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LECTURE No.

03

Civil Engineering Material

CEMENT
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Cement
Cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens
independently, and can bind other materials together.
Cement is a crystalline compound of calcium silicates
and other calcium compounds having hydraulic
properties (Macfadyen, 2006).
Cements in general are adhesive and cohesive
materials which are capable of bonding together
particles of solid matter into compact durable mass.
For civil engineering, they are restricted to calcareous
cements containing compounds of lime as chief
constituent to bind the fine and coarse aggregate
particles together.

Cement History

Clay was used as cementing material by


Assyrians and Babylonians
Lime and gypsum were used as binder
material by Egyptians in pyramids
Calcareous cements, like limestone was
used by Romans
Joseph Aspedin of Yorkshire (UK) in 1824
formed Portland cement by heating a mixture
of limestone & fine clay expelling carbonic
acid gas
Isaac C. Johnson in 1845 invented cement by
burning limestone and clay to form clinker.

History

Lime and clay have been used as


cementing
material
on
constructions
through many centuries.
Romans are commonly given the credit for
the development of hydraulic cement, the
most significant incorporation of the
Romans was the use of pozzolan-lime
cement by mixing volcanic ash from the Mt.
Vesuvius with lime. Best known surviving
example is the Pantheon in Rome
In 1824 Joseph Aspdin from
invented the Portland cement

England

History of cement and


concrete
The
early days:
Setting stone blocks without cementing them
Mud mixed with straw is the oldest cementing
material used to bind dried bricks together
Pyramid of Cheops.

Cheops, Giza
Stones were brought from Aswan and
Tura using the Nile river
Built around 2566 B.C.
It would have taken over 2,300,000
blocks of stone with an average weight
of 2.5 tons each
Total weight of 6 million tons
30 years and 100,000 slaves to build it
Has a height of 482 feet (140m)
It is the largest and the oldest of the
Pyramids of Giza
Mortars made by calcining impure
gypsum

History of cement and


concrete
Non-hydraulic cements
Gypsum and lime
Cements based on compounds of lime
(calcareous cements)
Gypsum
Calcining impure gypsum at 130 C

Add water calcined gypsum and water


recombine
Cannot harden under water because
gypsum is quite soluble.
Pyramid of Cheops (3000 B.C.)

Cement
Portland cement is so named because a
paste of cement with water, after it sets
hard, resembles in color and hardness a
Portland stone, a limestone quarried in
Dorset (a county in South West England).

Uses of cement
Masonry work, plastering, pointing, joints for
pipes & drains.
Used in concrete for laying floors, roofs,
constructing lintels, beams, stairs,
pillars/columns etc.
Used in manufacturing of precast pipes, piles,
fencing posts etc.
Important engineering structures e.g. bridges,
culverts, dams, tunnels, etc.
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Chemical Composition of
Oxide
Cement %age Function
Lime (CaO)

60-65 Controls strength and


soundness

Silica (SiO2)

20-25 Gives strength. Excess causes


slow setting

Alumina (Al2O3)

4-8

Quick setting. Excess lowers


strength

Iron oxide
(Fe2O3)

2-4

Color. Helps in fusion of


ingredients

Magnesium
oxide (MgO)

1-3

Color and hardness. Excess


causes cracking

Na2O+K2O,
TiO2, P2O5

0.10.5

Residues. Excess causes


cracking and effloresence

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Functions of ingredients of
cement
Lime (CaO)

It is the major constituent of cement . Its proportion is


important.
The excess makes the cement unsound and causes
the cement to expand and disintegrate.
In case of deficiency, the strength of cement is
decreased and cement sets quickly.
The right proportion makes cement sound and strong.

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Functions of ingredients of
cement
Silica (SiO )
2

It imparts strength to the cement due to formation of


dicalcium silicate (2CaO SiO2 or C2S) and tricalcium silicate
(3CaO SiO2 or C3S).
Silica in excess provides greater strength to the cement
but at the same time it prolongs its setting time.

