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# MEC

MEC 551
551
THERMAL
THERMAL ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING
3.0 Convection

Convection Analysis

## Convection is similar to conduction in that it requires

the presence of a material medium but different
because it also requires the presence of fluid motion.

Convection Analysis

## Fluid motion enhances heat

transfer, because it initiates
higher rates of conduction by
bringing more hot and cold
molecules into contact

## Heat transfer through a liquid or

gas can be either by conduction
or convection. Conduction is the
limiting case of no fluid motion.
Convection involves both
conduction and fluid motion.

## 3.1 Convective Principles

Convection Principles
There are two types of convection:
Natural or Free Convection:
Fluid motion is caused by natural
means such as the buoyancy
effect, which manifests itself as
the rise of warmer air and the fall
of cooler air.

Forced Convection:
Fluid is forced to flow over a
surface by external means (such
as a pump or fan).

Convection Principles

## Fluid is forced to flow

over a surface.

Internal:
Fluid is forced to flow in
a pipe or channel.

INTERNAL

External:

EXTERNAL

## There are two types of

forced convection:

Convection Principles
The difference between external and internal flows is
shown in the figure below:

External Flow
Internal
Flow

Convection Principles
(Newtons Law of Cooling)

Q conv h As Ts T

## Convection heat transfer coefficient (h)

Defined as the rate of heat transfer between a solid surface
and a fluid per unit surface area per unit temperature
difference.

Convection Principles
(Nusselt Number)
Nusselt Number
Developed by Wilhelm Nusselt
(1882-1957) from Germany
In convection analysis, it is
common practice to nondimensionalized the governing
equations and combine the
variables, which group together in
dimensionless numbers to reduce
the number of variables.
9

Convection Principles
(Nusselt Number)
The Nusselt number is a non-dimensionalized h,
defined as:

hLc
Nu
k

Lc - Characteristic Length
k - Thermal conductivity of fluid

10

Convection Principles
(Nusselt Number)
Since:
Heat transfer by conduction occurs when the fluid
is motionless and
Heat transfer by convection occurs when the fluid
involves some motion.
In either case, the heat flux is the rate of heat
transfer per unit time per unit surface area.

q conv h T
q cond

T
k
L

11

Convection Principles
(Nusselt Number)

q conv h T h L
k T
Nu
q cond
k
L

## Thus Nu represents the enhancement of heat transfer through a

fluid layer as a result of convection relative to conduction
across the same fluid layer. The larger Nu, the more effective
the convection.

## Nu= 1 for a fluid layer, represents pure conduction.

12

Convection Principles
(Viscosity)
Viscosity
A measure of the internal stickiness of
the fluid. The friction force between two
fluid layers moving relative to one
another. Caused by the cohesive forces
between the molecules in the liquids
and by the molecular collisions in the
gases.
There are two expressions for viscosity:
Dynamic viscosity (or absolute
viscosity),
Kinematic viscosity,

13

Convection Principles
(Viscosity)
Dynamic viscosity ( ) The shear force per unit area

## required to drag on layer of fluid with unit velocity passed

another layer a unit distance away from the fluid.

du

dy

## Kinematic viscosity ( ) The ratio of dynamic viscosity

to density.

14

Convection Principles
(Viscosity)
Viscous flows
Flows in which the effects of
viscosity are significant.

Inviscid flows
Flows in which the effects of
viscosity is small and can be
neglected without much loss in
accuracy. Frictionless or
idealized flows.
15

Convection Principles
(Compressibility)
Compressible flow
Gases are highly compressible, meaning
that there is a significant density change of
fluid during flow (e.g. air).

Gas

Incompressible flow
Densities that are essentially constant,
such as many liquids (e.g. water).

Liquid

16

Convection Principles
(Types of Flows)
Laminar Flow
Highly ordered fluid motion
such as the flow of highly
viscosity fluids like oil at low
velocities.

Turbulent Flow
Highly disordered (or
chaotic) flow that typically
occurs at high velocities.

17

Convection Principles
(Types of Flows)
No change in the flow with time

t+Dt

t+2Dt

The flow changes with time

t+Dt

t+2Dt

18

Convection Principles
(Types of Flows)
Uniform Flow
No change in the fluid velocity or volume over a specified
region.

Non-uniform Flow
19

## 3.2 Convection boundary

layer theory

20

Convection Principles
(Velocity Boundary Layer)
A velocity boundary layer can be
defined
No slip condition
When the fluid is forced to flow over a
solid surface that is non-porous (e.g.
impermeable fluid), it is observed that the
fluid in motion comes to a complete stop
at the surface and there is no slip.
Because the fluid layer adjacent to the wall
sticks (due to friction), it slows the next
layer and so on. So a consequence of the
no-slip condition is that all velocity
profiles must have zero values at points of
contact with fluid and solid.

u
y
x
Heated Surface

21

Convection Principles
(Velocity Boundary Layer)
Velocity boundary development on a flat plate:

## The boundary layer thickness (d) is normally defined

as where:

u 0.99 u

22

Convection Principles
(Velocity Boundary Layer)
The dashed line, divides the flow
over the plate into two regions:
Boundary layer region
In which the viscous effects and
velocity changes are significant.
Inviscid flow region
In which the friction effects are
negligible and the velocity
remains constant.

