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job is the probable cost of that job as

computed from plans and specifications.

proposed work after completion should not

differ by more then 5 to 10 % from its

approximate cost estimate, provided there

are no unusual, unforeseen circumstances.

ESTIMATION

Estimation is the scientific way of

working out the approximate cost of

an engineering project before

execution of the work.

exact cost after completion of the project.

Estimation requires a thorough Knowledge

of the construction procedures and cost of

materials & labour in addition to the skill ,

experience, foresight and good judgment.

TYPES OF ESTIMATES

2 = Detailed estimate.

Depending upon the purpose of estimate,

follows:a) Contractor's estimate

b) Engineer's estimate

c) Progress estimate

plans or architectural drawings of the project

scheme, when even detailed or structural

design has not been carried out, is called

Rough cost estimate.

Administrative Approval from the concerning

Authorities.

estimates, a proposal may be dropped

altogether.

Unit cost is worked out for projects

carried out recently in nearly the same site

conditions.

To find rough cost of any project, this worked

of the present work in the same units.

is then multiplied by the cost per unit area (Rs.

/ft2) of similar building actually constructed in

the near past in nearly the same site conditions,

to find out the rough cost estimate of the

building.

wages.

The rough cost estimate may be prepared on the

the most commonly adopted criterion for preparing

rough cost estimate for most of the residential

buildings.

2. For public buildings, cost. Per person (cost per

capita) is used. For example,

Students hostel-cost per student

HospitalsCost per bed

HotelCost per Guest

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

commercial offices, shopping centers, and

factory buildings, etc.

For water tank/reservoir, cost may be worked out

on the basis of capacity in gallons of water stored.

For roads and railways, cost may be found out

per mile/kilometer of length.

For streets, cost may be per hundred feet/meters

of length.

In case of bridges, cost per foot/meter of clear

span may be calculated.

DETAILED ESTIMATE

Detailed estimates are prepared by carefully

various items of the work that constitute the

whole project from the detailed working

drawings after the design has been finalized.

DETAILED ESTIMATE

The whole project is sub-divided into different

items of work or activities. The quantity for each

item is then calculated separately from the

drawings as accurately as possible. The procedure

is known as "taking out of quantities".

The quantities for each item may be estimated and

shown in the pattern which is called "Bill of

quantities."

The unit, in which each item of the wok is to be

calculated, should be according to the prevailing

practice as followed in various departments of the

country.

DETAILED ESTIMATE

estimated current rate calculated by a fixed procedure

to find out cost of the item.

At the end, a total of all items of the work are made to

get the total estimated cost.

The rates are usually as per Schedule of Rates for the

locality plus a premium to allow for rise in labor and

material rates over and above the schedule of rates.

A percentage, usually 5% is also provided on the total

estimated cost for the work to allow for the possible

contingencies due to unforeseen items or expenditure

or other causes, besides 2% establishment charges.

DETAILED ESTIMATE

1.

calculation of quantities (Bill of Quantities), the following

documents are also usually submitted with the detailed

estimate for obtaining Technical Sanction:

A report explaining History, necessity, scope and main

features of the project, its design, and estimate, etc.

2.

and material to be used in various parts of the work.

3.

the total quantities under each sub-head, rate per unit of

measurement, and cost.

4.

parts of the structure. In fact, in estimating the art and

skill lies only in the computation of details without any

omissions, of all parts of the building or work.

1- CONTRACTOR ESTIMATE

It is made by the contractor for determining

the price or prices to be bid.

It is usually a carefully prepared detailed

estimate.

2- ENGINEERS ESTIMATE

This type of estimate is made by the Engineer

(Consultant) usually for the purposes of

financing the work and for checking bids and

running bills submitted by contractors.

3- PROGRESS ESTIMATES

These are made by the Engineer at

of the project during the progress of the

work for determining the amounts of

partial payments to be made to the

contractor.

are frequently called monthly estimates.

While preparing a detailed estimate, one had to

be very careful to see that all items of the work

are incorporated.

It is likely that a few Items, though

unimportant in nature, might have been

overlooked and which may result in raising the

estimate of the project.

There may be also certain unforeseen

circumstances affecting the project.

