Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 37

Kuat Geser Tanah

Direct Shear Test


(Uji Geser Langsung)

Reza P. Munirwan, ST, M.Sc

Determination of shear strength parameters of


soils (c, orc
Percobaan Laboratorium
menggunakan sampel
tanah tidak terganggu
(undisturbed sample)
Percobaan lab yang umum,
1.Direct shear test
2.Triaxial shear test
Percobaan laboratorium lainnya,
Direct simple shear test, torsional
ring shear test, plane strain triaxial
test, laboratory vane shear test,
laboratory fall cone test

Percobaan Lapangan

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Vane shear test


Torvane
Pocket penetrometer
Fall cone
Pressuremeter
Static cone penetrometer
Standard penetration test

Percobaan Laboratorium
Kondisi Lapangan

Model sampel
tanah

vc
hc

hc
vc

Sebelum konstruksi

vc +
hc

hc
vc +

Selama dan
sesudah konstruksi

vc +

Percobaan Laboratorium
Simulasi kondisi lapangan
di laboratorium
0

vc
0

0
0

Model sampel
tanah
dari
lapangan

l
a
i
x
a
r
T

Di
hc rect
sh
ea
r

hc
vc

hc

t
s
te

vc +

vc
te

st

vc

Step 1
Atur alat tes dan
sampel sedemikian
rupa untuk kondisi
tegangan awal

hc

Step 2
Berikan tegangan
seperti yang akan
diberikan dilapangan

Direct shear test


Skema alat percobaan direct shear

Direct shear test

Direct shear test adalah percobaan yang paling sesuai untuk


kondisi percobaan consolidated drained khususnya pada tanah
granular (contoh: pasir/sand) atau lempung keras/stiff clays

Persiapan sampel pasir


Porous
plates

Komponen dari shear box

Persiapan sampel pasir

Direct shear test


Persiapan sampel pasir

Leveling the top surface


of specimen

Pressure plate

Specimen preparation
completed

Direct shear test


Prosedur Percobaan

Steel ball
Pressure plate

Porous
plates
S

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation

Direct shear test


Prosedur Percobaan

Steel ball
Pressure plate

Porous
plates
S

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation
Step 2: Lower box is subjected to a horizontal displacement at a constant rate

Direct shear test


Shear box

Dial gauge to
measure vertical
displacement

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Loading frame to
apply vertical load

Dial
gauge
to
measure horizontal
displacement

Direct shear test


Analisis hasil percobaan

Normal force (P)


Normal stress
Area of cross section of the sample
Shear resistance developed at the sliding surface (S)
Shear stress
Area of cross section of the sample
Note: Cross-sectional area of the sample changes with the horizontal
displacement

Direct shear tests pada pasir


Stress-strain relationship
Shear stress,

Dense sand/
OC clay

f
f

Loose sand/
NC clay

Expansion
Compression

Change in height
of the sample

Shear displacement

Dense sand/OC Clay


Shear displacement

Loose sand/NC Clay

Direct shear tests pada pasir


Cara menentukan parameter kuat geser c dan

Shear stress at failure,

Normal stress = 2

f3

f2

f1

Normal stress = 1

Shear displacement

Garis keruntuhan Mohr Coulomb

Normal stress,

Shear stress,

Normal stress = 3

Direct shear tests pada pasir


Hal penting menggenai parameter kuat geser c and pada
pasir
Pasir = tanah nonkohesi, maka c = 0

Percobaan Direct shear


adalah
drained
dan
tekanan
air
pori
terdissipasi, maka u = 0

Kesimpulan,
= dan c = c = 0

Direct shear tests pada lempung


In case of clay, horizontal displacement should be applied at a very
slow rate to allow dissipation of pore water pressure (therefore, one
test would take several days to finish)
Failure envelopes for clay from drained direct shear tests

Normally consolidated clay (c = 0)

Normal force,

Shear stress at failure,

Overconsolidated clay (c 0)

Interface tests on direct shear apparatus


In many foundation design problems and retaining wall problems, it
is required to determine the angle of internal friction between soil
and the structural material (concrete, steel or wood)
P

Soil

Foundation material

f ca ' tan

Where,
ca = adhesion,
= angle of internal friction

Kelebihan percobaan direct shear


Drainase yang cepat dapat diperoleh, karena ketebalan sampel
percobaan yang kecil.
Dapat digunakan untuk menggetahui parameter kuat geser
pada pertemuan tanah.