Inviscid
Flow

Boundary
Layer

x
Heated Surface

23

Convection Principles
(Velocity Boundary Layer)
Flow regions in velocity boundary of a flat plate:

24

Convection Principles
(Velocity Boundary Layer)
Comparison of a laminar and turbulent velocity
boundary layer profile:

25

Convection Principles
(Thermal Boundary Layer)
Likewise there is a thermal
boundary layer

## No temperature jump condition

Because velocity of the fluid
is zero at the point of contact
with the solid surface, the
fluid and solid surface must
have the same temperature
at the point of contact.

x
Heated Surface

26

Convection Principles
(Thermal Boundary Layer)
Thermal boundary development on a flat plate:
Ts+0.99(T-Ts)

## The thickness of the thermal boundary layer (dt) at any location

along the surface is defined as the distance from the surface at
which:

DT=T-Ts=0.99(T-Ts)

27

Convection Principles
(Prandtl Number)
Prandtl Number
Developed by Ludwig Prandtl (1875-1953) of
Germany.
The relative thickness of the velocity and
thermal boundary layers is best described by
a dimensionless Prandtl number (below):

## Molecular Diffusivity of Momentum

Pr
Molecular Diffusivity of Heat

Cp

k
28

Convection Principles
(Reynolds Number)
Reynolds Number
Derived by Osbourne Reynolds (1842-1912)
of Britain
The transition from laminar to turbulent flow
depends on the surface geometry, surface
roughness, free stream velocity, surface
temperature, and type of fluid (among other
things).
However, the flow regime primarily depends
upon the ratio of inertia forces to viscous
forces in a fluid. This is a dimensionless
quantity, known as Reynolds number (Re).
29

Convection Principles
(Reynolds Number)
The Reynolds number is defined as:

Inertia Forces V L V L
Re

Viscous Forces

V upstream velocity
L characteristic length
n = m/r kinematic viscosity of fluid

30

Convection Principles
(Reynolds Number)
Inertia Forces V L V L
Re

Viscous Forces

## A large Re (inertia forces large)

Means that the viscous forces cannot contain random and
rapid fluctuations (turbulent).

## A small Re (viscous forces large)

Keeps the fluid in-line (laminar).

## The Reynolds number where the flow becomes turbulent is

called the critical Reynolds number (Recrit)
31

Convection Principles
(Reynolds Number)
For flow over a flat plate, the generally accepted
value of Recrit is:

Re crit

Flat Plate:

where:

xcrit=

u xcrit

5 105

## Distance between the leading edge

of the plate to the transition point
from laminar to turbulent flow takes place.

32

## 3.3 Forced convection over an

exterior surface
(laminar and turbulent flow)

33

External Flow
The convection equations for an external flow can be
derived from the conservation of mass, conservation
of energy, and the conservation of momentum
equations.

34

## External Flow Equations

(Conservation of Mass)
Conservation of Mass

m x u dy 1

dv
v dy
dy

Unit Area

m y v dx 1

Unit Area

dx

u
u dx
x

dy

35

## External Flow Equations

(Conservation of Mass)
Rate of mass
flow into
control volume

Rate of mass
flow out of
control volume

u
v
u dy v dx u dx dy v dy dx
x
y

u
v
u dy v dx u dy dx dy v dx dx dy
x
y

u v
0
x y

36

## External Flow Equations

(Conservation of Momentum)
Conservation of Momentum

dy
y

ma = Net Force

P
dy

P
P
dx
x

dx

37

## External Flow Equations

(Conservation of Momentum)

In the x-direction:

2u 2u
u
u
P
u v

2 g x
2

x
y x

Body force

Net
per unit

du

pressure
force

## Net effect of viscous

and shear forces

volume

In the y-direction:

2v 2v
v
v
P
u v

2 g y
2

x
y y
x
y

Body force

dv

Net
pressure
force

and shear forces

per unit
volume

38

## External Flow Equations

(Conservation of Energy)
Conservation of Energy

E in E out 0

Eheat out, y

Eheat in, x

Emass out, y

dx

Eheat out, x

dy

Emass in, x

Emass out, x

Eheat in, y

Emass in, y

39

## External Flow Equations

(Conservation of Energy)

2T 2T
T
T
k
C p u
v
2 2
2
y
y

x
x

v
u v
u

x
y
y x
2

2T 2T
T
T
k
C p u
v
2
2
y
y
x
x

40

T, u

Boundary layer

dy

dx

u(x,0)= 0
v(x,0)= 0
T(x,0)= Ts

## Consider laminar flow over a flat plat. When viscous

dissipation is negligible, the convection equations
reduce for steady, incompressible laminar flow (with
constant properties) over a flat plate.
41

## Convection over a Flat Plate

Consider elemental control volume for force balance
in the laminar boundary layer.
Continuity:

u v

0
x y

Momentum:

u
u
2u
u
v
2
x
y
y

Energy:

