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# ESTIMATE

## An estimate of the cost of a construction

job is the probable cost of that job as
computed from plans and specifications.

## For a good estimate the, actual cost of the

proposed work after completion should not
differ by more then 5 to 10 % from its
approximate cost estimate, provided there
are no unusual, unforeseen circumstances.

ESTIMATION
Estimation is the scientific way of
working out the approximate cost of
an engineering project before
execution of the work.

## It is totally different from calculation of the

exact cost after completion of the project.
Estimation requires a thorough Knowledge
of the construction procedures and cost of
materials & labour in addition to the skill ,
experience, foresight and good judgment.

TYPES OF ESTIMATES

## 1 = Rough cost estimate.

2 = Detailed estimate.
Depending upon the purpose of estimate,

## some types of detailed estimate are as

follows:a) Contractor's estimate
b) Engineer's estimate
c) Progress estimate

## Estimation of cost before construction from

plans or architectural drawings of the project
scheme, when even detailed or structural
design has not been carried out, is called
Rough cost estimate.

Authorities.

## Sometimes, on the basis of rough cost

estimates, a proposal may be dropped
altogether.

## Rough cost estimate (-ctd-)

Unit cost is worked out for projects

## similar to the project under consideration

carried out recently in nearly the same site
conditions.

## Rough cost estimate (-ctd-)

To find rough cost of any project, this worked

## average unit cost is multiplied with total quantity

of the present work in the same units.

## ft.) of the proposed building is worked out, which

is then multiplied by the cost per unit area (Rs.
/ft2) of similar building actually constructed in
the near past in nearly the same site conditions,
to find out the rough cost estimate of the
building.

wages.

## Rough cost estimate

The rough cost estimate may be prepared on the

## 1. Cost per square foot of covered area (plinth area) is

the most commonly adopted criterion for preparing
rough cost estimate for most of the residential
buildings.
2. For public buildings, cost. Per person (cost per
capita) is used. For example,
Students hostel-cost per student
HospitalsCost per bed
HotelCost per Guest

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

## Cost per cubic foot is particularly suitable for

commercial offices, shopping centers, and
factory buildings, etc.
For water tank/reservoir, cost may be worked out
on the basis of capacity in gallons of water stored.
For roads and railways, cost may be found out
per mile/kilometer of length.
For streets, cost may be per hundred feet/meters
of length.
In case of bridges, cost per foot/meter of clear
span may be calculated.

DETAILED ESTIMATE
Detailed estimates are prepared by carefully

## and separately calculating in detail the costs of

various items of the work that constitute the
whole project from the detailed working
drawings after the design has been finalized.

## authorities for obtaining technical sanction.

DETAILED ESTIMATE
The whole project is sub-divided into different
items of work or activities. The quantity for each
item is then calculated separately from the
drawings as accurately as possible. The procedure
is known as "taking out of quantities".
The quantities for each item may be estimated and
shown in the pattern which is called "Bill of
quantities."
The unit, in which each item of the wok is to be
calculated, should be according to the prevailing
practice as followed in various departments of the
country.

DETAILED ESTIMATE

## Each item of the work is then multiplied by its

estimated current rate calculated by a fixed procedure
to find out cost of the item.
At the end, a total of all items of the work are made to
get the total estimated cost.
The rates are usually as per Schedule of Rates for the
locality plus a premium to allow for rise in labor and
material rates over and above the schedule of rates.
A percentage, usually 5% is also provided on the total
estimated cost for the work to allow for the possible
contingencies due to unforeseen items or expenditure
or other causes, besides 2% establishment charges.

DETAILED ESTIMATE

1.

## Besides drawings and details of measurements and

calculation of quantities (Bill of Quantities), the following
documents are also usually submitted with the detailed
estimate for obtaining Technical Sanction:
A report explaining History, necessity, scope and main
features of the project, its design, and estimate, etc.

2.

## Specifications lying down the nature and class of work

and material to be used in various parts of the work.

