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Socialization

A sociological perspective

Shaira Matin

Key Concepts
Socialization

Re socialization

Nature vs. nurture

Theories of socialization

Types of socialization:

Charles Horton
Cooley-Looking GlassSelf

Primary socialization

George Herbert
Mead-Stages of selfdevelopment

Developmental socialization

Sigmund FreudElements of
Personality

Anticipatory socialization

Erving GoffmanDramaturgical
Analysis

Total Institution

Agents of Socialization

Techniques of Socialization

SOCIALIZATION
Socialization the process by
which people learn the attitudes,
values, and actions appropriate
to individuals of a particular
society.

NATURE AND NURTURE


Nature-heredity-Human
nature
refers
to
nearly
permanent
qualities which humans' posses.
They are also biologically based.
Nurture-social environment

TYPES OF SOCIALIZATION
Primary Socialization:
The most essential and basic type of
socialization.
It takes place in the early years of life of
the newborn individual.
Language learning, internalization of
cultural norms and values, establishment
of emotional ties etc.
Internalization of norms-by trial and error,
by direct and indirect observation and
experience, the child gradually learns the
norms relating to right and wrong
behavior.

TYPES OF SOCIALIZATION
Anticipatory Socialization:
The process in which a person
rehearses
for
future
positions,
occupations and social relationships.
Preparation for many aspects of
adult life begins with anticipatory
socialization during childhood and
adolescence
and
continues
throughout our lives.

TYPES OF SOCIALIZATION
Re socialization:
Process
of
discarding
former
behavior, practice or habits and
accepting
new ones as part of
transition in ones life.
The process of re socialization
typically involves considerable stress
for the individual, much more than
anticipatory socialization.

Total Institutions
This term was coined in 1961 by Erving Goffman and
was designed to describe a society which is generally
cut off from the rest of society but yet still provides
for all the needs of its members. Therefore, total
institutions have the ability to resocialize people
either voluntarily or involuntarily.

Goffman lists four characteristics of such institutions:


All aspects of life are conducted in the same place and
under the same single authority.
Each phase of a members daily activity is carried out
in the immediate company of others. All members are
treated a like and all members do the same thing
together.
Daily activities are tightly scheduled. All activity is
superimposed upon the individual by a system of
explicit formal rules.
A single rational plan exists to fulfill the goals of the
institution.

SELF AND SOCIALIZATION


Three thinkers contributed a lot in explaining
the development of self. They are:
Charles Horton Cooley
George Herbert Mead
Sigmund Freud
Erving Goffman

Charles Horton Cooley:


Looking glass self:
According to Cooley looking glass self, is the self
results from an individuals imagination of how
others view him or her. As a result we
sometimes develop self-identity based on
incorrect perceptions of how others see us.

CHARLES HORTON COOLEY


Phases of self-development:
The process of developing a self-identity
has three stages:
First phase- Imagination and preparation:
We imagine how we want to appear to
others.
Second phase- Present and imagine
response: We imagine how others are
viewing us.
Third phase- Self judgment and modify
based on interpretation: We develop some
sort of feeling about ourselves on the
basis of that imagined interpretation.

G.H. MEAD
According to mead self is composed
of two elements:
"I" is unsocialized, spontaneous, self-interested.
"ME" is identity that is aware of expectations and
attitudes of society-"Our socialized Self"
Preparatory/imitation stage:

Learn symbols, acquire behavior repertoire, awareness of


others. Basic communication skills.
Up to about the age of 3 kids mimic social roles
Children imitate significant others

Play stage:

Identify with specific others, ROLE TAKING, start to realize


the perspective of others, conforming, gender roles.
SIGNIFICANT OTHERS.
Role taking: process of mentally assuming the perspective
of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint

G.H. MEAD
Game: Multiple roles and tasks,
simultaneously, RULES and
organization of activity.
GENERALIZED OTHER: society/moral
codes, people as multi-faceted: many
roles/statuses.
Generalized others: attitudes, viewpoints,
and expectations of society as a whole that
child takes into account

SIGMUND FREUD
Elements of Personality:
Id:
Impulsive, un socialized side of a person
Concerned with satisfying the animal impulses of man.
Exp: violent aggression, forbidden relation.
Ego:
The mediator between desire and action.
Represses the urges of id when necessary.
Arises through social experiences
Sensible part of the self.
Super Ego
A reflection of societys standard of right and wrong.
Directly say No to the id.
The moral authority of the personality.

DRAMATURGICAL ANALYSIS: THE


PRESENTATION OF SELF
DRAMATURGICAL ANALYSIS
The study of social interaction in terms of
theatrical performance

People resemble performers in action


Erving Goffman (1922-1982)
Analyzed social interaction
Explained how people live their lives like actors
performing on a stage

Goffman argued that roles in life like those in


the theater, have both a stage and a
backstage.

