Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

WELCOME

Occlusion-Based
Cooperative Transport
with a
Swarm of Miniature
Mobile Robots
Guided by,
Presented by,

Overview
Introduction
Occlusion-based cooperative transport

strategy
Mathematical analysis
Advantages
Implementation and results
Conclusion
References
3

Introduction

Strategy for transporting a large object to a


goal using a large number of mobile robots

Can transport any convex object in a planar

environment
Particularly suited for implementation on micro-

scale robotic systems

Occlusion-based Cooperative
Transport Strategy
Here, occlusion is used to organize a swarm of

robots to push a large object to a goal.


The strategy can be implemented in a fully

decentralized manner.
The robots use on-board cameras to perceive

the object and goal.

Illustration of how a swarm of robots can push a


large object in a 2D planar environment.

The robots keep pushing only along the section

of the objects perimeter that occludes their


views of the goal.
The motion of the object will be approximately

toward the goal.


Neither consistent perception of the goal nor

explicit communication are required for robots


that are pushing the object.

State machine representation of the individual


robot behaviour realizing the occlusion-based
cooperative transport strategy
8

Mathematical Analysis
M athem atical m odelling

If normal forces are uniformly applied on the blue section of the convex-shaped
objects perimeter (major arc ab in this diagram), the combined force vector F is the
vector (b a) rotated by 2 and its magnitude is proportional to the length b a
(chord ab in this diagram). Point q is an affecting point of F. c denotes the center of
mass of the object. g denotes the goal.


We
assume that each of the goals and robots are

points.

Let c R2 be the centre of mass of a rigid convex

object with respect to a coordinate frame in which


g = [0, 0]T is the goal point.
Let the perimeter of the object be described by a

closed, convex, and differentiable curve given by


p() = + c
a is the tangent point on the right side of vector

(c g), while b is the one on the left side.


10

Resultant Force Applied on the O bject

1: Assume that n robots are uniformly


Lemma

distributed along the occluded perimeter of the


object and they are the only robots asserting a
force on the object. The direction of the resultant
force asserted on the object by the robots is
equal to the direction of the vector (b a)
rotated by and its magnitude is proportional to .

Lemma 2: If the combined force contributed by

the robots F is considered as a single force, while


Q is the torque induced by F, the mid point of
segment ab is an affecting point of F.
11


The combined force is the definite integral given

by

F = p() d.
The solution of the definite integral is

F= ( b - a )

12

M otion D ynam ics ofthe O bject

As
the object is moved, a and b can change over time
Thus the solution of the definite integral is valid at

any point in time as long as g is outside p. In other


words,

F(t) =
We can apply a quasi-static analysis and obtain that

c = kF
where c is the derivative of c and k is a positive
constant that transfers F proportionally to the velocity
of the object.
13

Convergence ofthe O bjects D istance to the


G oal
Theorem 1: The distance between the objects

centre of mass (c) and the goal (g) is strictly


decreasing over time if the velocity of the object
is governed by c = kF.

As t , g will be on the object perimeter p.

14

mplementation and Resu


For the physical implementation, e-puck robot

platform is used.

e-puck robot

Top-view schematic of an e-puck


indicating the locations of its wheels,
camera, and proximity sensors.
15

e-puck emits infrared light almost continuously.


The directional colour camera is used to

recognize both object and goal.


The e-puck controller is a state machine

implementing the individual behaviours of the


transport strategy.
Experiments with three objects of different

shapes and sizes were conducted.


16

Experimental setup

Completion time of the circular object,


scalene triangular object, and elongated
rectangular object
17

Circular
object

Triangular
object

(c)
Rectangular
object

Predicted path vs. actual paths of the centroid of


the objects

18

Experim ents w ith a m oving goal.


If the goal is a
mobile robot, it
can change its
position, while the
object is being
transported.

Setup for experiments with a moving goal. The


initial position of the object was alternated
between a and b, while their corresponding
destination regions were A and B

A tele operated
goal robot was
used to guide the
pushing robots
(and thus the
object) through a
corridor with
corners.
19

20

Advantage of the
Occlusion-based
Cooperative Transport
Occlusion is used to organize a swarm of
Strategy
robots
Object always arrives at the goal.
Possible

to transport objects of various


shapes and sizes.

The robots do not need to communicate

(explicitly) with each other.


21

C onclusion
A cooperative transport strategy that uses a

large number of relatively simple and small


mobile robots to transport a large object that
can occlude the robots perception of the goal
was introduced.

A mathematical formulation of the strategy

was provided.

22

R eference
[1] Jianing Chen, , Melvin Gauci, Wei Li, Andreas Kolling, Roderich Gro,
Occlusion-Based Cooperative Transport with a Swarm of
Miniature Mobile Robots in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS,
VOL. 31, NO. 2, APRIL 2015
[2] J. Chen, M. Gauci, and R. Gro, A strategy for transporting tall objects
with a swarm of miniature mobile robots, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot.
Autom., 2013, pp. 863869.
[3] C. Kube and E. Bonabeau, Cooperative transport by ants and robots,
Robot. Auton. Syst., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 85101, 2000
[4] Occlusion-Based Cooperative Transport with a Swarm of Miniature
Mobile Robots-Online Supplementary Materials from
http://naturalrobotics.group.shef.ac.uk/supp/2014-002/
23

Thank You
24

Questions

25

Оценить