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Pembangkit

Listrik Tenaga
Gas (dengan
bahan bakar
Gas Alam
Jurusan Teknik Elektro
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh
Nopember Surabaya
2015

Perbandingan PLTG dengan


Pembangkit Lain

Komponen Utama PLT Gas Alam


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Bahan Bakar
Kompresor
Turbin Gas
Combuster
Generator

Generator
SGen-2000H Series Generator

Spesifikasi Generator
Frequen Model
cy
50 Hz
60 Hz

SGen52000H
series
SGen62000H
series

Powe Apparent
r
power
facto
r
0.85 350 MVA to
600 MVA

Efficienc Terminal
y
voltage
up to
99%

16.5 kV to 22
kV

0.85 310 MVA to


600 MVA

up to
99%

19 kV to23
kV

Turbin Gas SIEMENS


SGT5-8000H

1. Short start-up time and partial-load capability


2. Improved turndown capability for high efficiency and lower
emissions in partial-load operation
3. Lower maintenance and operating costs through design as aircooled gas turbine
4. Modern materials for increasing the firing and exhaust temperature
Enhanced sealing system to minimize cooling air loss

SPESIFIKASI TURBIN
GAS
Siemens Gas
turbine
ISO Base Power
Output (MW)
Heat Rate
(kJ/kWh)
Heat Rate
(Btu/kWh)
Gross Efficiency
(%)
Pressure Ratio
Exhaust Mass
Flow (kg/s)
Exhaust Mass
Flow (lb/s)
Turbine Speed
(rpm)
Exhaust

400
8,999
8,530
60
19.2
869
1.915
3,000

Gas Turbine
Physical
Dimensions
Approx. Weight
(kg/lb)
Length (m/ft)
Width (m/ft)
Height (m/ft)

390.000 / 860.000
13.1 / 43
4.9 / 16
4.9 / 16

Kompresor :
Turbocompre
ssor STC-STO

Flow rates from 5,000 up to 150,000 m/h


Pressure ratio up to 3.5
Impeller diameter up to 900 mm (compressor)
Driver: integrated Siemens steam turbine (SST TM)

Combuster

Bahan Bakar : CNG


CNG is Compressed Natural Gas, which is
mainly methane compressed at a pressure of
200 to 248 bars. LPG is Liquefied Petroleum
Gas, a mixture of propane and butane liquefied
at 15 C and a pressure of 1.7 - 7.5 bar. Some
variants of LPG are primarily propane so LPG is
often colloquially called propane. CNG is
cheaper and cleaner, but LPG has a higher
calorific value. Distribution is easier for natural
gas over long distances via pipelines.

CNG

LPG

Constituents

Methane

Propane and Butane

Source

Automatically generated from gas


Obtained from natural
fields when natural gas is extracted
gas-and-condensate
from the reservoir. By-product of
wells, oil wells, coal bed
cracking process during crude-oil
methane wells.
refining.

Uses

Substitute for gasoline


in automobiles.

Heating and cooking in homes,


refrigeration, industrial, agricultural,
catering and automobile fuel.

Environmental
effects

Releases lesser
greenhouse gas.

Releases CO2 which is a greenhouse


gas but is cleaner when compared to
gasoline.

Properties

It is lighter than air and Highly inflammable. It is heavier than


hence disperses quickly air and on leakage will settle to ground
in the event of spillage. and accumulate in low lying areas.

Safety

Easily disperses, hence


risk of ignition is
minimized.

Since it is difficult to disperse risk of


fire is more.

PERHITUNGAN DAYA
P out gen = 400 MW, dengan
efisiensi
97 %

Frequen Model
cy
50 Hz
60 Hz

SGen52000H
series
SGen62000H
series

Powe Apparent
r
power
facto
r
0.85 350 MVA to
600 MVA

Efficienc Terminal
y
voltage
up to
99%

16.5 kV to 22
kV

0.85 310 MVA to


600 MVA

up to
99%

19 kV to23
kV


Perhitungan

P in gen = P out turbine = 412.3 MW


EfisiensiTurbin = 60%
P in turbin = 687.1 MW

Perhitungan berdasarkan MMbtu


Heat
Rate Turbin (kJ/kWh) = 8,999
Heat Rate Turbin (Btu/kWh) = 8,530
Output turbin = 412.3 MW
Input turbin =

= 3,516,919,000 btu

= 3516 (MMbtu)
SehinggaTurbinmembutuhkanenergisebesar3516 MMbtuper
jam untukmengeluarkan output sebesar412.3 MW

1 Mmbtu = 23.33 m3 CNG


(http://pt-bag.com)

Efisiensi
gas yang terpakai di

dalamcombustermencapai 90%
Input britishtermal unit
3516 MMbtu

Anggap Input combuster (btu) =


Kalorbahanbakar gas CNG
Jikadiketahuikalorjenisbahanbakar 1 Mmbtu =
23.33 m3 CNG

Efisiensi gas yang terpakai = 90%, dalam setiap kWh


ada 9.477 Mbtu (0.009477 MMbtu)yang dibutuhkan.
Harga CNG:
USD 11/MMBTU (tahun 2015)
1 kWh = 0.009477Mmbtu
Harga 1 kWh = 0.009477 x (USD 11/Mmbtu) =
0.10424 USD = Rp 1250.9
(1 USD = Rp 12,000)

Untuk Kebutuhan harian


24 jam x 3906 Mmbtu/jam = 93,744MMbtu
sehingga: 93,744 x USD 11 =
1,031,184 USD
Rp 12,374 Milyar
Untuk kebutuhan tahunan (335 hari)
1,031,184 USD x 335 hari =
345,446,640 USD
Rp 4145,36 Milyar