Onemembrane,theamnion,givesthenameforthe
amnioticegg.

B.Reptilianheritageisevidentinallamniotes

1.Scalesofkeratin,waterproofskin-preventdehydration.
-Reptilescannotbreathethroughskin,soallgasexchange
occursvialungs.

2.Shelledamnioticeggsrequireinternalfertilization.Shell
formsaroundfertilizedegginthereproductivetract.

3.Reptilesdontusemetabolismtoregulatebodytemperature;
theyareectotherms.Ectothermsabsorbexternalheat(i.e.
sunlight)Reptilesareabletosurviveonabout10%of
caloriesrequiredbymammals.

4.OldestreptilesarefromthelateCarboniferous(about300
millionyearsago)dinosaursandpterosaurs.

5.Modernreptilesinclude6,500speciesthatareinfour
groups:

a.TestudinesTurtles
-Somespeciesreturnedtowater;alllayeggsonland.

b.SphenodontiaTuataras

c.SquamataLizards,snakes
-Lizardsarethemostnumerousgroup.
-Snakesaredescendantsoflizardsandhavevestigial
pelvicandlimbbones.

d.CrocodiliaCrocodiles,alligators
-Thisisthegroupmostcloselyrelatedtodinosaurs

Figure34.24(p.697)Extantreptiles.

C.Birdsbeganasfeatheredreptiles,evolvedtofly:

1.Honeycombedskeletonsarelightandstronggoodfor
flight. Figure34.25(p.698)Formfitsfunction:theavianwing
andfeather.
2.Toothlessforweightreduction.

3.Endothermic=usemetabolicenergytogenerateheat.
-Feathersprovideinsulation.
-Efficientcirculatorysystemsupportshighrateofmetabolism
necessaryforflying.

4.AcutevisionLargebrainsthatallowcomplexbehavior.

5.Wings -Flightenhancedtheabilitytohuntandscavenge,
escapepredators,andmovewithchangingseasons.

6.Theropodsweretheclosestdinosaurrelativeofbirds.
Example:Velociraptor Archeopteryxisanexampleofa
Mesozoicbirdthatshowsreptilianfeatures.

Figure34.27(p.699)Archaeopteryx,aJurassicbird-reptile.

7.Modernbirdsincludeabout8,600species.
Someareflightless=ratites.

Figure34.29(p.701)Asmallsampleofbirds.

D.Mammalsdiversifiedextensivelyinthewakeofthe
Cretaceousextinctions

1.Radiationofmammalsoccurredduringtwoevents:
a.Extinctionofdinosaurs
b.Fragmentationofcontinents

2.Thereareabout4,500speciesofextantmammals

3.Featuresofmammals:

a.DefinedbyLinnaeusashavingmammaryglands,which
producemilkrichinfats,sugars,proteins,minerals,and
vitamins.
b.Hairandsubcutaneousfathelpretainmetabolicheat.
c.Mostembryosdevelopinauterus.Inplacentalmammals,
theliningoftheuterusandextraembryonicmembranesform
theplacenta.
d.Largebrainsandlongperiodofparentalcare.Abilityto
learn.
e.Differentiationofteethforefficienteating.

4.Theearliestmammalsevolvedfromreptilesabout220
millionyearsago.Therapsidsgaverisetomammals.Early
exampleistheMorganucodoninpreviousfigure.

5.Majorgroupsofmammals:

a.Monotremeslayeggsandproducemilk,buthaveno
nipples.
-Platypus,echidna
b.Marsupialsbornearlyinembryonicdevelopment;climbto
motherspouchandattachtoanipple.
-Opossum,kangaroo
Figure34.31(p.703)Australianmonotremesandmarsupials.


c.Eutherianslongpregnancywithembryonicattachmentto
motherinuterusviaplacenta.
-Human,Wolf
Figure34.32(p.704)Evolutionaryconvergenceofmarsupial
andeutherian(placental)mammals.

Table34.1(p.705)MajorOrdersofMammals

VI.PrimatesandtheevolutionofHomosapiens

A.Primateevolutionprovidescontextforunderstanding
humanorigins

1.Handsandfeetadaptedforgrasping.Possessopposable
thumb.

2.Largebrainsallowcomplexsocialbehavior.
Figure34.35(p.708)Aphylogenetictreeofprimates.

B.Hominidlineagedivergedfromotherprimatesabout7
millionyearsago. Humanscomparedtootherhominids:

a.Brainsizelargesizeallowsdevelopmentoflanguageand
socialbehavior.

b.Jawshapeshortenedtogiveaflatterface.

c.Bipedalism=walkingontwolegs.
-Freeshandstodootherthings.
-Eyessethigher;canseefarther.

d.Femalessmallerthanmales

e.Extendedparentalcarechangesfamilystructureand
enhanceslearningandsocialbehavior.