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Functions of ingredients of
cement Alumina (Al O )
2

It imparts quick setting quality to the cement.


It acts as a flux (rate of flow of energy) and lowers the
clinkering temperature.
Alumina in excess reduces the strength of cement.

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Functions of ingredients of
cement
Iron oxide (Fe2O3)

It provides color, hardness and strength to cement.


It also helps the fusion of raw materials during
manufacture of cement.

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Harmful ingredient of
cement

Alkali oxides (K2O and Na2O): if the amount of


alkali oxides exceeds 1%, it leads to the failure of
concrete made from that cement.
Magnesium oxide (MgO): if the content of MgO
exceeds 5%, it causes cracks after mortar or
concrete hardness.

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Types of Cement
Cements are considered hydraulic because of their ability to set
and harden under or with excess water through the hydration of the
cements chemical compounds or minerals.
There are two types:
Those that activate with the addition of water
And pozzolanic that develop hydraulic properties when the
interact with hydrated lime Ca(OH)2
Pozzolanic: any siliceous material that develops hydraulic
cementitious properties when interacted with hydrated lime.
HYDRAULIC CEMENTS:
Hydraulic lime: Only used in specialized mortars. Made from
calcination of clay-rich limestones.
Natural cements: Misleadingly called Roman. It is made from
argillaceous limestones or interbedded limestone and clay or shale,
with few raw materials. Because they were found to be inferior to
Portland, most plants switched.

Portland cement: Artificial cement. Made by the mixing


clinker with gypsum in a 95:5 ratio.
Portland-limestone cements: Large amounts (6% to 35%)
of ground limestone have been added as a filler to a Portland
cement base.
Blended cements: Mix of Portland cement with one or more
SCM (supplementary cemetitious materials) like pozzolanic
additives.
Pozzolan-lime cements: Original Roman cements. Only a
small quantity is manufactured in the U.S. Mix of pozzolans with
lime.
Masonry cements: Portland cement where other materials
have been added primarily to impart plasticity.
Aluminous cements: Limestone and bauxite are the main
raw materials. Used for refractory applications (such as cementing
furnace bricks) and certain applications where rapid hardening is
required. It is more expensive than Portland. There is only one
producing facility in the U.S.

Cement Types
Portland Cement
Ordinary Portland Cement (Type I)
Moderate Sulphate Resistance Cement (Type II)
Rapid Hardening or High Early Strength Portland Cement (Type
III)
Low Heat Portland Cement (Type IV)
Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement (Type V)
Water Repellent Portland Cement
Water Proof Portland Cement
Air Entraining Portland Cement (Type I-A, II-A, III-A)
Pozzolana Portland Cement
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Modified Portland Cement


This cement on setting develops less heat of
generation than OPC.
It is best suited in hot climate for civil works
construction.

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Rapid Hardening or High Early Strength Cement


(Type III)
Gains strength faster than OPC. In 3 days develops 7
days strength of OPC with same water cement ratio
After 24 hours not less than 160 kg/cm 2 (2276 psi)
After 72 hours not less than 275 kg/cm 2 (3391 psi)

Initial and final setting times are same as OPC


Contains more tri-calcium silicate (C3S) and finely
ground

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Emits more heat during setting, therefore


unsuitable for mass concreting
Lighter and costlier than OPC. Short curing
period makes it economical
Used for structures where immediate loading is
required e.g. repair works

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Quick Setting Cement


Sets faster than OPC
Initial setting time is 5 minutes
Final setting time is 30 minutes
Used for concreting in underwater or
running water
Mixing and placing has to be faster to
avoid initial setting prior to laying.

