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TOURISM POLICY, PLANNING &

DEVELOPMENT (HZL 5013)

MASLOWS HUMAN NEEDS MODEL

Prepared by:

For:

Rozlena Samin Taib (801316)

PM Dr. Kalsom Kayat


Universiti Utara

Malaysia

18 July 2009

MASLOWS HUMAN NEEDS


MODEL

Abraham Maslow developed a theory of


personality
SelfActualization
Esteem

Social

Safety

Physiological
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Physiological Needs
These are biological needs. They consist of needs for
oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body
temperature. They are the strongest needs because if
a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological
ones would come first in the person's search for
satisfaction.
Safety Needs
When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no
longer controlling thoughts and behaviors, the needs
for security can become active. Adults have little
awareness of their security needs except in times of
emergency or periods of disorganization in the social
structure (such as widespread rioting). Children often
display the signs of insecurity and the need to be
safe.
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Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness


When the needs for safety and for physiological wellbeing are satisfied, the next class of needs for love,
affection and belongingness can emerge. Maslow
states that people seek to overcome feelings of
loneliness and alienation. This involves both giving and
receiving love, affection and the sense of belonging.
Needs for Esteem
When the first three classes of needs are satisfied, the
needs for esteem can become dominant. These
involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem
a person gets from others. Humans have a need for a
stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and
respect from others. When these needs are satisfied,
the person feels self-confident and valuable as a
person in the world. When these needs are frustrated,
the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless.
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Needs for Self-Actualization


When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then
and only then are the needs for self-actualization
activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as a
person's need to be and do that which the person was
"born to do." "A musician must make music, an artist
must paint, and a poet must write." These needs
make themselves felt in signs of restlessness. The
person feels on edge, tense, lacking something, in
short, restless. If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved
or accepted, or lacking self-esteem, it is very easy to
know what the person is restless about. It is not
always clear what a person wants when there is a
need for self-actualization.

The article references


Irma Tikkanen, Maslows hierarchy and food
tourism in Finland: five cases British Food
Journal, Bradford: 2007. Vol. 109, Iss.9; pg.721
Food
processing
industry

Studies

Tourism

Consumer
behavior

Psychological
aspects
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Abstract
To explore sectors of food tourism in
Finland using Maslows hierarchy of needs.
Previous research concentrates on role of
food as an attraction, as cultural
phenomenon and as an experience
Food from productional and motivational
viewpoints is reviewed briefly

cont.

Abstract

Based on empirical data consists both


secondary data and an interview
Findings introduce 5 sectors of food
tourism where needs and motivations are
linked with Maslows hierarchy of needs
Implied that food tourism promoters could
emphasize the needs and motivations
when marketing food tourism services
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cont.

Abstract

Sectors of food tourism in Finland classified


by the hierarchy of needs are presented
Practical implications for food tourism
promoter
Thus offering motivations for food tourism

LITERATURE REVIEW
The findings fit neatly within Maslows
hierarchy of needs. Needs and motivations
lie behind all behaviour
Food as tourist attraction which focuses on
Western touris to well-developed Western
destinations. Food in tourism as an attraction
and impedient stresses the complications and
impediments experienced by the tourist in
the local culinary sphere in unfamiliar
destinations.

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LITERATURE REVIEW
4. Foodstuffs as a tourist product component.
Multiple factors influencing the foodstuff volume
and consumption structure as the tourist product
component
Food experience in tourism. Quan and Wang
(2004) introduced the conceptual model of tourist
experience with two dimensions :
peak tourist refer to the experience of the
attractions
that
constitute
the
major
motivations for tourism.
- basic consumer needs on the journey such as
eating, sleeping and transport which do not
constitute the
major motivations for tourism
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LITERATURE REVIEW
6. The role of food in culture. Quan and
Wang (2004) where food consumption is
regarded as one of the most important
factors in the destination marketing
development.
7. Linkages between tourism and food
production. The relationships between
food production and tourism range from
the conflict over competition for land,
labour and capital to a symbiosis where
both sectors mutually benefit from each
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other (Telfer and Wall, 1996)

FINDINGS
When physiological needs are the
motivation for food tourism, food is then
seen as a tourist attraction .
Food tourism related to safety needs
consist mainly of domestic and
international food as well as health and
safety conferences, where participants
are mostly university researchers, health
officers, retailers etc
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Cont

FINDINGS

Food is becoming the focal points of


festivals and specials events that attracts
tourists as well as local residents .
Provincial a la carte projects have been
established to promote culinary food
tourism.
Food experts, such as cooks, restaurant
managers, food wholesale buyers etc., are
business tourists when they travel around
the world in order to seek new kinds of
culinary ideas and new food products
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FINDINGS
When physiological needs are the
motivation for food tourism, food is then
seen as a tourist attraction .
Food tourism related to safety needs
consist mainly of domestic and
international food as well as health and
safety conferences, where participants
are mostly university researchers, health
officers, retailers etc
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