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Physical Science

Teaching Notes
Leigh Crosson
2011

Big Ideas in
Physical Science

Overview
Properties of Matter
Changes in Matter
Forms of Energy
Energy Transfers
Force and Motion

Properties of
Matter
All objects and substances in the world are made
of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties:
matter takes up space and matter has mass.
Objects and substances can be classified by their
physical and chemical properties.
Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an
object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure
of force of attraction (gravitational force) between
an object and Earth.

Changes in Matter
Matter can undergo a variety of
changes.
Matter can be changed
physically or chemically.

Forms of Energy
A. Energy is involved in all
physical processes and is a
unifying concept in many areas
of science.
B. Energy exists in many forms
and has the ability to do work
or cause a change.

Energy Transfer
and
Transformations
A. Waves involve a transfer of
energy without a transfer of matter.
B. Water and sound waves transfer
energy through a material.
C. Light waves can travel through a
vacuum and through matter.

Motion of Objects
A. Motion is a key characteristic
of all matter that can be
observed, described, and
measured.
B. The motion of objects can be
changed by forces.

Forces and
Changes in Motion
A. It takes energy to change the
motion of objects.
B. Energy change is understood in
terms of forces--pushes or pulls.
Some forces act through physical
contact, while others act at a
distance.

Investigations vs.
Experiments
An investigation is a procedure
that is carried out to gather
data about an object or event.
An experiment is a procedure
you carry out under controlled
conditions to test a hypothesis.

Scientific Experiment

Session 2 - Matter
Matter - takes up space and has
mass
Measuring Matter
States of Matter
Changes in Matter

Measuring Matter
Mass - the amount of matter in
an object (balance)
Volume - amount of space an
object takes up
Density - measure of mass per
unit of volume (M/V)

Changes in Matter
Physical Changes - usually a
change of shape, size, or state.
No new matter, no new
properties.
Chemical Changes - New
properties, often a change in color
or temperature. Often produces a
new gas or solid.

Session 3 - Energy
Energy - The ability to cause a
change
Forms of Energy
Transformation and Changes
Energy, Force, and Motion

Forms of Energy
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy Stored Energy


Chemical Energy
Elastic Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential
Energy

Chemical Energy

The nutrients in the banana are


chemicals which are stored
In the food.

The chemicals in the battery that powers


the clock are an example of stored energy

Elastic Potential
Energy

The arrow has potential energy


due to the elastic nature of the bow.

Gravitational
Potential Energy

The coaster car has potential


energy due to its height above the ground.

Kinetic Energy The Energy of


Motion
Electrical Energy
Light Energy
Heat Energy
Sound Energy
Motion Energy

Transfer of Energy
Energy cannot be created nor
destroyed.
Energy can change from one
form to another.
The source of all energy on
earth is the sun.

Examples of
Energy Transfers
Electrical to sound and light
Electrical to heat
Elecrical to mechanical
Solar to electrical

Session 4 Forces
and Motion

Balanced and Unbalanced


Forces

Newtons Laws of Motion

Forces
Force - a push or a pull
Balanced vs. Unbalanced forces
Ever present forces - gravity,
friction, magnetism
Applied forces

Balanced Forces - The forces are


equal and opposite in direction.
There is no motion.

Unbalanced Forces - Causes Motion

Motion - The result


of Unbalanced
Forces
Newtons 1st Law - Law of
Inertia

Newtons 2nd Law - Law of


Momentum
Newtons 3rd Law - Law of
Action / Reaction

Newtons Second Law of Motion

An object with more mass will


require more force to begin its
motion and/or to stop the motion.

Newtons Third Law of Motion

every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Resources
The Handy Science Answer
Book
Physics for Children
The Science Yellow Pages for
Students and Teachers
Clipart.com