Presentation of Self
Impression Management
Impression Management: The individual
slants the presentation of the self in order
to create distinctive appearances and
satisfy particular audiences
A persons efforts to create specific
impressions in the minds of others

Looking busy at work, -paying attention in


class

Socialization techniques
Socialization is a learning process that begins
shortly after our birth.
Early childhood is the period of the most intense
and the most crucial socialization.
It is then that we acquire language and learn the
fundamentals of our culture.
It is also when much of our personality takes
shape. However, we continue to be socialized
throughout our lives.
As we age, we enter new statuses and need to
learn the appropriate roles for them.
We also have experiences that teach us lessons
and potentially lead us to alter our expectations,
beliefs, and personality.

Socialization techniques
Cultural Influences
How children develop sense of self can vary between
cultures

Looking around the world, we see that different


cultures use different techniques to socialize their
children.
There are two broad types of teaching methods-formal and informal.
Formal education is what primarily happens in a
classroom. It usually is structured, controlled, and
directed primarily by adult teachers who are
professional knowers.
In contrast, informal education can occur anywhere.
It involves imitation of what others do and say as well
as experimentation and repetitive practice of basic
skills. This is what happens when children role-play
adult interactions in their games.

Socialization techniques
During the 1950's, Margaret Mead led an extensive
field study of early socialization practices in six
different societies. They were the Gusii of Kenya, the
Rajputs of India, the village of Taira on the island of
Okinawa in Japan, the Tarong of the Philippines, the
Mixteca
Indians of
central Mexico, and a New
England community that was given the pseudonym
Orchard town.
All of these societies shared in
common the fact that they were relatively
homogeneous culturally.
Two general conclusions emerged from this study.
First, socialization practices varied markedly from
society to society. Second, the socialization practices
were generally similar among people of the same
society. This is not surprising since people from the
same culture and community are likely to share core
values and perceptions.

Socialization techniques
In addition, we generally socialize our
children in much the same way that our
parents socialized us. Margaret Mead and
her fellow researchers found that different
methods were used to control children
in these six societies.
For instance, the Gusii primarily used fear
and physical punishment.
In contrast, the people of Taira used parental
praise and the threat of withholding praise.
The Tarong mainly relied on teasing and
scaring.

Socialization techniques
Margaret Meads cross-cultural study of
socialization is provocative.
At some time in our lives, most of us will be
involved in raising children. Usually we do
the same way that we were raised. Abusive
parents were, in most cases, abused by
their parents. Likewise, gentle, indulgent
parents were raised that way themselves.
Is there a right or wrong way to socialize
children? To a certain extent the answer
depends on the frame of reference. What is
right in one culture may be wrong in another.

Agents of Socialization

FAMILY

The family is the primary agent of


socialization.
Socialization by the family begins
shortly after birth.
Primary, informal introduction into
formal
society,
unconscious
training, habit training.
GENDER ROLES--"Toys for Boys".

SCHOOL
Functional--Formal, Mostly structured - VALUES.
Conflict: Class and Success/ formal reward &
punishment.
Interactionist: informal structures/peers,
subcultural formation.
GENDER ROLES AGAIN
Conflict theorists find schools foster competition through
built-in systems of reward and punishment
Functionalist note schools are agents of socialization and
teach children values and customs of the larger society

PEER GROUP
Peers refer to people who are roughly
the same age and/or who share other
social characteristics (e.g., students in a
college class).
Independence from any authority.
Significant in industrial society.
As children grow older, peer groups
increasingly assume the role of Meads
significant others.

PEER GROUP
Peer groups can ease the transition to
adult responsibilities.
Peer groups can encourage children to
honor or violate cultural norms and
values.
Peer groups can be a source of
harassment as well as support.
Importance of peer groups to young
people shown when social lives are
strained by war or disaster

MASS MEDIA
Television permits imitation and role playing but
does not encourage more complex forms of
learning.
Technology is socializing families into multitasking
as the social norm.
Imitation and role playing, yet lacks intimacy
and involvement. Frequency of violence.
Gender Roles and display of others: typically
distorted and under represented.
POSITIVE: Tribal people, children's programming,
cultural diversity

WORKPLACE

Full-time and Adulthood


Introduction to Adult REALITY
Goals
Occupational: Career choice,
Anticipatory Socialization (inherit or
choose)
Conditioning (accepting unpleasant)
Commitment (pleasurable)
Continuous Commitment-integration
into identity.

STATE
Impact in industrial society
Decline of the family as sole
socializing agent
Transferred family protective function to
hospitals, mental health clinics, and child care
centers
Religious organizations stipulate traditional
rites that may bring together all members of
an extended family
Government regulations stipulate legal ages
for drinking, driving, marriage, and retirement