Hence, a certain allowance usually 5 to 10% of

the total cost, is made in the estimation which

will take care of all these items that are

unforeseen or are overlooked and are known as

"Contingencies".

The dimensions, length, breadth and height or depth

elevation and section).

concrete, brickwork in foundation and plinth, and

brickwork in superstructure may be estimated by either

of the two methods:

(1) SEPARATE OR INDIVIDUAL WALL METHOD

(2) CENTER LINE METHOD

The walls running in one direction are termed as

transverse direction, as "Short waLls", without

keeping in mind which wall is lesser in length

and which wall is greater in length.

Lengths of long walls are measured or found

"Out-to out" and those of short walls as "Into-in".

Different quantities are calculated by multiplying

the length by the breadth and the height of the

wall.

The same rule applies to the excavation in

foundation, to concrete bed in foundation,

D.P.C., masonry in foundation and super

structure etc.

center line remains same for super structure,

foundation and plinth. So, the simple method is

to find out the centre-to-centre lengths of long

walls and short walls from the plan.

Long wall length out-to-out

= Center to center length + half breadth on

one Side + half breadth on other side.

= Center to center length + one breadth

length - one breadth.

This method can also be worked out in a quicker way., as follows:

First of all, find the length of the foundation trench of the long

wall out-to-out in the same manner as explained above.

The length of the foundation concrete is the same.

For the length of the first footing or first step of the brick wall,

subtract two offsets (2x6"=12") in foundation concrete from the

length of the trench or concrete.

For the second footing subtract from the length of the 1st footing

two offsets (2x2.25"= 4.5"), for 3rd footing subtract from the

length of the 2nd footing 2 offsets (4.5") and in this way deal

with the long walls up to the super-structure.

Follow he same method but instead of subtracting add two offsets

to get the corresponding lengths in-to-in.

In this method, total length of centre lines of walls,

long and short, has to be found out.

Find the total length of centre lines of walls of same

type, having same type of foundations and footings and

then find the quantities by multiplying the total centre

length by the respective breadth and the height.

In this method, the length will remain the same for

excavation in foundations, for concrete in foundations,

for all footings, and for superstructure (with slight

difference when there are cross walls or number of

junctions).

This method is quicker but requires special attention

and considerations at the junctions, meeting points of

partition or cross walls.

For rectangular, circular polygonal (hexagonal,

octagonal etc) buildings having no inter or cross

walls, this method is quite simple.

For buildings having cross or partition walls, for

every junction, half breadth of the respective item

or footing is to be deducted from the total centre

length.

Thus in the case of a building with one partition

wall or cross wall having two junctions, deduct

one breadth of the respective item of work from

the total centre length.

For buildings having different types of walls, each set of

walls shall have to be dealt separately.

Find the total centre length of all walls of one type and

proceed in the same manner as described above. Similarly

find the total centre length of walls of second type and deal

this separately, and so on.

Suppose the outer walls (main walls) are of A type and

inner cross walls are of B type.

Then all A type walls shall be taken jointly first, and then all

B type walls shall be taken together separately.

In such cases, no deduction of any kind need be made for A

type walls, but when B type walls are taken, for each

junction deduction of half breadth of A type walls (main

Walls) shall have to be made from the total centre length of

B type walls.

are meeting, no subtraction or addition is

required.

In the figure, the double cross-hatched

areas marked P,Q,R, & S come twice, while

blank areas, A,B,C, & D do not come at

all, but these portions being equal in

magnitude, we get the correct quantity.

MEASUREMENT FOR

COMMON ITEMS

the price of this item is usually

indicated as lump sum (LS).

the estimate by judgment, according

to the description of the item and is

indicated as Lump sum (L.S).

trenches is calculated by taking the

dimensions of each trench as length X

breadth X depth.

cubic meter, according to the prevailing

practice.

done as Rs. per hundred cubic ft.

FILLING IN TRENCHES

construction of foundation

masonry is ordinary neglected. If

the trench filling is, also taken in

account, it may be calculated by

deducing the volume of masonry

in trenches from that of the

volume of excavation.

