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Microbial Kinetics in a Reactor with Recycle

(Q-Qw), Xe, S
Q, So, Xo

(1+R).Q, S, X
Volume = V;
S, X

(RQ+ Qw), Xr, S

RQ, Xr, S

X, i.e., Biomass is also known as


Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS)

Qw, Xr, S

Sludge Wasted (X) = Qw.Xr

Hydraulic Retention Time ():

Amount of Water in the Aeration Tank


Net Rate of Withdrawa l of Water from Aeration Tank

V
V

[(1 R )Q RQ] Q

Biological Solids Retention Tine ( c):

Amount of Biomass in the Aeration Tank


X.V

Net Rate of Withdrawa l of Biomass from Aeration Tank


(1 R ).Q.X R.Q.X r

Please Note,
(1 R ).Q.X R.Q.X r Q w .X r

X.V
1

Q w .X r

Inert Solids in a Reactor with Recycle


(Q-Qw), Ce
Q, Co

(1+R).Q, C
Volume = V;
Inert Solids: C

(RQ+ Qw), Cr

RQ, Cr, S

Q w , Cr

X + C, i.e., total sludge is also known as


Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS)
Inert Solids Balance for the whole system:

Total Sludge Wasted (X + C) = Qw.(Xr+ Cr)

Q.Co [(Q - Qw).Ce + Qw.Cr] = 0


Q.Co = Qw.Cr

(A)

Q.Co .c C.V;

Retention Time of Inert Solids:

C.V
c
;
Q w .C r

C.V
Q W .(B)
Cr
c

C Co .

Co .c C.
(C)

Sewage: Before and After Secondary Treatment

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GTLKoGGo0dM&feature=player_detailpage

Settleability of Activated Sludge Solids


One of the factors essential to the performance of the activated sludge process is effective flocculation of the
sludge, with subsequent rapid settling and compaction.
Two types of bacteria are found in ASP sludge: 1) floc-forming, and 2) filamentous bacteria
Normal flocs:
bacteria results

A balance between floc-forming and filamentous


in strong flocs
that keep

their integrity in the aeration basin and settle well in the

sedimentation
tank. (High BSRT)
Pin-point flocs:
low numbers. This

In these flocs, filamentous bacteria are absent or occur in


results in

small flocs that do not settle well. (Low BSRT)

Filamentous bulking:
Filamentous bulking is caused by the predominance of
organisms. The
filaments interfere with sludge settling and compaction. (very high BSRT)

filamentous

Sludge settleability is determined by measuring the sludge volume index (SVI), which is given
by:
Sludge Volume Index (SVI):

where SV = volume of settled sludge after 30 min (mL/L);


and MLSS = mixed liquor suspended solids (mg/L).
Low SVI (< 100) means good sludge settleability
High SVI (> 150) means bad settleability

Type III / Hindered / Zone Settling


Interfacial Velocities
of Sludge Solids
V, m/hr

2000

3.60

2500

1.86

3000

1.09

3500

0.69

4500

0.33

5000

0.24

6000

0.14

6500

0.11

8000

0.06

10000

0.03

12000

0.02

Empirical Formula:
Interfacial settling velocity v (in m/hr) = [2x1010]. [X in mg/L]-2.9521

Interfacial
Height

Solids (X)
mg/L

Increasing (X + C)

Measurement of Sludge Settling Characteristics


Time
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GTLKoGGo0dM&feature=player_detailpage

Concept of Solid Flux


Solid Flux (SF) = Mass of solids passing through unit surface area of the clarifier in unit time, kg/m2/hr

Flow Q(1 R)
Solids (C X)

At any depth ,
Gravity Flux (SFG) = (Ci + Xi).vi
vi is the interfacial velocity
Underflow Flux (SFu)= (Ci + Xi).u
Total Flux (SFT) = SFG + SFu