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Low Heat Cement


Low percentage (5%) of tri-calcium aluminates (C3A) and
silicate (C3S) and high (46%) of di-calcium silicate (C2S) to
keep heat generation low
It has low lime content and less compressive strength.
Initial and final setting times nearly same as OPC
Very slow rate of developing strength
Not suitable for ordinary structures
Shuttering required for long duration so cost will increase
Prolonged curing is required
Structure utilization will be delayed

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Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement


Percentage of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) is kept
below 5% resulting in increase in resisting power
against sulphates
Heat developed is almost same as Low Heat Cement
Theoretically ideal cement. Costly manufacturing
because of stringent composition requirements
Used for structures likely to be damaged by severe
alkaline conditions like bridges, culverts, canal lining
etc

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Water Repellent Portland


Cement
It contains a small percentage of water-proofing
material with the cement and is manufactured under
the name Aqua-crete.
The cement is prepared with ordinary or rapid
hardening cement and white cement.
It is used in to check moisture penetration in
basements etc.

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Water Proof Portland


cement
It is prepared by mixing ordinary or rapid hardening
cement and some percentage of some metal stearate
( Ca, Al etc).
It is resistant to water and oil penetration.
It is also resistant to acids, alkaline and salt
discharged by industrial water.
It is used for water retaining structure like tanks,
reservoir, retaining walls, pool, dam etc

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High Alumina Cement


Black chocolate color cement produced by fusing
bauxite and limestone in correct proportion, at high
temperature
Resists attack of chemicals, sulphates, seawater, frost
action and also fire. Useful in chemical plants and
furnaces
Ultimate strength is much higher than OPC
Initial setting time is 2 hours, followed soon by final
set
Most heat emitted in first 10 hours so good for
freezing temperatures in cold regions (below 18C)
Develops strength rapidly, useful during wartime
emergency
Unsuitable for mass concrete as it emits large heat on
setting

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Portland Slag Cement


Produced by mixing Portland cement clinker, gypsum and
granulated blast furnace slag
Cheaper than OPC, blackish grey
Lesser heat of hydration. Initial setting 1 hour and final
setting 10 hours
Better resistance to soils, sulphates of alkali metals,
alumina, iron and acidic waters
Suitable for marine works, mass concreting
Due to low early strength, not suitable for RCC
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Air Entraining Cement


OPC with small quantity of air entraining materials
(resins, oils, fats, fatty acids) ground together
Air is entrained in the form of tiny air bubbles during
chemical reaction
Concrete is more plastic, more workable, more resistant
to freezing
Strength of concrete reduces somewhat
Quantity of air entrained should not be more than 5% to
prevent excess strength loss
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White Cement
OPC with pure white color produced with white chalk
or clay free from iron oxide
Instead of coal, oil fuel is used for burning
Much more costlier than OPC

Colored Cement
Suitable pigments used to impart desired color
Pigments used should be chemically inert and
durable under light, sun or weather

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Portland Pozzolana Cement


OPC clinker and pozzolana (calcined clay, surkhi and
fly ash) ground together
Properties same as OPC
Produces less heat of hydration and offers great
resistance to attacks of sulphates and acidic waters
Used in marine works and mass concreting
Ultimate strength is more than OPC but setting
timings are same as OPC
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Other Varieties of Cement

High Alumina Cement


Quick Setting Cement
Blast Furnace Slag Cement
White Cement
Colored Cement
Expanding Cement
Hydrophobic Cement

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Cement Manufacturing

Steps

Grinding & mixing . Raw materials are ground and


mixed in right proportions.
Burning. Burning at 1300 to 1900oC and obtaining
clinker from kilns.
Grinding. Grinding of clinker to fine powder.

Processes
Dry process. Dry mixing and grinding of
constituents. Difficult for composition control, slow,
costly.
Wet process. Wet mixing and grinding into slurry
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which turns into clinker on burning in kiln.

Wet processCalcareous
Raw slurry

Argillaceous
materials
( clay)

materials
( limestone)

elevators

Preliminary
crushing

Wash mills

Correction
silos

Elevators (storage
bins)

Elevators (storage
bins)

Lime slurry
Clay slurry

Hoppers
Water
Wet
grinding
(Ball mills)

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Wet process (contd.)

