Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 21


M.TECH.-Wireless Mobile Communication

Presentation on:

(Universal Serial Bus)

What is USB?
Universal Serial Bus
A computer peripheral interface
Several variations - continues to evolve
Provides three advantages
- Port expansion
- Performance
- Standard connection method

In the Old Days . . .

Mice and keyboards only
connected to dedicated
connectors or serial port
Networking (as such) was
only through serial com
Printers had their own

Typical Performance

USB provides much higher data

transfer speeds, with fewer wires!

Birth of USB
The USB was originally developed in 1995 by many
of the industry leading companies like Intel, Compaq,
Microsoft, Digital, IBM, and Northern Telecom.

Ease of use was primary goal

Four-wire interface
Point-to-point, host-target architecture
Replace legacy connectors
Hot swapping

USB Connectors

USB Cables
Four wires (+5V,
Return, data twisted
Up to 5 m (16.4 ft)
Longer connections use
hubs or active
- Active extension
incorporates a buspowered hub

USB Details
Host initiates all transfers
- Target can be dumb

Three device types

- Host controllers
- Hubs
Physical interconnect
- Functions (Peripherals)

Accommodates 7 tiers
- 5 hub levels, 127 devices

is a tiered-star

USB System Design

The design architecture
of USB
is asymmetrical in its
topology, consisting of
a host, a multitude of
downstream USB ports,
and multiple peripheral
devices connected in a
tiered-star topology.
USB "tiered star"

How does an USB work?

USB can support four data transfer types or transfer mode,
which are listed below.

: Control transfers exchange configuration, setup

and command information between the device
and the host.
Isochronous : Isochronous transfer is used by time critical,
streaming device such as speakers and video cameras.
: Bulk transfer is used by device like printers & scanners,
which receives data in one big packet.
: Interrupt transfers is used by peripherals exchanging
small amounts of data that need immediate attention.

USB Packets
Each USB data transfer consists of a
Token Packet :Header defining what it
expects to follow
Optional Data Packet :Containing the payload
Status Packet :Used to acknowledge
transactions and to provide a
means of error correction

USB Packets(Cont.)
The USB packets come in five basic types,
1. Handshake packets
2. Token packets
3. Data packets
4. PRE packet
5. Start of Frame Packets

The clock-encoding scheme is NRZI (Non

Return to Zero Invert)


b)NRZI data encoding from USB 1.1 specs

USB Evolution
USB 1.0 - January 1996
- LS (low-speed): 1.5 Mbps
- FS (full-speed): 12 Mbps

USB 1.1 - July 1998 - major clarifications

USB 2.0 - April 2000
- Full backwards compatibility with USB 1.1
- Adds high-speed: 480 Mbps

USB Evolution
USB OTG - July 2003 - portable devices
USB On-The-Go makes it possible for two USB devices to communicate
with each other without requiring a separate USB host.
For example:
A usb flash drive (peripheral) served by a printer (host);
A keyboard (peripheral) connected to a mobile phone (host)
Supplies only 8 mA; has limited target list
Same speeds as USB 2.0

Wireless USB (WUSB) - May 2005

- Up to 480 Mbps at 3 m, 110 Mbps at 10
- Encrypted data

USB Uses
Human Interface Devices
- Keyboards, mice, joysticks, game controllers
- Low-speed, interrupt data transfer
Mice are polled every 8 ms, respond with 32 bits

Mass Storage Devices

- External hard drives, DVD/CD-RW, floppy,
zip, Flash card readers, USB Flash drives
Time required
for 1 GB data

USB Uses
Digital Cameras, Portable Media Players
- Similar to mass storage, so speed is important
Will also use high speed, bulk data transfers

- Also uses high-speed

PC Cameras or Webcams
- High-speed, isochronous transfers

Novel USB Devices

Thumb Drive

Vacuum Duck


Pencil Sharpener

Novel USB Hubs

Engine Hub

Self Destruct Hub

Tape Dispenser Hub

Gold Brick Hub

The Future of USB

USB 3.0
- Intel leading effort for specification for 4 Gb/s transfers
- 300 MB/s of useable data transferred
- Also called SuperSpeed USB
- Aims to kill IEEE 1394 (Firewire)
- Uses two twisted pairs

- Due to release spec in 2008

Thank you!