Kekurangan percobaan direct shear


Arah bidang keruntuhan sudah diketahui.
Luas permukaan sliding berubah seiring dengan berjalannya
proses percobaan.
Ketidak seragaman distribusi kuat geser sepanjang bidang
runtuh.

Contoh Soal
Hasil-hasil pengujian yang diperoleh dari pengujian geser langsung
(direct shear) dengan ukuran sampel 60mm x 60mm pada tanah
lempung berpasir sebagai berikut:
Percobaan

Beban
Normal (kN)

Beban Geser pada


Keruntuhan (kN)

0.20

0.205

0.40

0.26

0.80

0.355

Gambar garis selubung


parameter kuat gesernya.

kegagalannya.

Tentukan

nilai

dari

Penyelesaian

Normal force (P)


Normal stress
Area of cross section of the sample
Shear resistance developed at the sliding surface (S)
Shear stress
Area of cross section of the sample
Percobaan

Tegangan
Normal (kN/m2)

Tegangan
Geser(kN/m2)

56

57

111

72

223

99

Normal stress,

Shear stress at failure,


k m
f

Penyelesaian

In-situ shear tests


Vane shear test
Torvane
Pocket Penetrometer
Pressuremeter
Static Cone Penetrometer test (Push
Cone Penetrometer Test, PCPT)
Standard Penetration Test, SPT

In-situ shear tests


Vane shear test (suitable for soft to stiff clays)
Torvane
Pocket Penetrometer
Pressuremeter
Static Cone Penetrometer test (Push
Cone Penetrometer Test, PCPT)
Standard Penetration Test, SPT

Vane shear test


This is one of the most versatile and widely used devices used for
investigating undrained shear strength (Cu) and sensitivity of soft clays
Applied
Torque, T
Bore hole
(diameter = DB)

Disturbed
soil

Rupture
surface

h > 3DB)

Vane
Vane

PLAN VIEW
Rate of rotation : 60 120 per minute
D

Test can be conducted at 0.5 m


vertical intervals

In-situ shear tests


Vane shear test
Torvane (suitable for very soft to stiff clays)
Pocket Penetrometer
Pressuremeter
Static Cone Penetrometer test (Push
Cone Penetrometer Test, PCPT)
Standard Penetration Test, SPT

Torvane
Torvane is a modification to the vane

In-situ shear tests


Vane shear test
Torvane
Pocket Penetrometer (suitable for very soft to stiff clays)
Pressuremeter
Static Cone Penetrometer test (Push
Cone Penetrometer Test, PCPT)
Standard Penetration Test, SPT

Pocket Penetrometer
Pushed directly into the soil. The unconfined compression
strength (qu) is measured by a calibrated spring.

Swedish Fall Cone (suitable for very soft to soft clays)


Cu Mass of the cone

1/(penetration)2

Soil sample

The test must be calibrated

In-situ shear tests


Vane shear test
Torvane
Pocket Penetrometer
Pressuremeter (suitable for all soil types)
Static Cone Penetrometer test (Push
Cone Penetrometer Test, PCPT)
Standard Penetration Test, SPT

Pressuremeter
Air

Coaxial tube
Water

Pre bored or
self bored hole
Guard cell
Measuring cell
Guard cell

In-situ shear tests


Vane shear test
Torvane
Pocket Penetrometer
Pressuremeter
Static Cone Penetrometer test (Push
Cone Penetrometer Test, PCPT) (suitable
for all soil types except very course granular
materials)

Standard Penetration Test, SPT

Static
Cone
Penetrometer
test

40 mm
40 mm

40 mm
40 mm

Cone
penetrometers
with
pore
water
pressure measurement
capability are known as
piezocones

In-situ shear tests


Vane shear test
Torvane
Pocket Penetrometer
Pressuremeter
Static Cone Penetrometer test (Push
Cone Penetrometer Test, PCPT)
Standard Penetration Test, SPT
(suitable for granular materials)

Standard Penetration Test, SPT


SPT is the most widely used test procedure to determine
the properties of in-situ soils
Number of blows for the first 150 mm
penetration is disregarded due to the
disturbance likely to exist at the bottom
of the drill hole

63.5 kg

Various correlations have been


developed
to determine
soil
The test
can be conducted
at every
1m
0.76 (c,
m ect)
vertical
intervals
strength parameters
from
N
Drill rod

0.15 m
0.15 m
0.15 m

Number of blows = N1
Number of blows = N2
Number of blows = N3

Standard penetration resistance (SPT N) = N2 + N3

Standard Penetration Test, SPT

SPT (Manual operation)