Gypsum
Gypsum
hopper

Correction silos

Fuel-coal

Rotary kilns

Crushing &
grinding
(Ball mill)

Clinker

Pulverized
coal

Elevators
(Clinker storage)
Clinker grinding
(Cement grinding
mills)
Elevator (Cement
silos)

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Cement Manufacturing Process

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Cement Manufacturing Process

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Rotary Kiln (Furnace)

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Wet process
Collection of raw materials:
Calcareous materials (limestone, marl, chalk, etc.) are
quarried by blasting. Argillaceous materials (clay, slate,
etc.) are transported to the site.

Crushing, grinding & mixing of raw materials:


Chalk: chalk is finely broken up and dispersed in water
in a wash mill. The clay is also broken up and mixed with
water in similar wash mill. The mixture is passed through
a series of screens. The resulting cement slurry flows
into storage tanks.
Limestone: limestone is crushed & fed into a ball mill
with the clay dispersed in water. After grinding, the
resulting slurry is pumped into storage tanks.
Slurry: it is a liquid of creamy consistency, with water
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content between 35-40%

Wet
process
(contd.)

Crushing, grinding & mixing of raw materials:


Slurry is kept in storage tanks. The sedimentation of
suspended solid is prevented by mechanical stirrers or
bubbling of compressed air.
The slurry is passed into silos where proportioning is
finely adjusted to ensure correct chemical composition.

Burning

Slurry is pumped into upper end of the rotary kiln set at


a slight gradient. It is 4 m in diameter and upto 150 m
long. It rotates slowly about its axis. The slurry is fed at
the upper end while pulverised coal is thrown in by an
air blast at the lower end. Oil and natural gas can also
be used instead of gas.
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Zones of Rotary Kiln

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Wet
process
(contd.)
Burning
When slurry moves down the kiln, it encounters
progressively high temperatures.
At first water is driven off, and CO2 is liberated. The
material becomes dry.
The dry material undergoes a series of chemical
reactions until finally, in the hottest part of kiln, 2030 % of the material becomes liquid, and lime, silica
and alumina recombine.
The mass fuses into balls, 0.3-2.5 cm dia, known as
clinker.
The clinker drops into coolers.
A large kiln can produce 700 tonnes of cement a 42
day

Process Of Clinker Production From Raw Feed To The Final Product

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Clinker

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Clinke
r

Source: PCA, 2003

Gypsum

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Wet
process
(contd.)
Grinding
The cool clinker is crushed with 3-4% of gypsum
(CaSO4) in order to prevent flash setting of cement.
Once the cement has been satisfactorily ground it
is ready for packing in bags.
Each bag contains 50 kg of cement.

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Source: PCA, 2003

Cement Clinker
Tri-calcium
silicate 3CaO SiO
Composition

or C3S (Alite)

Best cementing material. About 40%. Main cause of


hardness and early strength (7 days strength)

Di-calcium silicate 2CaO SiO2 or C2S (Belite)


About 32%. Resistance to chemical attacks. Hardens slow
and takes long to add to strength

Tri-calcium aluminates 3CaO Al2O3 or C3A (Celite)


About 10%. Rapidly reacts with water and is responsible
for flash set, volume changes, cracking and high heat of
hydration. Rapidity is regulated by the addition of gypsum.

Tetra-calcium alumino ferrite 4CaO Al 2O3 Fe2O3 or


C4AF (Felite)
About 9%. Responsible for flash set.
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Properties of cement
components
Component

Rate of
reaction

Heat
Ultimate
liberated cementing
value

Tri-calcium silicate,
C3S

Medium

Medium

Good

Di-calcium silicate,
C2S

Slow

Small

Good

Fast

Large

Poor

Slow

Small

Poor

Tri-calcium
aluminate, C3A
Tetra-calcium
alumino ferrite, C4AF

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Cement Properties
Fineness: Finer cements react quicker with water
and increase shrinkage and cracking of concrete.
Soundness: Change in volume of concrete after
setting. It may cause cracks, distortion and
disintegration of concrete.
Setting time: Initial setting time is that stage
after which any cracks that may appear do not
reunite. Final setting is that stage when it has
attained sufficient strength and hardness.
Compressive strength of cement and sand mortar
should not be less than
115 kg/cm2 after 3 days
175 kg/cm2 after 7 days

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Setting and hardening of


cement
The
chemical reaction between cement and

water is called hydration of cement.


