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GEOGRAPHICAL

PHENOMENA
PLATE TECTONICS

BRIEF INSIGHT
MODULE:1
Section-5
Objectives
(a)- What is plate tectonics?
(b)- Location and movement of the Caribbean plate and its
interaction with other plates
(c)- Earthquakes and volcanoes: threat of tsunami, social
development

EXTERNAL VIDEO

https://m.youtube.com/?#/watch?v=JGXi_9A__Vc

WHAT IS PLATE TECTONICS?


Basic definition of plate tectonics;
Plate tectonics is an explanation of how plates move in relation to each other,
thereby, creating certain tectonic activities at their margin.
Geographical definition of plate tectonics;
Plate tectonics refers to the theory that the Earths surface(lithosphere), which holds
landmass especially and oceans, is moving relatively over a dense semi-liquid area
below the surface (asthenosphere). Motion is influenced by friction between the
asthenosphere and lithosphere, causing the rigid surface to fracture and move as
individual plates.

PLATE
MOVEMENT
Transform (conservative) plate
margins
These are plates that slide past
each other. They generate
earthquakes.
e.g:

Trinidad

Jamaica

Haiti

Puerto rico

PLATE
MOVEMENT
Divergent(constructive) plate margins;
It is a linear feauture which moves away
from each other. These movements usually
generate volcanoes.
e.g;

Grenada- Kick em Jenny

Martinique- Mt. Pele

Monsterrat- Soufrire

St. Lucia Pitons

Picture showing the various


volcanoes in the caribbean

Mt soufrieire in Monsterrat before eruption


The Soufrire Hills volcano is an active, complex
stratovolcano with many lava domes forming its
summit, on the Caribbean island of Montserrat.
After a long period of dormancy, the Soufrire
Hills volcano became active in 1995, and has
continued to erupt ever since. Its eruptions have
rendered more than half of Montserrat
uninhabitable, destroying the capital city,
Plymouth, and causing widespread evacuations:
about two thirds of the population have left the

After eruption in 2012

PLATE MOVEMENT
Convergent(destructive) plate margin;
This is occurs when plates collides and
one is forced downwards, hence
pushing upward the other plate.as a
result there are volcanoes, earthquakes
and mountains being formed in these
areas.
e.g; volcanoes (repeated)

Grenada- Kick em Jenny

Martinique- Mt. Pele

Monsterrat- Soufrire.

e.g: mountains

Trinidad- northern range

Jamaica- Blue Mountains

Grenada- Saint Catherine

CARIBBEAN
PLATE
The Caribbean Plate is centered amidst
the Cocos, Panama, North Andes, South
American, and North American Plates.
The Caribbean Plate lies in a complex
area with two major plates and two minor
plates bordering it. The plate includes
oceanic and continental crust. The
Caribbean Sea covers most of the plate
with Central America and volcanic islands
covering the rest. The edges of the plate
have intense seismic activity, frequent
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

DISASTERS
CAUSED BY
PLATE
TECTONICS

RELATIVE TERMS
firstly, the term natural hazards can be
defined as events that occur on the earths
surface and cause a threat to human lives
and property.
Natural disaster- events that occur on the
earths crust and affects human lives and
property causing a detrimental effect.

Earthquakes are sudden tremors in the earth


cause by plate movements, hey are sudden,
striking and comes with little movements.
The violent seismic waves destroy buildings an kill
and injure people buried under the rubble. They
may trigger landslides and damage dams.
However, they are most common along the
northern and western fringes of the caribbean
society.
e.G
Jamaica (1907)
The capital city, Kingston was flatten secondary
impact of fires caused further damage.
Haiti (2010)
The impact of the massive earthquake has been
one of the most devastating. It occurred on the 12th
of January with a magnitude of 7.0. Today, Haiti still
has not recovered leaving hundreds in abject
poverty, others homeless and much more facing
economical problems.

EXTERNAL VIDEO

A tsunami is a large sea wave, travelling at great


speed, triggered by oceanic earthquakes and
volcanoes.

DISASTERS
CAUSED BY PLATE
TECTONICS

Tsunamis are not familiar to the caribbean, however


there have been minor impacts on recent history.
These includes;
Jamaica (1907)
Puerto Rico (1918)
Mosterrat (1997)
Dominican Republic (1946)

DISASTERS CAUSED
BY PLATE
TECTONICS

Volcanoes are perhaps the most dramatic


extreme natural event. Hot lava spewing out of
the vent, Ash and gases exploding into the
air.the impact can be devastating, obliterating
large areas, with people and buildings buried.
There are two types of volcano: composite, cinder
and shield.

EXTERNAL VIDEO

ADDITIONAL READYING INFORMATION IS


PLACED ON THE HANDOUT

These include the impact of earthquakes and volcanoes


Also more detailed information on plate tectonics.

THE END
PRESENTATION BY:
GABRIELLE RAMROD
SUDESH BE HARRYLAL
KEVIN RAMRATTAN