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Physical Science

Teaching Notes
Leigh Crosson

Big Ideas in
Physical Science

Properties of Matter
Changes in Matter
Forms of Energy
Energy Transfers
Force and Motion

Properties of
All objects and substances in the world are made
of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties:
matter takes up space and matter has mass.
Objects and substances can be classified by their
physical and chemical properties.
Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an
object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure
of force of attraction (gravitational force) between
an object and Earth.

Changes in Matter
Matter can undergo a variety of
Matter can be changed
physically or chemically.

Forms of Energy
A. Energy is involved in all
physical processes and is a
unifying concept in many areas
of science.
B. Energy exists in many forms
and has the ability to do work
or cause a change.

Energy Transfer
A. Waves involve a transfer of
energy without a transfer of matter.
B. Water and sound waves transfer
energy through a material.
C. Light waves can travel through a
vacuum and through matter.

Motion of Objects
A. Motion is a key characteristic
of all matter that can be
observed, described, and
B. The motion of objects can be
changed by forces.

Forces and
Changes in Motion
A. It takes energy to change the
motion of objects.
B. Energy change is understood in
terms of forces--pushes or pulls.
Some forces act through physical
contact, while others act at a

Investigations vs.
An investigation is a procedure
that is carried out to gather
data about an object or event.
An experiment is a procedure
you carry out under controlled
conditions to test a hypothesis.

Scientific Experiment

Session 2 - Matter
Matter - takes up space and has
Measuring Matter
States of Matter
Changes in Matter

Measuring Matter
Mass - the amount of matter in
an object (balance)
Volume - amount of space an
object takes up
Density - measure of mass per
unit of volume (M/V)

Changes in Matter
Physical Changes - usually a
change of shape, size, or state.
No new matter, no new
Chemical Changes - New
properties, often a change in color
or temperature. Often produces a
new gas or solid.

Session 3 - Energy
Energy - The ability to cause a
Forms of Energy
Transformation and Changes
Energy, Force, and Motion

Forms of Energy
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy Stored Energy

Chemical Energy
Elastic Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential

Chemical Energy

The nutrients in the banana are

chemicals which are stored
In the food.

The chemicals in the battery that powers

the clock are an example of stored energy

Elastic Potential

The arrow has potential energy

due to the elastic nature of the bow.

Potential Energy

The coaster car has potential

energy due to its height above the ground.

Kinetic Energy The Energy of

Electrical Energy
Light Energy
Heat Energy
Sound Energy
Motion Energy

Transfer of Energy
Energy cannot be created nor
Energy can change from one
form to another.
The source of all energy on
earth is the sun.

Examples of
Energy Transfers
Electrical to sound and light
Electrical to heat
Elecrical to mechanical
Solar to electrical

Session 4 Forces
and Motion

Balanced and Unbalanced


Newtons Laws of Motion

Force - a push or a pull
Balanced vs. Unbalanced forces
Ever present forces - gravity,
friction, magnetism
Applied forces

Balanced Forces - The forces are

equal and opposite in direction.
There is no motion.

Unbalanced Forces - Causes Motion

Motion - The result

of Unbalanced
Newtons 1st Law - Law of

Newtons 2nd Law - Law of

Newtons 3rd Law - Law of
Action / Reaction

Newtons Second Law of Motion

An object with more mass will

require more force to begin its
motion and/or to stop the motion.

Newtons Third Law of Motion

every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

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