When cement is mixed with water (25-35% by
weight), a stiff and sticky paste is formed which
remains plastic for a short period.
With passage of time, the plasticity disappears
and the cement past becomes stiff due to initial
hydration of cement. This phenomenon of plastic
cement changing into a solid mass is known as
setting of cement.
On setting, cement binds the aggregates into a
solid mass which gains strength as the time
passes, till hydration of cement is complete.
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Setting and hardening of


cement
The phenomenon by virtue of which the

cement paste, which is finally set, develops


strength is known as hardening of cement.

Heat of hydration: The reaction of cement


with water evolves heat known as heat of
hydration.
The rate of setting and hardening of cement,
the rate of evolution of heat and resistance to
chemical attack are affected by the
proportions of different cement components.

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Setting and hardening of


cement
C S and C S constitute about 70-80% of all
3

Portland cements.

Tri-calcium silicate (C3S): C3S hydrates more


rapidly than C2S and develops strength in
concrete for first 28 days. It also generates
more heat.
Di-calcium silicate (C2S): C2S is next to hydrate
but it hydrates slowly and is responsible for the
ultimate strength. C2S takes 2-3 years for its
complete hydration which contributes towards
ultimate strength of cement mortar or concrete.
It is more resistant to sulphate attacks.

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Setting and hardening of


cement
Tri-calcium aluminate (C A): When cement reacts
3

with water, C3A is the first to react with water


and causes the initial set. It generates great
amount of heat and is easily affected by
sulphates.

C3A contributes little to the strength of concrete.


C3A is rendered ineffective by addition of gypsum
during grinding of clinkers.
Gypsum reacts with C3A and turns it into calcium
sulpho-aluminate which causes expansion during
setting.

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Setting and hardening of


cement

C4AF (Felite)

It is
comparatively
inactive and
contributes
little to the
strength of
concrete and
the heat of
hydration.
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Sequence of Hydration
Ettringite (needle shape prismatic crystals or rod
like shape) make appearance with few minutes of
hydration
A few hours later large crystals of CH form
Simultaneously very small fibrous of C-S-H start
to fill the gaps

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Identification of Various Phases

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Identification of Various Phases


CH crystals

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Identification of Various Phases


CH crystals

Etteringite

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Identification of Various Phases


CH crystals

C-S-H fibres

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ASTM Portland cements

Type I - General purpose


Type II - Moderate heat of hydration and
sulfate resistance (C3A < 8%). General
construction, sea water, mass concrete.
Type III - High early strength (C3A < 15%).
Emergency repairs, precast, winter
construction.
Type IV - Low heat (C3S < 35%, C3A < 7%, C2S
> 40%). Mass concrete
Type V - Sulfate resistant (C3A < 5%). Sulfate
in soil, sewers

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ASTM Portland cements

ASTM also has Type I-A, II-A, III-A cements with


air entrainment
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ASTM Portland cements

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Testing of Portland
cement

Fineness test
Consistency test
Setting time test
Soundness test
Tensile strength test
Compressive strength test

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Fineness of cement

Finer cements will

React more quickly


React more completely
Improve mix cohesion (or make sticky)
Reduce bleeding
Deteriorate more quickly
Be more susceptible to cracking
Generally require more water

Fineness of cement does not alter the total


quantity of heat liberated but it changes the
rate of development due to change in surface
areas.

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Fineness test
Excessive fineness is not desirable because
Cost of grinding to achieve fineness increases
Excessively fine cement deteriorates more quickly
Greater fineness requires more gypsum for proper
retardation
Water required for standard consistency increases
for finer cements.

