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JO B D ES IG N A N D W O R K

M EA S U R EM EN T

Job D esign
Is specifying the contents and

m ethods of jobs to create a


w ork system that is productive
and
ef f
cient, taking
i
into
consideration
costs
and
benefi
ts of various alternatives.

Job designers are concerned w ith:


W ho w illdo the job personnel
H ow the job w illbe done process
W here the job w illbe done
-environm ent

Factors for a successfuljob design:


1. It m ust be done by experienced
personnelw ho has the necessary
training and background.
2 . It m ust be consistent w ith the goals
of the organization.
3. It m ust be in w ritten form .
4 . It m ust be understood and agreed to
by both m anagem ent and em ployees.

Job D esign Tw o Basic Schoolof Thought


1. Ef f
ciency school it em phasizes a
i
system atic, logicalapproach to job design.
2. Behavioralschool it em phasizes
satisfaction of w ants and needs. M anagers
consider hum an as a com plex being. As
such dissatisfaction of w orkers on the job
exist on the part of w orkers:
- w orkers felt that their jobs w ere not
interesting
- w orkers w anted m ore controlover their
jobs.

Specialization is concentrating
ones eff
ort and becom e profi
cient in
som e aspect of a product or service.
It is a term used to describe jobs
that have a very narrow scope.
Exam ple: doctors, professors,
law yers.

For M anagem ent:


Advantages:
1. Sim plifi
es training
2. H igh productivity
3. Low w age costs
D isadvantages:
4. D if f
cult to m otivate quality
i
5. W orker dissatisfaction, possibly resulting
in absenteeism , turnover, etc.

For Labor:
Advantages:
1. Low education and skillrequirem ent
2. M inim um responsibilities
3. Little m entaleff
ort needed
D isadvantages:
4. M onotonous boring w ork
5. Lim ited opportunities for advancem ent
6. Little controlover w ork
7. Lack of self fulfi
llm ent

BehavioralApproaches to Job D esign


1. Job Enlargem ent is horizontally

giving a w orker a larger portion of the


totaltask w ith the sam e levelof skill
and responsibility as the original
ow ner.
2. Job Rotation w orkers exchanging job
in order to avoid being stuck in a
boring or m onotonous job. It broadens
the w orkers learning experience and
enables to fi
llin for others in the event
of sickness or absenteeism .

3. Job Enrichm ent a verticalincrease in the


levelof responsibility or planning and
coordination tasks. The focus of this
approach is on the m otivation potentialof
jobs via w orker satisfaction. (Frederick
H erzberg)
Factors that have potentialor generating
satisfaction but not dissatisfaction:
achievem ent, recognition, and responsibility.
W hile supervision, pay,and w orking
conditions have opposite potentialof
leading to dissatisfaction but not
satisfaction.

4. Increased

use of m echanization takes


the form of autom ation free w orkers form
repetitious w ork that is boring and
m onotonous through im provem ent in the
quality of w ork life.
4.1 Autom ation use of m echanical/
electronic devices in place of eff
ort.
4.2 Socio- technicalSystem s approach is
fi
n ding a design that is consistent w ith both
technologicalef f
ciency and the existing
i
sociologicalconsideration.

Steps in doing a Job design


1. M ethod Analysis Analyzing the overall
operation or the m acro view of the job form
generalto specifi
c details concentrating on
w orkplace arrangem ent and w orkers
m ovem ent.
Various sources:
Changes in tools and equipm ent
Changes in product design
Changes in m aterials or procedures
N ew products
G overnm ent regulations or agreem ents

2 . Selecting

the operation to study

G uidelines:
2.A H ave a high labor content
2.B Are done frequently
2.C Are unsafe, tiring, unpleasant, and or
noisy
2.D Are considered a problem
3. D ocum

enting the present m ethod


U se charts, graphs, and verbaldescriptions
on how the job is being done.

