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Oral communication

Module 2

Meaning: Oral Communication is also known as


verbal communication. It is interchange of verbal
messages between sender & receiver. It is more
immediate than written communication. It is also
natural & informal in human development. Speech
precedes writing. We first learn to speak, then much
later, develop the ability to read & write. Studies say
that 70% of our time goes in communicating out of
which 45% relates to listening and 30%to speaking

Communication is the process of expressing information or ideas by


word of mouth is called oral communication. It involves individuals
conversing with each other, it includes face-to-face conversations,
speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over
internet. In oral
communication , communication is influenced by pitch, volume, speed
& clarity of speaking.

Characteristics of Oral Communication

It consumes less time


It results in saving of money
Easy understanding of message is possible
Immediate feedback can be achieved
Immediate clarification is possible
Effective coordination can be achieved

Advantages of oral
Advantages of oral communication
communication
Oral communication is a time and money saving device.
As there is an element of personal touch, it is comparatively more
effective.
Doubts can be clarified on the spot and the communication can be
understood easily.
Important point can be emphasized through action.
Speech is more powerful means of persuasion and control.
The speaker can get immediate feedback.
The informal plane of oral communication helps to promote friendly
relations.

Disadvantages of oral
Disadvantages
of oral communication
communication
It is not useful where the parties are very far from each other, even
beyond telephonic range.
It is not suitable for lengthy communication.
Oral messages cannot be retained for a long time.
Oral messages do not have any legal validity unless they are taped
and made a part of permanent record.
Body language and speech must match each other.
If the communication is poor in vocal expression, oral communication
are likely to be misunderstood and misinterpreted.

Principles of successful oral communication

Brevity
Clarity
Choosing precise words
Clich
Sequences
Avoid jargon
Seven Cs of communication
Prepositions
Fluency

Brevity : A message to be delivered should be brief. Time factors


is important in oral communication as time of speaker as well as
listener time should be effectively utilized.
Clarity : Content delivery on the part of speaker is very important
for providing clear picture of talk. Clarity can be achieved with
simple words and common words.
Choosing precise words : Using the precise words means
speaking in exact details using the right words at right place to
context which will convey the meaning intended by the speaker.
Clichs : means a phrase which is used often and has no
meaning. An effective communicator avoids clichs during
communication. E.g. fine, ok, oh etc.
Sequences : Speaker should not skip points or change sequence
of consistency, continuity and logical development of the subject
matter should be there in the content of speech.

Avoid jargon : Speaker should avoid irrelevant jargon during the


talk. Jargon refers to usage of word relating to domain.
Terminology relating to science, technology etc.
Prepositions : Unnecessary prepositions should be avoided to
make content of talk simple. E.g. He will be on leave today for
certain period of time. He will be on leave today up to 6 oclock.
Fluency : Means ease as condition of speaking. Fluent speaker is
one who is heard with ease. Listener does not have to strain his
mind to receive, register and interpret message heard

Barriers to effective Oral communication :Listening is psychological act affected by several factors Status feeling of superior
Halo effect based on impressions of the listener
Complexes - lack of confidence
Closed and all knowing mind
Poor retention
Premature evaluation & hurried conclusions as distortions
Abstracting
Slant
Cognitive dissonance
Language barrier

Status : an organization refers to formal and informal relation


among employees in company. A lower level employee may
hesitate to express his hassle in front of his superior in
organization.
Halo effect : audience interest in speaker depends the trust
worthiness of audience on speaker. If the speaker is greatly
trusted and held in high esteem as an honest person, his
statement are readily taken as true.
Complexes : lack of confidence or sense of superiority may
prevent proper oral interaction between persons differently
positioned. Individuals due to inferiority complex may hesitate to
express their opinion.

Closed and all knowing mind : some persons believe that they
know everything in field or subject. Due to this attitude of
audience they may not concentrate on content of speaker
irrespective of whether its effective or not.
Poor retention :to deliver effective speech the speaker should be
organized in terms of sequence and methodology to be adopted.
If the speaker is not clear about the same it leads to vagueness in
minds of audience.
Premature evaluation and hurried conclusions : audience are
required to do patience listening for understanding speakers
content. Incomplete attention and pre judgment of audience does
not provide clarity to audience in terms of talk delivered to them.

