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Cusrow Wadia Institute of Technology,

Pune-01
Electrical Engineering Department
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
Presented by,
VAIBHAV RAVINDRA PATIL
(103043)
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All You Ever


Wanted To Know
About MRI
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Introduction
What is MRI?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a spectroscopic
imaging technique used in medical settings to produce
images of the inside of the human body.
MRI is based on the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR), which is a spectroscopic technique used to obtain
microscopic chemical and physical data about molecules
In 1977 the first MRI exam was performed on a human
being. It took 5 hours to produce one image.

Allows the clinician to see


high quality images of the
inside of the body:
Brain
Heart
Lungs
Spine
Knees
Wrist
Etc.
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COMPONENTS
MRI system consists of:
Radio Frequency (RF) Transmitter
Main Magnet 0.5 to 2.0-tesla or 5,000 to 20,000 gauss
(Resistive, Permanent, or Superconducting)
RF coils
3 Gradient Magnets 18 to 27-millitesla or 180 to 270
gauss
RF amplifier
Fourier Transformer
Computer

MRI machines look like a large block with a tube


running through the middle of the machine, called
the bore of the magnet.

The bore is where the patient is located for the


duration of the scan.
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The MRI machine picks points


in the patients body, decides
what type of tissue the points
define, then compiles the
points into 2 dimensional and
3 dimensional images.

Once the 3 dimensional image is created, the MRI


machine creates a model of the tissue. This allows
the clinician to diagnose without the use of
invasive surgery.
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There are three types of


magnets:
1.Resistive Magnets
2.Permanent Magnets
3.Superconducting Magnets
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The resistive magnet has many coils of wire that wrap


around the bore, through which electrical currents are
passed, creating a magnetic field. This particular
magnet requires a large amount of electricity to run,
but are quite cheap to produce.
The permanent magnet is one that delivers a magnetic
field, which is always on at full strength and
therefore, does not require electricity. The cost to run
the machine is low due to the constant magnetic
force. However, the major drawback of these
magnets is the weight in relation to the magnetic field
they produce.
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The superconducting magnet is the most commonly


used in machines today, giving the highest quality
images of all three magnet types.

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There is another
type of magnet
that is found in
all MRI
machines, called
gradient
magnets

These magnets
are responsible
for altering the
magnetic field in
the area to be
scanned and can
magnetically
slice the tissue
to be examined
from every angle.
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MRIs of the heart can be done to look at many


different areas including: vessels, chambers, and
valves.
The MRI can detect problems
associated with different heart
diseases including plaque build
up and other blockages in blood
vessels due to coronary artery
disease or heart attacks.

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The Procedure

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Once the contrast dye has been injected, the patient


enters the bore of the MRI machine on their back lying
on a special table.
The patient will enter the machine head first or feet
first, depending on the area to be scanned.

Once the target is centered,


the scan can begin.
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The scan can last anywhere from 20-30 minutes.


The patient has a coil that is placed in the target area,
to be scanned.
A radio frequency is passed through the coils that
excites the hydrogen protons in the target area.
The gradient magnets are then activated in the main
magnet and alter the magnetic field in the area that is
being scanned.
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The patient must hold completely still in order


to get a high quality image. (This is hard for
patients with claustrophobia, and often times a
sedative will be given, if appropriate.)
The radio frequency is then turned-off and the
hydrogen protons slowly begin to return to their
natural state.

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The magnetic field runs down the center of the


patient, causing the slowing hydrogen protons
to line-up.
The protons either align themselves pointed
towards the head or the feet of the patient, and
most cancel each other out.
The protons that are not cancelled create a
signal and are the ones responsible for the
image.
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The contrast dye is what makes the target


area stand out and show any irregularities
that are present.
The dye blocks the X-Ray photons from
reaching the film, showing different
densities in the tissue.
The tissue is classified as normal or
abnormal based on its response to the
magnetic field.
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The tissues with the help of the magnetic field


send a signal to the computer.
The different signals are sent and modified
into images that the clinician can evaluate,
and label as normal or abnormal.
If the tissue is considered abnormal, the
clinician can often detect the abnormality, and
monitor progress and treatment of the
abnormality.
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Components Of M.R.I.