T
T
2T
u
v
2
x
y
y
42

## Convection over a Flat Plate

Boundary conditions:
At x= 0:

u(0,y)= u,

At y= 0:

u(x,0)= 0,

At y= :

u(x, )= u,

T(0,y)= T
v(x,0)= 0,

T(x,0)= Ts
T(x, )= T

u
y
x
43

## Convection over a Flat Plate

Recall, that the stream function is defined as:

u
; v
y
x
Dependent variable:

x u y
u
u
44

Therefore:

x df
u
df
u

u
y y
u d x
d

x df u
v

u

x
x
u dx 2
1 u

2
x

f
u x

df

f
d

45

So:

u
u d 2 f

2
x
2 x d
2

u
d f

x d 2

u
u
y

u u d f

3
2
y
x
2

46

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Momentum Equation)

gives:

d3 f
d2 f
2 3f
0
2
d
d

EQN 6-49
text

## A 3rd order non-linear differential equation. Therefore the system

of partial differential equations is transformed into a single
ordinary differential equation by use of a similarity variable.

47

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Momentum Equation)

## Using the definitions for f and , the boundary equations in

terms of the similarity variables can be found.

f 0 0
df
0
d 0
df
1
d

## However, the transformed equation

with its similarity variable cannot be
solved analytically.
Therefore, an alternative solution is
necessary.

48

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Momentum Equation)

## The non-dimensional velocity profile can be obtained by

plotting u/u vs. . The results agree experimentally.

df
u

0.992
d u

5.0

A value of:

corresponds to:

u
0.99
u

49

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Momentum Equation)

## So substituting these values into the definition for , gives the

boundary layer thickness for a flat plate.

5.0; y
u
y
x

For laminar
flat plate:

u
5
x
5.0
5.0 x

u
Re
x

u x
where : Re

EQN 6-51
text

50

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)
Energy Equation

equation.

T x, y Ts
x, y
T Ts

51

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)

2
u
v
2
x
y
y

u
y
x

d d
df d d 1 u df
d d

2
d d dx 2
x d
d dy 52
d dy
2

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)

u
Since: y
x
d
1
u
y

dx
2
x

3
2

u
y
2
u x

d
u

dy
x

53

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)

and:

x u y
u
u
df

d u y

54

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)

df d d 1 u
u

d d dx 2
x

d d
df
d d

2
d dy
d
d dy

d y u 1 u

u

x
u y d 2u x 2
d 2 u

2
d x

u d
u
y

x
u
y
u
y
d x

55

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)
1 d
u

2 d u x
d 2 u

2
d x

u
u 1
u

x
x u
x u y

u

x

u 1
u

d 2

2

2
u

x
x

x
xy
u
d

56

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)
d

x u

u
d 2

2
2
u

x
u

x
u
y
d

Prandtl number

Pr

d
d 2

2 2
d
d u y
Pr
f

d 2
d
2 2 Pr f
0
d
d

EQN 6-58
text
57

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)

## A closed form solution cannot be obtained for this boundary

layer problem, and it must be solved numerically.

## If this equation is solved for numerous values of Pr, then for

Pr > 0.6, the non-dimensional temperature gradient at the
surface is found to be (reference Table 6-3, p. 354 in text):

1
d
0.332 Pr 3
d 0

58

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)

T
y

y 0

T Ts
y

u
Since: y
x

y 0

then:

T Ts
0 y

y 0

y
x

T
y

u
0.332 Pr T Ts
x
1

y 0

59

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Energy Equation)

become:

T
y y 0

q s
hx

Ts T
Ts T

k 0.332 Pr

Ts T

Ts T

u
x

u
hx 0.332 Pr k
x
1

60

(Laminar Flow)

## The local Nusselt number is the dimensionless temperature

gradient at the surface. This is defined as:

hx x
Nu x
k

Thus for Pr > 0.6, the local Nusselt number for laminar flow is:

Nu x 0.332 Pr Re
1

61

(Laminar Flow)

## The local friction coefficient (CFx) can also be determined.

Since the wall shear stress is:

wall

y 0

u d f
u
2
x d

wall

0.332 u2

Re x
62

(Laminar Flow)

wall

1
C F , x u2
2

CF , x

2 wall
12

0.664 Re x
2
u

63

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Laminar Flow)

The average heat transfer coefficient over the entire plate can be
obtained by integrating over its length:
L

1
h hx dx
L0

0.332 Pr k
h
L
1

u
dx
x

0.332 Pr 3 k u

2 x
L

L
0

0.664 Pr 3 k u L

0.664 k Pr Re

L
1

64

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Laminar Flow)
So the average Nusselt number for laminar flow over
the entire plate is:
1
hL
0.5
Nu
0.664 Re L Pr 3
k

65

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Laminar Flow)
Solving numerically for temperature profile for
different Prandtl numbers, and using the definition of
the thermal boundary layer, it is determined that for
laminar flow over a flat plate:

13
13
t
Pr Pr
1.026

66

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Example 3.1)
Example 3.1a
Calculate the velocity and the
thermal boundary layer thickness of the way along
a flat plate that is 50 m long. Water (Tsat H2O= 40 C)
flows over it at 4 m/s. The plate is kept at a surface
temperature (Ts= 80 C).
Ts= 80C
40 C
4 m/s

y
x
50 m
67

(Example 3.1)
40 C

y
80 C

50 m

## The first step is to calculate the mean film temperature of the

fluid flowing along the plate.