The fineness of cement is tested by


Sieve test
Surface area test
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Fineness test

Sieve test: The maximum residue after sieving


through 90-micron sieve should be limited to
10% by weight for ordinary Portland cement
5% by weight for rapid hardening Portland cement

Sieve test does not give any idea of smaller


grains retained on sieve.
Surface area test: also known as specific surface
test.
Specific surface is the total surface of all particles of
cement per unit weight.
Determined by air permeability method or Wagners
turbidimeter.
Less than 2250 cm2/g of cement (air permeability) or
1600 cm2/g of cement (Wagners method).

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Consistency test

Consistency test is conducted to determine


the percentage of water required for
preparing cement pastes of standard
consistency for other tests (e.g., setting time,
soundness and compressive strength)
Vicats apparatus consists of metal frame
with a movable rod (300 g). Attachments to
this apparatus are:
Square needle: used for initial setting time test
Plunger: used for consistency test
Annular collar: used for final setting time test

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Vicats apparatus

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Consistency test
Method: Consistency is measured by Vicat
apparatus by using a 10 mm dia plunger
fitted to needle holder
A trial past of cement (600 g) and water (e.g. 30%
by weight or 180 g) is mixed and placed in the
mould.
The plunger is brought into contact with top
surface of paste and released.
If plunger penetrates paste to a point 30+-(1) mm
from top of the mold, it is termed as standard
consistency.
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Usual range is between 26 and 33%.

Initial setting time test


Initial setting time: this value is necessary for
various operations such as mixing,
transportation, placing and compaction of
cement mortar or concrete.
Method:
Cement paste is filled in the Vicat mould.
A round or square needle with cross-sectional area of 1
mm2 is used. Needle is released at regular intervals and
penetration is noted.
If needle penetrates to a point 25 mm from top, the
initial set is said to have taken place.
Initial set is expressed as time elapsed since the mixing76
water was added till required needle penetration.
Initial set is 30 minutes for ordinary cement.

Final setting time test


Final setting time: is the time after which the
cement mortar or concrete gains strength.
Method:
Cement paste is filled in the Vicat mould.
The needle with annular collar is used.
Final set is said to have taken place when the
needle, gently lowered to the surface makes an
impression on it but the circular cutting edge fails
to do so.
The final setting is reckoned from the moment
when mixing water was added to the cement.
This time is about 10 hours for ordinary cement.

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Soundness test

objective: this
test is performed
to detect the
presence of
uncombined lime
and magnesia in
cement.
Le Chatelier
apparatus:
consists of brass
cylinder split along
its generatix.

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Soundness
test

Method :

The cement paste is prepared. The percentage of water


is taken as determined in consistency test.
The cylinder is placed on a glass plate and filled with
cement paste. The top of cylinder is covered with
another glass plate and a small weight is placed on top.
The whole assembly is immersed in water at 24-35 oC
for 24 hours. After 24h, distance between the indicators
is measured.
The mould is immersed in water again and brought to
boil in 30 minutes. It is boiled for one hour, and mould is
removed.
After cooling, distance between the indicators is again
measured.
The increase in distance is expansion of cement.
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It should not exceed 10 mm for ordinary cement.

Tensile strength test

Method

A 1:3 cement sand mortar with a water content of


8% of the weight of solids is mixed and molded
into a briquette of shape shown.
The briquettes are
cured for 24 hours
at 27 oC.
The briquettes are
tested for direct
tension. The pull is
applied through
special jaws
engaging wide ends
of briquette.
Average strength is

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Compressive strength
test
Method
1:3 mortar cubes (50x50x50 mm) or cylinders
(150x300 mm) are prepared.
Mortar composition: Cement = 185 g,
sand
= 555 g,
water = 74 g.
The cubes/cylinders are tested in compression.
Average compressive strength should not be
less than 11.5 N/mm2 (after 2 days) and 17.5
N/mm2 (after 7 days).

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Questions ?

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