The mix proportions and the type of cement,

sand and coarse aggregate must be specified.

unit for measurement is, generally Rs. per

100 cubic ft.

bricks or stone soling is applied below the

foundation concrete. The soling layer is

computed in sq.ft (length X breadth), specifying

the thickness in description of item.

from the drawings in the bill of quantities

because the walls in this part of the structure

are in the form of steps with changing

dimensions.

This item is calculated in cft and the unit for

payment is Rs. per 100 cft.

In the description of work, the quality of bricks

and mortar ratio must be specified. For example,

"Brickwork in foundation and plinth using first

class bricks laid in (1:4) or (1:6) cement-sand

(c/s) mortar

Important considerations are:

a = Measurements of walls shall be taken in the

same order and in the same manner as for

brickwork in foundations and plinth.

b = In the first measurements, all openings

such as doors, windows, veranda openings etc.

shall be neglected. However, deductions shall

be made for all openings in the walls, at the

end of the item.

c = In the description of the work, the quality

of bricks and mortar ratio have to be specified.

d = Masonry for arches shall be paid separately,

at a different rate.

e = The height of super structure is very

important. Generally the quantities are

worked out for each storey separately and

rates would be different for different storeis

because of additional labor work, scaffolding

and shuttering.

f = The item is worked out in cft and the

standard unit for payment is Rs. Per 100 cft.

the super structure walls, however, it shall not

be provided across doorways and veranda

openings. It is also provided in roof and floors.

Vertical D.P.C. is provided in external walls,

especially, in the walls of basements.

The quantity of D.P.C. is estimated in square ft.

(on area basis) and standard unit for payment

is Rs. per 100 sft.

7

=

ROOFING

&

RCC

WORKS

Area of the Roof slab is calculated by taking inside

on the walls, on all sides.

of concrete and steel are estimated, separately.

The quantity of plain concrete is estimated in cft and

the standard unit for payment of concrete is Rs. per

100 cft.

Volume of Reinforcing Steel is not deducted , while

estimating the volume of plain concrete for payment.

c = R.C.C. lintels over wall openings such as doors

and windows are also included in R.C.C. work.

planks is estimated for each part, separately.

Steel beam is estimated by weight, whereas, wooden

beam is measured in cft. Battens are estimated by

numbers indicating there size and lengths. Tiles are

also estimated by size and numbers.

Polythene sheets (water proofing) , earth filling (heat

proofing) and brick tiles, etc.

Dimensions are taken from inner face to inner face of

parapet walls.

This item is estimated in sft and a composite rate for

payment is taken as Rs. per 100 sft of the roof area.

STEEL

WORK

per ton, per Kg, or per cwt (standard

weight also called Quintal or century

weight equal to 112 Ibs = 50Kg).

by rules of thumb practice or by intensive

calculations taking the length and

diameter of steel bars from the working

drawings showing reinforcement details

and bar-bending schedules. In taking

length of bars, due margin of hooks,

bends and overlapping is given

WORK (-ctd-)

for ordinary beams and slabs for residences,

assume 6.75 Ibs of steel per cft of R.C.C. work.

However, for R.C.C. columns, it varies from 8 to

10 Ibs per cft., because normally, we use 2% of

steel in columns.

Percentage of steel means, area of steel divided

by total area of the column multiplied by 100

and 1% of steel in columns corresponds to a

quantity of 4.5 Ibs/cft.

9 = FLOORS

floors are most commonly used.

Payments are made separately for different

layers, like, topping, lean concrete, sand filling,

earth filling, etc.

Earth filling, sand filling and lean concrete are

paid by volume, whereas, topping is paid on

area basis, mentioning thickness in the

description.

Standard unit for payment of topping is, usually,

Rs. per 100 sft.

The skirting is estimated in running ft.

10 = PLASTERING

and minimum thickness of plaster have to be

specified.

The quantity is calculated for total wall surface

without deduction for openings such as doors

windows, ventilators, etc. However, if the wall is

being plastered on both the faces, the deductions

for opening areas are made from one side only.

Standard unit for payment is Rs. per 100 sft.

Height is also specified for plastering because, for

greater heights, labor cost increases. The rate

varies according to the number of the storey

11 = WOODWORK/CARPENTRY

finish required should be clearly indicated in the

description of the item.