Under steady state conditions,


SFT is same at all depths
(Ci + Xi) increases with depth

Flow Q Q w
Solids 0

Ci , X i , v i

Flow RQ Q w
Solids (C r X r )
Underflow Velocity (u) =

RQ+Q w
As

Design of Secondary Sedimentation Tank


Consider a clarifier with solids conc. (C + X) on top calculated as 5760 mg/L and the solids
concentration at the bottom (Cr + Xr) being chosen as 16000 mg/L
It is also given that Q = 50 MLD, while the values, R = 0.5 and Q w = 2 MLD were established
through design
Assuming no solids escape with the treated effluent, solids input rate to the clarifier must be
equal to the sludge output rate from the clarifier, i.e., Q.(1 + R).(C + X) = (RQ + Q w).(Cr + Xr)
If cross sectional area is As, then solid flux (kg/m2/hr) through the tank,
SF

Q(1 R).(C X) (RQ Q w ).R.(C r X r )

As
As

It is also obvious that the SF through the tank cross-section is the same both at the top and
bottom of the tank and also at any intermediate height in the tank.
The question is then, what should be the value of SF.
As soon as we decide on the value of SF, the tank surface area can be calculated.

Solid Flux Theory and the Concept of Limiting Solid Flux


Underflow velocity (u) is defined as, u

(RQ Q w )
As

u may be determined by equating the solid flux at the top and bottom of the clarifier,
Solid Flux (SF) = (C + X).(v1 + u) = (Cr + Xr).(v2 + u)

(C X).v1 (C r X r ).v 2
(Cr X r ) (C X)

In the present case, (C + X) = 5760 mg/L;


v1 = 0.16 m/hr
(Cr + Xr) = 16000 mg/L
v2 = 0.10 m/hr
Therefore

u = 0.077 m/hr; SF = 1.365 kg/m2/hr; is to SF value acceptable?? No!!!

Solids

Gravity Flux

mg/L

m/hr

kg/m2/hr

2000
2500
3000
3500
4500
5000
6000
6500
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000

3.60
1.86
1.09
0.69
0.33
0.24
0.14
0.11
0.06
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01

7.196
4.655
3.261
2.414
1.478
1.203
0.843
0.721
0.481
0.311
0.218
0.161
0.124
0.099

u, m/hr

0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077

Underflow Flux

Total Flux

Kg/m2/hr

kg/m2/hr

0.154
0.193
0.231
0.270
0.347
0.385
0.462
0.501
0.616
0.770
0.924
1.078
1.232
1.386

7.350
4.847
3.492
2.683
1.824
1.588
1.305
1.221
1.097
1.081
1.142
1.239
1.356
1.485

Solid Flux Analysis


3.000
2.500
2.000
1.500

Total Flux, kg/m2/hr

Suggested Flux (1.365)

1.000
0.500

Actual Flux (1.081)

0.000
10000
020000

(C+X)
Actual Flux through the tank should be 1.081
kg/m2/hr or less for u = 0.077 m/hr
Higher value of flux will result in solids build
up in the tank and ultimately solids overflow
with the treated effluent

Activated Sludge Process: Secondary Sedimentation

Circular Sedimentation Tank


d
Rotating Arm

Motor

Inlet Weir
D

Sludge
Bottom Slope

Effluent
Launder

Sludge

Sludge

Sludge

Scraper
Influent Water

Sludge

Design of Activated Sludge Process: Part I


1. Given Q, assume (4-12 hrs) and calculate volume of aeration tank (V)
2. Given S and microbial kinetic constants (YT, kd, Ks and qmax), calculate q
3. Calculate and hence c
4. Given So, calculate biomass concentration in aeration tank (X) and sludge wasting rate,
X = Qw.Xr
5. Given Co, calculate inert solids concentration in aeration tank (C) and hence calculate
(C+X)
6. Given (Cr+Xr), calculate Cr and hence Xr. Then using X and Xr values calculate Qw
7. Calculate (C+X) and R
8. Calculate solids input to the clarifier and also solids output from the clarifier and verify
that these values are identical
9. Assume a value for the underflow velocity (u) from the clarifier and hence calculate As