3.

## The abstract of cost (priced Bill of Quantities) showing

the total quantities under each sub-head, rate per unit of
measurement, and cost.

4.

## Calculation sheets showing calculations for important

parts of the structure. In fact, in estimating the art and
skill lies only in the computation of details without any
omissions, of all parts of the building or work.

1- CONTRACTOR ESTIMATE
It is made by the contractor for determining
the price or prices to be bid.
It is usually a carefully prepared detailed
estimate.
2- ENGINEERS ESTIMATE
This type of estimate is made by the Engineer
(Consultant) usually for the purposes of
financing the work and for checking bids and
running bills submitted by contractors.

3- PROGRESS ESTIMATES
These are made by the Engineer at

## regular intervals for the completed parts

of the project during the progress of the
work for determining the amounts of
partial payments to be made to the
contractor.

## commonly made each month and, hence,

are frequently called monthly estimates.

## UNFORESEEN ITEMS IN DETAILED ESTIMATE

While preparing a detailed estimate, one had to
be very careful to see that all items of the work
are incorporated.
It is likely that a few Items, though
unimportant in nature, might have been
overlooked and which may result in raising the
estimate of the project.
There may be also certain unforeseen
circumstances affecting the project.
Hence, a certain allowance usually 5 to 10% of
the total cost, is made in the estimation which
will take care of all these items that are
unforeseen or are overlooked and are known as
"Contingencies".

## METHODS OF DETAILED ESTIMATE

The dimensions, length, breadth and height or depth

## are to be taken out from the working drawings (plan,

elevation and section).

## earthwork in excavation in foundations, foundation

concrete, brickwork in foundation and plinth, and
brickwork in superstructure may be estimated by either
of the two methods:
(1) SEPARATE OR INDIVIDUAL WALL METHOD
(2) CENTER LINE METHOD

## SEPARATE OR INDIVIDUAL WALLS METHOD

The walls running in one direction are termed as

## "long walls and the walls running in the

transverse direction, as "Short waLls", without
keeping in mind which wall is lesser in length
and which wall is greater in length.
Lengths of long walls are measured or found
"Out-to out" and those of short walls as "Into-in".
Different quantities are calculated by multiplying
the length by the breadth and the height of the
wall.
The same rule applies to the excavation in
foundation, to concrete bed in foundation,
D.P.C., masonry in foundation and super
structure etc.

## For symmetrical footing on either side, the

center line remains same for super structure,
foundation and plinth. So, the simple method is
to find out the centre-to-centre lengths of long
walls and short walls from the plan.
Long wall length out-to-out
= Center to center length + half breadth on
one Side + half breadth on other side.
= Center to center length + one breadth

## SEPARATE OR INDIVIDUAL WALLS METHOD

This method can also be worked out in a quicker way., as follows:

## For long walls

First of all, find the length of the foundation trench of the long
wall out-to-out in the same manner as explained above.
The length of the foundation concrete is the same.
For the length of the first footing or first step of the brick wall,
subtract two offsets (2x6"=12") in foundation concrete from the
length of the trench or concrete.
For the second footing subtract from the length of the 1st footing
two offsets (2x2.25"= 4.5"), for 3rd footing subtract from the
length of the 2nd footing 2 offsets (4.5") and in this way deal
with the long walls up to the super-structure.

## For short walls

to get the corresponding lengths in-to-in.

## CENTRE LINE METHOD

In this method, total length of centre lines of walls,
long and short, has to be found out.
Find the total length of centre lines of walls of same
type, having same type of foundations and footings and
then find the quantities by multiplying the total centre
length by the respective breadth and the height.
In this method, the length will remain the same for
excavation in foundations, for concrete in foundations,
for all footings, and for superstructure (with slight
difference when there are cross walls or number of
junctions).
This method is quicker but requires special attention
and considerations at the junctions, meeting points of
partition or cross walls.