The rate for any type of woodwork includes

cutting of timber to required sizes, joinery

work, fittings and fastenings, three coats of oil

paints or varnish, bolts, locks, handles, etc.

The measurements are taken for the overall

area of doors, windows, etc. If volume of

timber required for these items is to be finding

out, the computed area is multiplied with the

nominal thickness and an allowance of 25% is

made for wastage of timber.

WOODWORK/CARPENTRY (-ctd-)

columns, trusses, etc., are measured in

cft.

Wooden stairs are measured in number

of steps and description of the item

includes the riser, tread, and width of the

steps.

Wooden shelves are measured in running

ft (RFT).

building, the pipe lines and sewer lines are

measured in RFT, while other items are

measured in numbers.

These items include wash hand basins (W.H.B.),

kitchen basins (which may be of glazed

ceramic, mosaic, or stainless steel), water

closets (W.C., which may be of European type,

or local type), flushing tanks (also known as

flushing cisterns), shower rose, and all type of

water tapes.

to be provided at every corner and also at a distance, not

exceeding every 50 ft inside the house and every 100 ft

outside the house.

The size of man hole may be 2.5ft X 2,5ft for low depths

and 3ft X 3ft, 4ft X 4ft or 5ft X 5ft for deep depths.

Drainage pipe lines outside the covered area but inside the

boundary wall are, usually, of R.C.C. with minimum

diameter 4 in, however, these are available in different

sizes.

Inside the building, drainage pipe is, usually, of C.I. with

minimum diameter 3 in.

Water supply pipes are, usually, G.I. pipes., estimated in

RFT in different dias.

Other accessories, like sockets, elbows, tees, reducers,

unions, etc., are estimated in numbers.

13 = ELECTRIC FITTINGS

fittings are described in detail and

payment is done in numbers or RFT .

while other items are taken in Nos.

USED IN BUILDING

ESTIMATES

1- MORTARS

(a)Cement-Sand Mortars

120 cft dry yields 100 cft wet

(b) Lime-Sand Mortars

113 cft dry yields 100 cft wet

(C) Cement-Lime-Sand Mortars

112 cft dry yields 100 cft wet

(d) Dry mortar required for 100 sft of thick cement

plaster

=6 cft

2- CEMENT CONCRETE

154 cft dry yields 100 cft wet

3- BRICKWORK

(a) 100 cft Brick masonary

Bricks ------------1350

Dry Mortar ------- 30 cft

Wet Mortar ------- 25 cft

Bricks --------------360

Mortar ------------- 9 cft

(b) 100 sft surface area using bricks on edge

Bricks --------------540

Mortar ------------- 13 cft

Ingredient

1:1

1:2

1:3

Cement

8 cft

5 cft

3.8 cft

Sand

8 cft

10 cft

11.4 cft

5- EARTHWORK

Output of labor assuming one man working 8 hours per day with lift up to

5 ft or less

TYPE OF SOIL

Medium Soil

75 100 cft

50 75 cft

Rocky Soil

25 30 cft

6- BITUMEN

Bitumen for 100 sft of DPC (first coat) =

15 Kg

coat)

10 Kg

7- CEMENT

1 Bag ------------- 50 Kg (Weight), 1.25 cft (Volume)

8- SPECIFIC WEIGHTS

RCC --------------- 150 lbs / cft

PCC --------------- 145 lbs / cft

Aggregate -------

9- TIMBER

Timber for 100 sft

Windows

Ventilators

13 cft

8 cft

1.00 Kg

FOUNDATIONS

SPECIFICATIONS

Clear height of Verandah: 10-0

Plinth level: 1-6

Thickness of roof slab: 4

Thickness of RCC shade: 3

Depth of RCC Beams in Verandah: 1-6 below verandah slab

Parapet wall: 1-0 (Clear height above roof tiles)

Ventilators (4 No.): 2-6 x 1-6

RCC lintel: 6 in depth

Damp proof coarse: 1 thick PCC (1:2:4) + 2 coats of hot

bitumen + polythene sheet

Full foundation up to plinth level along verandah periphery is

provided

Internal finishes: Three coats of white wash/distemper paint

External finishes: Three coats of Weather shield paint

(0-4 ) = 23-1

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