3. Documenting the present method

Use charts, graphs, and verbal


descriptions on how the job is being
done.
4. Analyzing the job and proposing
new methods. Analyzing the job is
asking what, why, when, where, and
who of the job. Analyzing and
improving methods is facilitated by:
4.a. Flow process charts are used to
critically examine the movements of
the operator and the flow of materials.

W orking Conditions
1. Temperature and humidity

Differs in various location but the


idea is to a comfortable working
environment.
2. Ventilation To get rid of
unpleasant odors, smoke, and dust
that may be hazardous to health.
3. Illumination Depends largely on
the type of work being performed.

4. Color
Two important features of color:
a. The ability of colors to affect moods and
feelings.
Red - conveys warmth, action, and stimulation.
Yellow give the impression of cheerfulness
and freshness.
Blue convey coolness and may promote
thoughtfulness or depression.
Green associated with calm and restfulness.
Brown is a natural color imparts a natural,
peaceful feeling.
Orange it attracts attention more, It imparts
feeling and warmth and stimulation.

b. The visual discriminations it permits


b1. Colors are also used to designate safe

and hazardous areas or conditions.


b2. Color coding is also used as a means of
identifying electrical wiring.
5. Noise and Vibration Noise is unwanted
sound that may lead to errors and accidents.
6. Work breaks Breaks have a significant
impact on both productivity and quality of
output.
7. Safety
a. From an employer standpoint, accidents are
expensive. It involves damage of equipment,
loss of lives, interruption of works, etc.

b. From an employee standpoint, means


physical suffering, mental anguish, loss of
earnings, disruption of the work routine.
Work Measurement is concerned with
determining the length of time it should
take to complete the job. It is vital inputs
for manpower planning, estimating labor
costs, scheduling, budgeting, and
designing incentive systems.
Standard Time is the amount of time it
should take a qualified worker to
complete a specific task.

Techniques in Developing Time

Standard
1. Stopwatch time study
2. Historical times
3. Predetermined data
4. Work Sampling
Compensation monetary value of a
service rendered.
Success or failure of a firm depends
in large measure on the efforts o its
employees.

- If wages are set too high, increased costs


lowers profits or increase product cost that
might decrease the demand or the firms
product and service.
Two Basic systems for Compensating
Employee
1. Time-based system ( hourly, measured
daywork system) compensate the
employee for the time worked during a
pay period. This system is widely used
because:
a. Computation of wages and labor cost is
straightforward on the side of employer and
employee.

b. Incentive system can not be applied to


all types of jobs.
Example: creative or mental works and jobs
with irregular activities.
c. Quality consideration is more important
than quantity.
Example: Health care
2. Output-based (incentive) system
compensate the employee based on the
amount of output produced during pay
period.

A. Individual Incentive Plans (piecework)


-- Workers are guaranteed a minimum
amount based on output standard plus
bonus in the excess of that output standard.
B. Group Incentive Plans
-- Sharing productivity gains with
employee.
b.1 Scanlon plan (Joseph Scanlon)
-- The main feature of this plan is to
encourage reductions in labor costs to be
shared to workers.

b.2 Keiser plan Sharing in the


reduction of labor cost as well as
materials and supplies costs.
b.3 Lincoln plan It includes profit
sharing, job enlargement, and
participative management.
b.4 Kodak plan Uses the combination
of premium wage levels and an annual
bonus related to company profits.

Time and Output-based pay systems


Compared
Time based
Advantages:
Management
1. Stable labor costs
2. Easy to administer
3. Simple to compute pay
4. Stable output

Worker
5. Stable pay
6. Lesser pressure to produce

Output-based
Advantages
Management
1. Lower cost per unit
2. Greater output

Worker
3. Pay is related to efforts
4. Opportunity to earn more

Disadvantages
Time-based
1. No individual incentive to increase

output

Output-based
2. Difficult wage computation
3. Need to measure output
4. Quality may suffer
5. Difficult to incorporate wage increases
6. Increased problems with scheduling