This is just the average of the surface temperature and the fluid
bulk temperature.

T film

Ts T 80C 40C

60C
2
2

68

(Example 3.1)
40 C

y
80 C

50 m

983.3
4.67

m3

kg
m s

k 0.654
Pr 2.99

kg

W
m C
69

(Example 3.1)

## First calculate the Reynolds number to determine whether the

flow is laminar or turbulent.

u
Re

x 983.3 4

kg
m3

4.67

m
s
kg
m s

1
4

50 m

10,527.8

Therefore:

5 504m
5 x

0.609 m
Re
10,527.8

Pr
0.609 m 2.99
t

1.026
1.026
13

13

0.412 m

70

(Example 3.1)

Example 3.1b

## First we must check to see whether the entire plate is in a

laminar boundary layer or not.

u
Re

L 983.3 4 50 m

42,111 .3
kg
m3

4.67

m
s
kg
m s

entire plate
71

(Example 3.1)

## Therefore we can use the following equation to find h:

1
u
u
3
h 0.332 Pr k
0.332 Pr k
x
x
1

kg
m

983
.
3
s
m
0.332 2.99 0.654 mWC
4.67 mkgs 50 m
1

0.619

W
m C
2

72

(Example 3.1)

q h (Ts T )

0.619

W
m 2 C

80C 40C

24.8 mW2

73

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Turbulent and Mixed Flows)

Turbulent

74

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Turbulent and Mixed Flows)

Note: if it had been found that the boundary layer was not
completely laminar another equation for h could have been

Nu 0.037 Re Pr
0.8
L

0.6 Pr 60

5 105 Re 107

## For a mixed combination of laminar and turbulent flow over the

plate:

Nu 0.037 Re 871 Pr
0.8
L

0.6 Pr 60
5 105 Re L 107
75

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Example 3.2)
Example 3.2 Oil flows over a 40-m long heated plate at free
stream conditions of 5 m/s and 25C. If the plate is held at 45C.
Ts= 45C
u= 5 m/s
T= 25C
40 m
a) Determine the velocity and thermal boundary layer
thicknesses at the middle of the plate.
b) Calculate the total heat flux from the surface for a 1-m
width.
c) Calculate the total convection heat transfer.
76

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Example 3.2)
First calculate the film temperature (Tf)

T film

T Ts 25C 45C

35C
2
2

Pr 3,711

3.5 10

4 m2
s

k 0.2864

W
m C

1,255 m3
kg

77

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Example 3.2)
a) At the middle of the plate:

40 m
x
20 m
2
Re mid

po int

u x 5 ms 20 m
5

2
.
86

10
4 m2

3.5 10 s

Re mid Re crit
po int

78

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Example 3.2)
The hydrodynamic (or velocity) boundary layer is:

x 20

5 x
5 20 m

0.187 m or 18.7 cm
Re
2.86 105

13
t
Pr
1.026
0.187 m
13

1.026
79

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Example 3.2)
b) At the end of the plate:

Re end

u L 5 ms 40 m
5

5
.
714

10
4 m2

3.5 10 s

## Since Re > Recrit the flow is turbulent at the end

The critical distance (transition point from laminar to
turbulent is:

xcrit

Re crit

5 10 3.5 10

m
s

4 m2
s

35 m

80

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Example 3.2)
c) Using the mixed Nu equation for a flat plate:

Nu 0.037 Re 871 Pr

0 .8
L

0.037 5.7110

5 0 .8

9,600.7

Nu k
h
L
9,600.7 0.2864

40 m

871 3,711

W
m C

68.7

W
m C
2

81

## Convection over a Flat Plate

(Example 3.2)
The total heat flux per is:

Q h As Ts T

68.7

W
m 2 C

40 m 1 m 45C 25C

54,960 W

82

Forced Convection
(on Cylinders and Spheres)
Flows across cylinders and
spheres, in general, involve
flow separation which is
difficult to handle analytically.
Thus these must be studied
empirically or experimentally
Several correlations have
been developed for the heat
transfer coefficient (h).
83

Forced Convection
(on Cylinders and Spheres)
Churchill and Bernstein developed this empirical
equation for flow over a cylinder (Eqn. 7-35 in text):

Nucyl

hD
0.62 Re Pr
Re

0.3
1

1
2
4
k
282,000

1 0Pr.4 3
1

## Whitaker developed this empirical equation for flow

over a sphere (Eqn. 7-36 in text):

Nu sph

2
hD
1
2

2 0.4 Re 0.06 Re 3
k

0.4
Pr
s

84

Forced Convection
(over Circular and Non-Circular Cylinders)

by Zukauskas and Jakob for the average Nusselt number for flow
over circular and non-circular cylinders (Table 7-1 in text):

85

Forced Convection
(over Circular and Non-Circular Cylinders)

86

Forced Convection
(Example 3.3)
Example 3.3 A long 10-cm diameter hexagonal steam pipe
whose external surface temperature is 110C passes through
some open area that is not protected against the wind.
Determine the rate of heat loss when the air is at 1 atm
pressure and 10C and the wind is blowing across a 1-m length
of pipe at a velocity of 8 m/s.
V = 8 m/s
T = 10C