Abstracting : when audience focus on few content of the talk in


which they are interested they tend to get superficial picture of the
whole session due to which their conclusion may not be accurate.
Slant : is usually attributed to the biased presentation of matter of
speaker. Instead of straight talk, one speaks on an oblique
manner that could be almost like telling lie.
Cognitive dissonance : the listener fails to accept or respond to
assumptions underlying the new information communicated as he
or she is unprepared to change.
Language barriers : basically refers to communication problem
occurred as listener is not able to follow the language used by
communicator of message.

Techniques(essentials) of Oral Communication:

Audibility of voice
Audibility of words
Bringing out the meaning
Tone
Opening & closing words & sentences
Simplicity
Avoid long words
Use of slang
Use of quotations
Humor
Stage fright

Accent
Friendly atmosphere
Personal greeting
Appreciation
Smile
Empathy
Language
Honesty
Personal appearance
Action
Attention creation
Listeners importance

NOISE : Noise can be defined as a physical sound/mental disturbance


that interrupts the flow of communication as the sender or the receiver
gets distracted by it.
Types of noise:
Physical noise : is the sound which occurs from the surroundings & is
external to the speaker & listener.
Psychological noise : disturbance in individual mind, the ideas or
thoughts in the mind which hamper listening. Like ego, anxiety, preconceived ideas.
Physiological noise : is any physiological issues that interferes with
communication. Like health issues, tiredness
Semantic noise : occurs when there is no shared meaning in a
communication. Like language misunderstood.

What is Conversation Control?


The art of conversation consists, our ability to listen
with concentration and reply well.
Conversation control involves skills listening and talking
in a positive and meaningful way at an appropriate
time.
It includes
Techniques of changing the direction of conversation
smoothly
The ability to allow a discussion to develop along key
issues in an uninterrupted way towards the desired
end

Business situations requiring conversation control skills


How to sell or buy
How to negotiate
How to interview
How to participate in a meeting
How to disagree without being rude
How to protest without offending
How to compliment/praise
How to respond to personal criticism
TWO SIDES OF EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION
Reflection
Empathy

Reflection: Reflection is when the receiver of a message reflects


Back to the words which sender is conveying to ensure he has really
understood the message
In oral communication, the most important skill is to impress upon
the other person that you are genuinely interested in him/her &
his/her statements. To do so, you should be able to pick up the cue
words & reflect upon their meaning.
Eg: A says to B, I am not sure if I am required here any longer. If B
reflects on this initial statement, he would understand the underlying
frustration & sense of rejection in A. and to give a chance to A to
express himself further, B could say A, you feel your contribution is
not being recognized. This word allow A to explore his/her own
feeling with greater clarity & understanding.

Empathy: Is vitally important in good communication. It is the piller of


interpersonal communication as it bridges the gap between not only minds,
but also hearts Many people confuse empathy with sympathy, but empathy
is much more. It defined as "the quality or process of entering fully, through
imagination, into another's feelings or motives." In the fullest sense, it
implies putting yourself into the other person's shoes, or even getting into
his or her skin, so that u really understand and feel his pain, fear or more
positively his joys.

Listening : is important component of conversation control. It is an


attentiveness of the receiver in decoding & interpreting the message
correctly in communication process. It is an active process of receiving &
responding to message. For listener to appreciate speaker, he should be
allowed to give his feedback and speaker should be patience in terms of
criticism from listener end.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LISTENER
Do not interrupt
Remain patient
Make eye contact
Show interest
Look attentive
Concentrate ask open questions

Types of listening

Active listening
Passive listening
Selective listening
Empathetic listening
Critical listening
Projective listening
Relationship listening
Comprehensive listening

Modes/forms of oral communication


1. Face-to-face Communication
2. Telephonic
3. Conference
4. Press conference
5. Demonstration
6. Radio
7. Recording
8. Meeting
9. Rumor
10. Grapevine
11. Group discussion

Rumor: A rumor is a oral information of circulating something. It is a


unfounded message which passes from person to person. In rumor
communication the news or story is passed from one person to another
which may not exist or may not be true. There are 2 persons involved
here rumor spreader or rumor breaker & rumor receiver. The originator
of rumor is also called as rumor monger.
Grapevine: Informal communication is termed as grapevine. As the
name implies it is based on informal relationship of the people in the
organisation. The successful management must recognize & give
importance to the grapevine. it refers to the information communication
network constituted to pass message speedily. He is not officially
created information channel for the flow of information & hence is free
from all sorts of formalities. The network is formed out of personal r/s,
social & group r/s, but not out of position of line & authority , superior &
subordinate, or based on organizational hierarchy.