## CENTRE LINE METHOD

For rectangular, circular polygonal (hexagonal,
octagonal etc) buildings having no inter or cross
walls, this method is quite simple.
For buildings having cross or partition walls, for
every junction, half breadth of the respective item
or footing is to be deducted from the total centre
length.
Thus in the case of a building with one partition
wall or cross wall having two junctions, deduct
one breadth of the respective item of work from
the total centre length.

## CENTRE LINE METHOD

For buildings having different types of walls, each set of
walls shall have to be dealt separately.
Find the total centre length of all walls of one type and
proceed in the same manner as described above. Similarly
find the total centre length of walls of second type and deal
this separately, and so on.
Suppose the outer walls (main walls) are of A type and
inner cross walls are of B type.
Then all A type walls shall be taken jointly first, and then all
B type walls shall be taken together separately.
In such cases, no deduction of any kind need be made for A
type walls, but when B type walls are taken, for each
junction deduction of half breadth of A type walls (main
Walls) shall have to be made from the total centre length of
B type walls.

## At corners of the building where two walls

are meeting, no subtraction or addition is
required.
In the figure, the double cross-hatched
areas marked P,Q,R, & S come twice, while
blank areas, A,B,C, & D do not come at
all, but these portions being equal in
magnitude, we get the correct quantity.

MEASUREMENT FOR
COMMON ITEMS

## This item is described in detail but

the price of this item is usually
indicated as lump sum (LS).

## The cost of this item is provided in

the estimate by judgment, according
to the description of the item and is
indicated as Lump sum (L.S).

## Earthwork in excavation for foundation

trenches is calculated by taking the
dimensions of each trench as length X

## It is measured in cubic ft, cubic yard or

cubic meter, according to the prevailing
practice.

## The payment for this item is generally

done as Rs. per hundred cubic ft.

FILLING IN TRENCHES

## Filling in trenches after the

construction of foundation
masonry is ordinary neglected. If
the trench filling is, also taken in
account, it may be calculated by
deducing the volume of masonry
in trenches from that of the
volume of excavation.

## The type of concrete must be clearly mentioned.

The mix proportions and the type of cement,
sand and coarse aggregate must be specified.

## This item is measured in cubic ft and the

unit for measurement is, generally Rs. per
100 cubic ft.

## When the soil is soft or weak, one layer of dry

bricks or stone soling is applied below the
foundation concrete. The soling layer is
computed in sq.ft (length X breadth), specifying
the thickness in description of item.

## Care must be taken, while taking dimensions

from the drawings in the bill of quantities
because the walls in this part of the structure
are in the form of steps with changing
dimensions.
This item is calculated in cft and the unit for
payment is Rs. per 100 cft.
In the description of work, the quality of bricks
and mortar ratio must be specified. For example,
"Brickwork in foundation and plinth using first
class bricks laid in (1:4) or (1:6) cement-sand
(c/s) mortar

## 5 = BRICKWORK IN SUPER STRUCTURE

Important considerations are:
a = Measurements of walls shall be taken in the
same order and in the same manner as for
brickwork in foundations and plinth.
b = In the first measurements, all openings
such as doors, windows, veranda openings etc.
shall be neglected. However, deductions shall
be made for all openings in the walls, at the
end of the item.

## BRICKWORK IN SUPER STRUCTURE (ctd)

c = In the description of the work, the quality
of bricks and mortar ratio have to be specified.
d = Masonry for arches shall be paid separately,
at a different rate.
e = The height of super structure is very
important. Generally the quantities are
worked out for each storey separately and
rates would be different for different storeis
because of additional labor work, scaffolding
and shuttering.
f = The item is worked out in cft and the
standard unit for payment is Rs. Per 100 cft.

## Horizontal D.P.C. shall extend the full width of

the super structure walls, however, it shall not
be provided across doorways and veranda
openings. It is also provided in roof and floors.
Vertical D.P.C. is provided in external walls,
especially, in the walls of basements.
The quantity of D.P.C. is estimated in square ft.
(on area basis) and standard unit for payment
is Rs. per 100 sft.