Ts=110C

10 cm
1m

87

Forced Convection
(Example 3.3)
The properties of air at the average film temperature
of:

T film

Ts T 110 C 10C

60C
2
2

## can be found from Table A-15 as:

k 0.02808

W
m C

1.896 10

Pr 0.7202

5 m 2
s

88

Forced Convection
(Example 3.3)
The Reynolds number is:

V D 8 ms 0.10 m
4
Re

4
.
219

10
5 m 2

1.896 10 s
The Nusselt number can be determined from Table 7-1
in the text book:

Nu 0.153 Re

0.638

Pr

0.153 4.219 10
122.5

4 0.638

0.7202

89

Forced Convection
(Example 3.3)
Therefore:

k
h Nu
D
0.02808 mWC

122.5 34.4
0.10 m
The surface area of the hexagon is:
D
As 6
L
2 sin 60
3 0.10 m 1 m

sin 60
0.346 m 2

W
m 2 C

D/2

60

90

Forced Convection
(Example 3.3)
Therefore, the heat transfer is:

Q h As Ts T

34.4

W
2
m C

2

1,191.7 W

91

Example 1

92

Example 2

93

Example 3

94

## 3.4 Principle of dynamic similarity

and dimensional analysis
(applied to forced convection)

95

Non-dimensionalized
convection equations
The continuity , momentum, and energy equations for steady,
incompressible, laminar flow of a fluid with constant properties
can be non-dimensionalized by dividing all the dependent and
independent variables, as follows:

x
y
*
x ; y ;
L
L
u
v
*
*
u
; v
V
V
*

T Ts
P
*
P
; T
2
V
T Ts

## Free stream velocity

Surface temperature
Free stream temperature

## Note: the asterisks denote non-dimensional variables.

96

Non-dimensionalized
convection equations
Introducing these variables the equations become:

Continuity:

u * v*
* 0
*
x y

Momentum:

*
*
2 *
*

u
1

u
dP
u * * v* *
*2 *
x
y
Re L y
dx

Energy:

*
*
2

T
1

T
*
*
u
v

*2
*
*
x
y
Re L Pr y
97

Non-dimensionalized
convection equations

u * 0, y * 1

v* x* ,0 0

u * x* ,0 0

u * x* , 1

T * 0, y * 1

T * x* ,0 0

T * x* , 1

u, T
y*

Ts
x*

98

Similarity
Where:

V L
Re L

Pr

## For a given geometry, the solutions of problems with

the same Re and Nu are similar, thus Re and Nu are
called similarity parameters.
Two physical phenomena are similar if they have the
same dimensionless forms of the governing
99
differential equations and boundary conditions.

Similarity
A major advantage in non-dimensionalizing is the
significant reduction in the number of similarity
parameters.
Original equations have 6 parameters: (L, V, T, Ts,
a, and n)
The non-dimensionalized equations have only 2
parameters (ReL and Pr).

100

Similarity
For a given geometry, problems that have the same
values of similarity parameters (ReL and Pr) have
identical solutions.

## Fig 6-28 (text)

101

Similarity
Example: Determining the convection heat transfer
coefficient (h) for flow over a given surface will require
numerical solutions or experiments with several sets of:

Velocities (V )
Surface lengths (L)
Wall temperatures (Ts)
Free stream temperatures (T).

## The same information can be determined with far fewer

experiments or investigations by grouping the data into
the dimensionless:
Reynolds number (Re)
Prantdl number (Pr)

102

Similarity

## Fig 6-29 (text)

103

Similarity
Another advantage is that data from a large group of
experiments can be conveniently reported in the
terms of the similarity parameters.

104

## 3.5 Reynolds Analogy

105

Forced Convection
(Drag Force)

106

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
In forced convection analysis, we are primarily
interested in the determination of quantities of:
The coefficient of friction (CF) (to calculate the
shear stress at the wall)
Nusselt number (Nu) ( to calculate the heat
transfer rates).
Therefore, it is desirable to have a relation between
CF and Nu, so that we can calculate one when the
other is available.
107

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Since:

u f1 x , y , Re L
*

## The shear stress at the surface becomes:

u
s
y

y 0

V u *

L y *

y* 0

f 2 x* , Re L
L

108

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Substituting this into its definition gives the local
friction coefficient:

C f ,x

s
V2

V
L

u *
y * y * 0

V2
2

f 2 x* , Re L
Re L

f 3 x , Re L
*

2 u

*
Re y

y * 0

109

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Similarly, solving the energy equation for the
dimensionless temperature (T*) for a given geometry
gives:

T g1 x , y , Re L , Pr
*

## Using this definition, the convection heat transfer

coefficient (h) becomes:

k Ty

y 0

Ts T
110

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Since:

T Ts
T
Ts T
*

y
y
L
*

y
x

for local

Then:

T Ts T T * Ts Ts T T *

*
*
y
y x
x
y
111

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)

Therefore:

k T Ts T
h
*
x Ts T y

k T
*
L y

y * 0

y * 0

112

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Substituting this into the local Nusselt number
equation gives:

T *
h x x k T *

Nu x
*
k
k x y y*0
y *

y * 0

## We previously determined that:

T g1 x , y , Re L , Pr
*

Therefore:

T *
Nu x *
y

g 2 x* , Re L , Pr
y * 0

113

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Note: the Nusselt number is equivalent to the
dimensionless temperature gradient at the surface, and
this is why it is sometimes called the dimensionless heat
transfer coefficient (h).