ETIQUETTE: Refers to the rules & conventions governing correct or


polite behaviour used in society, in particular social or professional
group setting. It is the conduct r procedure prescribed by authority o be
observed in social or official life. It is unwritten rule synonymous with
good manners. It is a subtle polished way of living.
Classifications of Etiquette
Personal etiquette
Social etiquette
Business etiquette
Interview etiquette
Office etiquette
Telephone etiquette
Workplace netiquette

Nonverbal

What is nonverbal communication?


Nonverbal Communication = Communication
without words
Nonverbal communication is a process of communication
through sending and receiving wordless messages.

Difference between verbal


&
Nonverbal communication
Verbal and non verbal are all types of
communication. But the difference
between them is that we use our voice
in verbal communication and we use
body signs in non-verbal
communication.

Importance of Nonverbal Communication


Verbal & nonverbal Communication plays an important role in how
people interact with one another. People are using around 35%
verbal communication and 65% nonverbal communication in
daily life. Nonverbal communication has also cultural meaning.
The most important thing in communication is to hear what isn't being said.
Peter F. Drucker

Form of nonverbal
communication

Kinesics (Articulation of body)


Facial Expressions
Posture
Gestures

Eye Contact (Oculesics)


Haptics or Touch
Personal Space (Proxemics)

Facial Expressions

Facial expressions are


the key characteristics
of nonverbal
communication. Your
facial expression can
communicate
happiness, sadness,
anger or fear.

Posture
Posture and how you carry
your self tells a lot about
you. How you walk, sit,
stand or hold your head
not only indicates your
current mood, but also
your personality in
general.
For example, if you cross your
arms while standing, you
indicate that you may be
closed off and defensive.
Meanwhile, walking with your
head down and avoiding eye
contact with others may
indicate shyness.

Gestures
Agestureisacharacteristic
ofnonverbalcommunication
inwhichvisiblebodyactions
communicateparticular
message.
Gesturesincludemovement
ofthehands,face,orother
partsofthebody.

Eye Contact/Oculesics
Eye contact, a key
characteristic of
nonverbal
communication,
expresses much without
using a single word. In
American culture,
maintaining eye contact
shows respect and
indicates interest.
Eye contact also
establish the nature of
a relationship.

Haptic or Touch
Haptic communication is
communicating by touch.
Touch or Haptics is the
characteristic of nonverbal
communication and used
when we come into
physical contact with other
people.
For example: We use
handshakes to gain trust and
introduce ourselves.

Personal space
(Proxemics)
Personalspaceisyour"bubble"-the
spaceyouplacebetweenyourselfand
others.Thisinvisibleboundary
becomesapparentonlywhensomeone
bumpsortriestoenteryourbubble.
Thisisadistancewhichpeoplefeel
comfortableapproachingothersor
havingothersapproachthem.Different
distancesaremaintainedfordiff
situations:
Intimatespace(0-8inches)
Informalspace(8inchesto4feet)
Formaldistance(2-4feet)
Publicdistance

Let see some most common gestures

Nonverbal Communication Around the


World
Nonverbal
Communication in

Pakistan
Expressing
happiness, respect
and love for
others.

Cultural effect

Nonverbal Communication Around the


World
Nonverbal Communication in

China
The Chinese don't like being touched
by strangers. Therefore dont make
any body contact.

Cultural effect

Nonverbal Communication Around the


World
Nonverbal Communication in
Argentina
Ahandshakeandnodshow
respectwhengreetingsomeone.

Cultural effect

Nonverbal Communication Around the


World
Nonverbal
Communication in

India
Greeting with 'namaste' placing both hands
together with a slight bow
is a very common
nonverbal communication
and shows respect.

Cultural effect

Nonverbal Communication Around the


World
Nonverbal
Communication in the

U.S.A
QuiteInformalwayof
nonverbalcommunication
-Ahandshake,asmile,and
'hello'.

Cultural effect

Nonverbal Communication must be understandable


But what is this?

Chicken Dance

Dance is an artistic form of


nonverbal communication. But
no one really knows what
Englands creepy chicken dance
is trying to communicate.
I just understand that they are
happy.

Positive gestures- when we speak our hands move freely to indicate the
meaning of our words. Such gestures are natural. They cannot be
avoided. They give strengths to our words but our gesture should be
watched whether positive or negative message.
Positive gestures are body signals which make you relaxed, confident
and polite. Positive listening gestures include leaning a little towards the
speaker, tilting the head, eye contact, gently nodding the head etc.
Negative gestures involve body movements, postures, such as
shaking, tapping, looking at the watch.
Signs of nervousness
Gestures showing aggressiveness
Gestures of rudeness