7
=
ROOFING
&
RCC
WORKS
Area of the Roof slab is calculated by taking inside

## dimensions of the room plus a bearing of the roof slab

on the walls, on all sides.

## For R.C.C. Roof slabs and beams, the total quantities

of concrete and steel are estimated, separately.
The quantity of plain concrete is estimated in cft and
the standard unit for payment of concrete is Rs. per
100 cft.
Volume of Reinforcing Steel is not deducted , while
estimating the volume of plain concrete for payment.
c = R.C.C. lintels over wall openings such as doors
and windows are also included in R.C.C. work.

## Roof consisting of beams, battens, and tiles or wooden

planks is estimated for each part, separately.
Steel beam is estimated by weight, whereas, wooden
beam is measured in cft. Battens are estimated by
numbers indicating there size and lengths. Tiles are
also estimated by size and numbers.

## Roof finishing may consist of bitumen coating and/or

Polythene sheets (water proofing) , earth filling (heat
proofing) and brick tiles, etc.
Dimensions are taken from inner face to inner face of
parapet walls.
This item is estimated in sft and a composite rate for
payment is taken as Rs. per 100 sft of the roof area.

STEEL
WORK

## Steel is provided separately from R.C.C.

per ton, per Kg, or per cwt (standard
weight also called Quintal or century
weight equal to 112 Ibs = 50Kg).

## Quantity of steel can either be worked out

by rules of thumb practice or by intensive
calculations taking the length and
diameter of steel bars from the working
drawings showing reinforcement details
and bar-bending schedules. In taking
length of bars, due margin of hooks,
bends and overlapping is given

WORK (-ctd-)

## As a Rule Of Thumb Practice,

for ordinary beams and slabs for residences,
assume 6.75 Ibs of steel per cft of R.C.C. work.
However, for R.C.C. columns, it varies from 8 to
10 Ibs per cft., because normally, we use 2% of
steel in columns.
Percentage of steel means, area of steel divided
by total area of the column multiplied by 100
and 1% of steel in columns corresponds to a
quantity of 4.5 Ibs/cft.

9 = FLOORS

## Cement concrete floors. Mosaic floors, and brick

floors are most commonly used.
Payments are made separately for different
layers, like, topping, lean concrete, sand filling,
earth filling, etc.
Earth filling, sand filling and lean concrete are
paid by volume, whereas, topping is paid on
area basis, mentioning thickness in the
description.
Standard unit for payment of topping is, usually,
Rs. per 100 sft.
The skirting is estimated in running ft.

10 = PLASTERING

## The type of plaster, proportioning of materials

and minimum thickness of plaster have to be
specified.
The quantity is calculated for total wall surface
without deduction for openings such as doors
windows, ventilators, etc. However, if the wall is
being plastered on both the faces, the deductions
for opening areas are made from one side only.
Standard unit for payment is Rs. per 100 sft.
Height is also specified for plastering because, for
greater heights, labor cost increases. The rate
varies according to the number of the storey

11 = WOODWORK/CARPENTRY

## The type of material used and the quantity of

finish required should be clearly indicated in the
description of the item.
The rate for any type of woodwork includes
cutting of timber to required sizes, joinery
work, fittings and fastenings, three coats of oil
paints or varnish, bolts, locks, handles, etc.
The measurements are taken for the overall
area of doors, windows, etc. If volume of
timber required for these items is to be finding
out, the computed area is multiplied with the
nominal thickness and an allowance of 25% is

WOODWORK/CARPENTRY (-ctd-)

## Rectangular wooden beams, vertical

columns, trusses, etc., are measured in
cft.
Wooden stairs are measured in number
of steps and description of the item
includes the riser, tread, and width of the
steps.
Wooden shelves are measured in running
ft (RFT).