## Fig 6.30 (text)

114

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
The average friction and heat transfer coefficients
are determined by integrating the local CF,x and Nux
over the surface of the given body with respect to x*
(from 0 to 0.1), which removes the dependence on x*
and thus gives:

C F f 4 Re L

and

Nu g 3 Re L , Pr

## These relations allow experimenters to study a

problem with a minimum amount of experiments and
report their results in terms of just Re and Pr.
115

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
The experimental data for heat transfer is often
represented (with reasonable accuracy) by a simple
power law relation of the form:

Nu C Re Pr
m
L

## Where m and n are constant exponents (normally between 0

and 1), and the value of C depends on geometry.

116

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Summary, so far (Fig 6-31 in text book):

117

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Now if we simplify the momentum and energy
equations by assuming:
Pr
P=*1 (which is approximately true for gases)

## (true when u = u = V = constant)

For Pr = 1, the
thermal and
velocity boundary
layers coincide
118

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
The equations then become:
Momentum:

*
*
2 *

u
1

u
*
*
u
v

*2
*
*
x
y
Re L y

Energy:

*
*
2 *

T
1

T
*
*
u
v

*2
*
*
x
y
Re L y

## Note: These two equations are exactly in the same

form for u* and T*.
119

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Since the boundary conditions are also identical:
Recall:

Then:

u x ,0 0
u x , 1
u * 0, y * 1
*

u *
y *

y * 0

T x ,0 0
T x , 1
T * 0, y * 1
*

T *
*
y

y * 0

Equation

*
120

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Since as previously derived:

2 u
CF
*
Re y

k T
h *
L y

and

## Rearranging these equations gives:

u *
y *

y * 0

C F , x Re
2

and

T *
y *

y * 0

hL

Nu x
k
121

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Therefore substituting these values into Equation
gives:

u
*
y

Nu x

C F , x Re
2

T
*
y

y * 0

y * 0

## Reynolds Analogy for

Pr = 1

or
St x

CF , x
2

122

Forced Convection
(Stanton Number)
Reynolds Analogy can also be
expressed in terms of the Stanton
number (St).
This was derived by Sir Thomas
Edward Stanton (1865-1931) from
England

h
Nu
St

C P V Re Pr
123

Forced Convection
(Reynolds Analogy)
Reynolds Analogy is important because it allows us
to determine the heat transfer coefficient (h) for fluids
where Pr = 1, from knowledge of the friction
coefficient (which is easier to measure).

124

Forced Convection
(Chilton-Colburn Analogy)
However, the Reynolds number is of limited use
because of the restrictions:
Pr = 1

P *
0
*
x
Therefore it is desirable to have an analogy that is
applicable over a wide range of Pr.
This is done by adding a Prandtl number correction125
.

Forced Convection
(Chilton-Colburn Analogy)
Recall as previously derived:

C F , x 0.664 Re

12
x

and

Nu x 0.332 Pr Re x2
1

## Taking their ratio and rearranging give the relation

known as the Chilton-Colburn analogy or the
modified Reynold's analogy:
CF , x
Colburn j-factor
13
1

Nu x Pr

CF , x

Re L jH

2
hx
jH

Pr 3
2
C p V

## For 0.6 < Pr < 60

126

Forced Convection
(Chilton-Colburn Analogy)
The Chilton-Colburn Analogy is derived using:
Laminar flow
Over a flat plate ( P 0 )

## However, experimental studies however show that it is also

approximately applicable to turbulent flow over a surface in
For laminar flow it is not applicable unless it is a flat plate,
therefore it cannot be applied to laminar flow in a pipe.
Also the analogy above can be used for local or average
quantities.
127

Forced Convection
(Example 3.4)
Example 3.4 Laminar flow profile
over a vertical plate. A 2 x 3 m plate
is suspended in a room and subject
to air flow parallel to its surfaces
along its 3 m side. The total drag
force acting on the plate is 0.86 N.
Determine the average heat transfer
3m
coefficient (h) for the plate:

## The properties of air at 1 atm (Table A-15 in

text book) at Tfilm= 20 C:

kg
kJ
1.204 3 ; C p 1.007
m
kg
Pr 0.7309

Air Flow
T= 15C
V = 7 m/s

Ts=25C
2m
128

Forced Convection
(Example 3.4)
Set L= 3 m ~ Characteristic length

Since both sides of the plate are exposed to the air (and
considering the thickness negligibly small) the total surface area
is:

As 2 w L

2 2 m 3 m 12 m

129

Forced Convection
(Example 3.4)
For all flat plates:

## Drag = Friction Force

F friction D C F As V

1
2

Therefore:

2 D
2 0.86 N
CF

2
As V 1.204 mkg3 12 m 2 7

m 2
s

0.00243
130

Forced Convection
(Example 3.4)
Then from the modified Reynolds analogy (ChiltonColburn) the average heat transfer coefficient (h) can
be calculated:

C F V C p
h

2
2
Pr 3
0.00243 1.204

2
12.7 m W
2
C

kg
m3

7 1007
m
s

0.7309

J
kg C

131

3.6 Convection in an
internal flow

132

Internal Flow
Internal flow relates to flow through fixed conduits
such as pipes or ducts.

