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ENGINE CONSTRUCTION

Major parts
Engine block
Crankshaft
Connecting Rod
Pistons, Rings, & Wrist Pin
Bearings (Main and Connecting rod)
Caps (main and Connecting Rod)
Fly Wheel and nuts and bolts
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Cylinder Block
Cylinder block is cast in one
piece from gray iron, or
aluminum.
Cylinder block contain large
circular
holes
called
cylinders.
Replaceable
liners are inserted into
cylinder(bore)- wet liner
and dry liners
Cylinder configurations
Vee, inline, opposed and

Crankshaft Terminology

Crankpins or throws
Main bearing journals
Rod bearing journals
Thrust bearing
Main caps
Oil passages
Flywheel flange
Vibration damper
end
Keyway
Rear main seal
Front crankshaft seal
Counter weights
Firing order

Flywheel

Flywheel is a flat disc


which remain mounted on
the crankshaft towards the
clutch end.
It helps in clutch
engagement
with
pressure plate
The flywheel carries the
engines inertia in between
power strokes.
It assist in starting the
engine with starter motor
and ring gear.
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Vibration Damper
The vibration damper
smoothes the
vibrations caused by
the power strokes.
It has a pulley on it
the run auxiliary
systems.
It may contain timing
marks or crankshaft
timing sensors.

Pistons
Pistons harness
the energy of
the power stroke
and transfers the
force toward
the crankshaft.

Piston, constructed of aluminum alloy


Parts include top, ring grooves, ring
lands, skirt, and piston pin boss
Cooling fins on the bottom help the oil
carry heat away from the piston top

Piston head
designs

Piston Rings
Rings seal the
compression in the
combustion chamber
and the motor oil in
the crankcase.
Automotive engines
use three rings: two
compression rings and
one multi-piece oil
ring.
10

Types of Piston Rings


Rings are usually
made of cast iron
can be plated with
chrome or
molybdenum.
Help seal the ring to
the cylinder wall.
Shapes of the ring
vary to also help the
ring seal better.
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Compression rings are located at the


top of the piston and seal the
combustion chamber
Types of compression ring includes
rectangular, tapered, wedge and half
wedge

Oil control rings


On bottom of piston below compression
rings
Regulates oil film thickness on cylinder
wall
Holes in ring and piston allow excess oil
to drain back to crankcase
Too much oil film and the engine will use
excessive oil ( produce smoke) and too
little oil causes heat and insufficient
lubrication
Oil scraper rings
Directs the oil away from or towards the

Piston Pin (Wrist Pin)


Hollow polished
hardened steel pin.
Attached in a variety
of ways.
Pinned to piston.
Clamped to
connecting rod small
end.
Snap ring free
floating.
Press fit.
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Connecting Rods
I-beam style rod use
to transfer the pistons
force to the
crankshaft.
Small end contains
the piston pin and the
big end has a
removable cap to
install it to the Crank.
Nuts and bolts are
usually of a very high
quality.
15

Crankshaft
Changes reciprocating motion of pistons
into rotating motion to drive propeller
Constructed of chrome-nickelmolybdenum-steel
May be one piece or as many as three
separate pieces
The propeller mounts to the front of the
crankshaft using a spline, taper, or
flange
The crankshaft rotates within the
crankcase and is supported by main
bearing journals
Crankshaft throws or crankpins are off

Power comes to it transferred to the clutch


through flywheel.
Crank web is made to counter act the tendency
of bending of crankshaft due to centrifugal
action.
Two ends of crankshaft has different mountings
timing gear on front end and flywheel on rear
end