## For water supply and drainage works in a

building, the pipe lines and sewer lines are
measured in RFT, while other items are
measured in numbers.
These items include wash hand basins (W.H.B.),
kitchen basins (which may be of glazed
ceramic, mosaic, or stainless steel), water
closets (W.C., which may be of European type,
or local type), flushing tanks (also known as
flushing cisterns), shower rose, and all type of
water tapes.

## Within sewer lines, man holes or inspection chambers are

to be provided at every corner and also at a distance, not
exceeding every 50 ft inside the house and every 100 ft
outside the house.
The size of man hole may be 2.5ft X 2,5ft for low depths
and 3ft X 3ft, 4ft X 4ft or 5ft X 5ft for deep depths.
Drainage pipe lines outside the covered area but inside the
boundary wall are, usually, of R.C.C. with minimum
diameter 4 in, however, these are available in different
sizes.
Inside the building, drainage pipe is, usually, of C.I. with
minimum diameter 3 in.
Water supply pipes are, usually, G.I. pipes., estimated in
RFT in different dias.
Other accessories, like sockets, elbows, tees, reducers,
unions, etc., are estimated in numbers.

13 = ELECTRIC FITTINGS

## All the accessories used in electric

fittings are described in detail and
payment is done in numbers or RFT .

## All wires and pipes are taken in RFT

while other items are taken in Nos.

## SOME COMMON RELATIONS

USED IN BUILDING
ESTIMATES

1- MORTARS
(a)Cement-Sand Mortars
120 cft dry yields 100 cft wet
(b) Lime-Sand Mortars
113 cft dry yields 100 cft wet
(C) Cement-Lime-Sand Mortars
112 cft dry yields 100 cft wet
(d) Dry mortar required for 100 sft of thick cement
plaster
=6 cft

2- CEMENT CONCRETE
154 cft dry yields 100 cft wet

3- BRICKWORK
(a) 100 cft Brick masonary

Bricks ------------1350
Dry Mortar ------- 30 cft
Wet Mortar ------- 25 cft

## (b) 100 sft surface area using bricks on bed

Bricks --------------360
Mortar ------------- 9 cft
(b) 100 sft surface area using bricks on edge
Bricks --------------540
Mortar ------------- 13 cft

## 4- POINTING PER 1000 SFT AREA

Ingredient

1:1

1:2

1:3

Cement

8 cft

5 cft

3.8 cft

Sand

8 cft

10 cft

11.4 cft

5- EARTHWORK
Output of labor assuming one man working 8 hours per day with lift up to
5 ft or less

TYPE OF SOIL

Medium Soil

75 100 cft

## Hard / Stiff Soil

50 75 cft

Rocky Soil

25 30 cft

6- BITUMEN
Bitumen for 100 sft of DPC (first coat) =

15 Kg

## Bitumen for 100 sft of DPC (second =

coat)

10 Kg

7- CEMENT
1 Bag ------------- 50 Kg (Weight), 1.25 cft (Volume)

8- SPECIFIC WEIGHTS
RCC --------------- 150 lbs / cft
PCC --------------- 145 lbs / cft
Aggregate -------

## 166 lbs / cft

9- TIMBER
Timber for 100 sft
Windows

Ventilators

13 cft

8 cft

1.00 Kg

FOUNDATIONS

SPECIFICATIONS

## Clear height of rooms: 12

Clear height of Verandah: 10-0
Plinth level: 1-6
Thickness of roof slab: 4
Depth of RCC Beams in Verandah: 1-6 below verandah slab
Parapet wall: 1-0 (Clear height above roof tiles)
Ventilators (4 No.): 2-6 x 1-6
RCC lintel: 6 in depth
Damp proof coarse: 1 thick PCC (1:2:4) + 2 coats of hot
bitumen + polythene sheet
Full foundation up to plinth level along verandah periphery is
provided
Internal finishes: Three coats of white wash/distemper paint
External finishes: Three coats of Weather shield paint

(0-4 ) = 23-1