133

Internal Flow
(Non-Circular Tubes)
For flow through noncircular tubes Re and Nu,
are based on the hydraulic
diameter Dh.
4 Ac
Dh
p
Vm Dh
Re

## Where p is the perimeter, Vm is

the mean velocity, and Ac is the
cross-sectional area.
134

Internal Flow
(Mean Velocity)
Because the velocity varies over the cross-section it
is necessary to work with a mean velocity (Vm) when
dealing with internal flows.

m Ac Vm
m
Vm
Ac
135

Internal Flow
(Circular Tubes)
In a circular tube:
D2
4

4 Ac 4
Dh

D
p
D
Vm D
Re

Re < 2,300
2,300 < Re < 10,000
Re > 10,000

laminar flow
transitional flow
turbulent flow
136

Internal Flow
(Entrance Region)

137

## Internal Flow Equations

(Example 3.5)
Example 3.5 - Temperature rise of oil in a bearing
(a)
(b)
(c)

## Find the temperature and velocity distributions

Find the maximum temperature in the oil
Find the maximum heat flux in the oil
Upper plate moving

V= 12 m/s
L= 2 mm

u(y)

Oil
k= 0.145 W/(mK)
= 0.8 kg/(ms)
138

## Internal Flow Equations

(Example 3.5)

Assumptions:

Oil is incompressible with constant properties
Body forces such as gravity are negligible
The plates are large, so no variation in the z-direction
Upper plate moving

V= 12 m/s
L= 2 mm

u(y)

Oil
k= 0.145 W/(mK)
= 0.8 kg/(ms)
139

## Internal Flow Equations

(Example 3.5)
(a) Find the temperature and velocity distributions

Solution:

## Flow only in the x-direction v = 0

u v

0
x y
u
0
x
u u( y)

Continuity Equation:

P
0

x
The x-component of velocity does not change. Since
also, the
flow is maintained by the upper plate and not the pressure gradient.

140

## Internal Flow Equations

(Example 3.5)

x-momentum equation:

2
2

u
v
u u P
u v
2
g x
2
y
y x
x
x

u
0
2
y
2

gives:

u C1 y C2
141

(Example 3.5)

u(0)= 0
u(L)= V= 12 m/s

and C2 gives:

0 C1 0 C2

V C1 L 0

C2 0

V
C1
L

142

(Example 3.5)

y
u V
L

## Frictional heating due to viscous dissipation in this case is

significant because of the high viscosity of oil and large plate
velocity. The plates are isothermal and there is no change in
flow direction, so the temperature changes with y only T= T(y).

143

(Example 3.5)

0 0

2T 2T
T
T
k
C p u
v
2
2
y
y
x
x
02
0
2 0
2
u
v u v

2

y y x
x

u
T

0k

2
y
y
2

144

(Example 3.5)
Since:

y
u V
L
u V

y L

T
V
k 2
y
L
2

145

(Example 3.5)

2

y
T V C3 y C 4
2k L

## Applying boundary conditions:

T(0) = T0
T(L) = T0

y 0 : T0 C4
2

L
y L : T0 V C3 L T0
2k L
2
C3
V
2kL
146

(Example 3.5)

2

y
y 2
2
T 2 V
V T0
2k L
2kL
2

V y y
2
T0
2k L L
2

147

## Internal Flow Equations

(Example 3.5)
(b) Find the maximum temperature in the oil
The temperature gradient is found by differentiating T(y) with
respect to y.

T V 2
y

1 2 0
y
2kL
L

## Now to find the maximum temperature, maximize T by setting

the above equation equal to 0.

y
1 2
L
L 0.002 m
y
0.001 m
2
2

148

## Internal Flow Equations

(Example 3.5)

This means that the maximum temperature will occur at the midplane (y= 1 mm), which is not surprising since both planes are
maintained at the same temperature.

Tmax

V 2 L2 L2
T0
2

2k L L

V 2
T0
8k
N s
m 2

0.8 m 2 12 s 1 W

119 C
20C

149

## Internal Flow Equations

(Example 3.5)
(c) Find the maximum heat flux in the oil
The heat flux at the plates is determined from the definition of a
heat flux.

dT
q 0 k
dy

y 0

V 2
y
k
1 2
2kL
L

0.8 12 1 W
V

N m
2L
2 0.002 m 1 s
W
28,800 2
m
2

N s
m2

m 2
s

150

(Example 3.5)

## As a check, we can also calculate the heat flux at y= L (should

be equal but opposite sign).

dT
q L k
dy

yL

V 2
L
k
1 2
2kL
L

0.8 12 1 W
V

N m
2L
2 0.002 m 1 s
W
28,800 2
Correct !
m
2

N s
m2

m 2
s

151

## Internal Flow Equations

(Example 3.5)
Discussion of example
T=20C

L= 2 mm

T=20C

V= 12 m/s

T=119C

very significant
152

## Internal Flow Equations

(Example 3.5)

Discussion of example

q 28.8

kW
m2

V= 12 m/s

L= 2 mm

q 28.8

kW
m2

## Heat flux is equivalent to the mechanical energy rate of

dissipation. Therefore, mechanical energy is being converted into
thermal energy to overcome friction in oil. This accounts for the
153
temperature flux.