Block Diagram for MRI System

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Schematic view

Schematic View of MRI System

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MRI treatment is a wonderful option for most


patients, but there are some people who are not
candidates.
Those include:
1) Patients with pacemakers cannot have the scan
done as the magnet from the MRI interferes with
the signal sent from the pacemaker, and
deactivates it.
2) Patients who are too tall, or too obese
3) Patients who have orthopedic hardware can get
distortion in the image, and the scan quality is
not as high.
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Resonance
The gradient magnets are rapidly turned on and off
which alters the main magnetic field.
The pulse directed to a specific area of the body
causes the protons to absorb energy and spin in
different direction, which is known as resonance
Frequency (Hz) of energy absorption depends on strength of
external magnetic field.

Resonance
The resonance equation shows that the resonance
frequency of a spin is proportional to the
magnetic field, Bo, it is experiencing.

= Bo

Where is the gyro magnetic ratio. [the ratio of the


magnetic moment of a spinning charged particle to
its angular momentum]

Spin

Hydrogen Atom Magnetic


Dipole Moment (MDM)
High water content of nonbony tissues.
A symmetric body with spin
angular momentum and
some torque that is
perpendicular to the angular
momentum processes.

Spin
All of the hydrogen
protons will align with the
magnetic field in one
direction or the other.
Vast majority of these
protons will cancel each
other out
The excess nuclei in the
lower energy state give a
net MDM component
along the field

Measuring the MR Signal:


the moving proton vector induces a signal in the
RF antenna
The signal is picked up by a coil and sent to the
computer system. The received signal is
sinusoidal in nature
The computer receives mathematical data,
which is converted through the use of a Fourier
transform into an image.

Reason for the Produce signal


For every unit volume of tissue, there is a number
of cells, these cells contain water molecules, each
water molecule contain one oxygen and two
hydrogen atoms.
Each hydrogen atom contains one proton in its
nucleus. Different tissues thus produce different
images based on the amount of their hydrogen
atoms producing a signal.

A comparison

X-ray image

M.R.I. scan

It doesnt use harmful


ionizing radiations.
It produces 3D images.
Blood vascular systems can
also be visualized.
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Distortions

Poor magnetic field homogeneity


Imperfect gradient coil design
Radio frequency coil inhomogeneity
Pulsatile flow artifact blood flowing
perpendicular to the slice direction
Respiratory motion
Cardiac motion need motion correction
Random bulk motion
Chemical shift effects

Advantages
Non-Invasive: MRI does not depend on potentially
harmful ionizing radiation, as do standard x-ray
and CT scans.
MRI scans are not obstructed by bone, gas, or body
waste, which can hinder other imaging techniques
Can see through bone (the skull) and deliver high
quality pictures of the brain's delicate soft tissue
structures
Images of organs and soft tissues

Drawbacks

Pacemakers
Claustrophobic
Tremendous amount of noise during a scan
MRI scans require patients to hold very still for extended
periods of time. MRI exams can range in length from 20
minutes to 90 minutes or more.
Orthopedic hardware (screws, plates, artificial joints) in
the area of a scan can cause severe artifacts
High cost

Current Research & Future Works


Still in its infancy - in widespread use for less than 20 years
(compared with over 100 years for X-rays)
Very small scanners for imaging specific body parts are
being developed
Functional brain mapping
Imaging ventilation dynamics of the lungs through the use
of hyperpolarized helium-3 gas
development of new, improved ways to image strokes in
their earliest stages is ongoing.
MRA (Angiography) was developed to study blood flow

Conclusion:
Despite these costs and concerns, MRI technology has
become a valuable diagnostic tool worldwide.
The almost limitless benefits of MRI for most patients far
outweigh the few drawbacks.
Predicting the future of MRI is speculative at best, but I
have no doubt it will be exciting for those of us in the
field, and very beneficial to the patients we care for.
MRI is a field with a virtually limitless future, and I hope
this article has helped you better understand the basics of
how it all works

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References
Keller, P.J., Basic Principles of Magnetic
Resonance Imaging, General Electric Medical
Systems, 1991.
Dr.Shilpa (Admin of MRI Dept. of Ruby Hall
Clinic,Pune.)
http://www.howstuffworks.com/mri.htm

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