154

Free Convection
Warm air

Heat
Transfer

Cold
can

Cold air

## Hot air rises due to the buoyancy

effect.
This causes fluid motion
(possibly in a circulating pattern)
that causes natural or free
convection

155

Free Convection
(Volume Expansion Coefficient)
In heat transfer, the primary variable is the
temperature, so it is desirable to express the net
buoyancy force in terms of a temperature difference.
This requires knowledge of a property that represents the
variation of the density of a fluid with temperature at constant
pressure.
This is called the volume expansion coefficient () which is
defined as:

P
156

Free Convection
(Volume Expansion Coefficient)

## In natural convection studies, the condition of the fluid

sufficiently far from the hot or cold surface is indicated by the
subscript to indicate that the presence of the surface is not
felt.

## In such cases, can be expressed approximately by replacing

the differential equations by differences, such as:

1
1

T
T T

T T
157

Free Convection
(Volume Expansion Coefficient)
For an ideal gas:

R T

## Thus for an ideal gas the discharge coefficient

becomes:

1
P
RT

T T
P
RT

158

Free Convection
(Grashof Number)
The velocity and temperature for natural
convection over a vertical plate are
shown in the figure.
As in forced convection, the boundary
layer thickness increases in the flow
direction
Unlike forced convection, the fluid
velocity (u) is 0 at the outer edge of
the boundary layer as well as the
surface of the plate.
This is expected since the fluid
beyond the boundary layer is
motionless.

159

Free Convection
(Grashof Number)

u
u
2u P
u v 2
g
y
y
x
x

## Now the momentum equation outside the boundary layer can be

obtained from this relation as a special case by setting u = 0,
giving:

P
g
x

160

Free Convection
(Grashof Number)

P P x P x

Since:

P P

g
x
x
Then the momentum equation
becomes:
2
u
v
u
u v 2 g
y
y
x

EQN 9-13
in text

u
v
2u
u v 2 g T T
y
y
x
u
v
2u
u
v 2 g T T
x
y
y

161

Free Convection
(Grashof Number)
If we now non-dimensionalize this x-momentum
equation, we get:
3
*
2 *

g Ts T Lc T
1 u
* u
* u
u
v

*2
2
*
*
2
x
y
Re L Re L y
*

Grashof Number

162

Free Convection
(Grashof Number)
The Grashof number is derived by
Franz Grashof (1826-1893) from
Germany.

g Ts T L3c
GrL
2

163

Free Convection
(Grashof Number)
Gr is a measure of the relative
magnitudes of the buoyancy force
and the opposing viscous force
acting on the fluid

164

Free Convection
(Raleigh Number)
Lord Raleigh (1842-1919) from
England derived the Raleigh Number

Ra Gr Pr
g Ts T L
RaL
Pr
2

3
c

165

Free Convection
(Example 3.6)
Example 3.6 A 6-m long section of 8-cm diameter
horizontal hot water pipe passes through a large
room. The pipe surface temperature is 70 C.
Determine the heat loss from the pipe by natural
convection.
Ts= 70 C

T= 20 C
D= 8 cm
L= 6 m

166

Free Convection
(Example 3.6)
Assume:

Air is an ideal gas
The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm

T film

Ts T 70C 20C

45C
2
2

## From Table A-15,

the properties of
5 air
W
m 2 are:

k 0.02699

m C

; 1.749 10

sec

; Pr 0.7241
167

Free Convection
(Example 3.6)
The volumetric expansion coefficient () is:

1
1
1

## T f 45C 273 318 K

The characteristic length is the outer diameter of the
pipe:

Lc D 0.08 m

168

Free Convection
(Example 3.6)
Therefore the Raleigh Number is:

g Ts T D 3
Pr
2

3
m
1
9.81 s 2 318 K 343 K 293 K 0.08 m 0.7241

5 m 2 2
1.749 10 s

1.869 10 6

169

Free Convection
(Example 3.6)
Table 9-1 in the text book gives average Nusselt
numbers for natural convection over surfaces.

170

Free Convection
(Example 3.6)

Thus Nu is:

Nu D 0.60

1

0.559

1
Pr

16

27

0.60

0.387 1.869 10 6

0.559
1

0.7241

16

17.4

27

171

Free Convection
(Example 3.6)
Then:

0.02699 mWC
k
h Nu
17.4 5.869
0.08 m
D

W
m 2 C

## The surface area of the cylinder is:

As D L

0.08 m 6 m 1.508 m 2
172

Free Convection
(Example 3.6)
Therefore the heat transfer is:

Q h As Ts T
5.869

W
m C

2

442.5 W

173

174

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