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ADVANCED MATERIAL ENGINEERING

CONCRETE FOR
WATER STRUCTURE
Water Retaining Structure :
Reservoir, Water Tank
Presented by :
Intan Madya Ratna
146060112011002

Concrete for Water


Structure
Concrete is an excellent building material.
Man has been using concrete to build all
types of structures for many centuries.
It has proven to be very durable and very
strong in compression.

Concrete for Water


Structure
Reinforced concrete structures
are widely used for the
storage of water and other
aqueous liquid.
The more common types of
water-retaining structures are
reservoirs, water tanks, pump
station, etc.

Water-Retaining
Structure

Durability of Concrete
For Water-Retaining
Structure

Unfortunately, with the introduction of


reinforcing steel into concrete, a new
problem was created that affected the
durability of concrete. When embedded
reinforcing steel corrodes, it can cause
concrete to crack and spall.
These cracks and spalls not only
reduce the structural integrity of the
concrete,
but
they
also
allow
deleterious elements to freely enter
into the concrete to accelerate the rate
of deterioration.
Other
problems
that
affect
the
durability
of
concrete
in
waterretaining structure include abrasion,
chemical attack and freeze-thaw. These
destructive forces can significantly
reduce the service life of the structure.

Factor Affecting
Durability
FACT !!
All concrete (for water structure or
other) deteriorates over time. The
rate at which concrete deteriorates is
a function of two factors:
1.The quality of the concrete, and
2.The environment to which the
concrete is subjected.

Factor Affecting
Durability

CORROSION PROTECTION

CORROSION PROTECTION

Abrasion, Chemical Attack


and Freeze-Thaw
Protection

Abrasion, Chemical Attack


and Freeze-Thaw
Protection

WATERTIGHTNESS
Watertight is a mix concretes
designed to protect a structure
from water ingress or to retain
water within a structure.
Whether above-ground or
underground products, in many
instances we want to prevent
fluid from getting from one side of
the concrete wall to the other.
In making our structures
watertight, there are two areas
were concerned with: the
concrete itself, and joints and
penetrations.

The Two Ps of
Watertightness
In making our structures watertight, there are two
areas were concerned with: the concrete itself, and
joints and penetrations.
When discussing watertightness of concrete, we
must consider the two Ps: porosity and permeability.

WATERTIGHTNESS RULE
Watertightness Rule #1

Use a low w/c ratio mix design


1.The w/c ratio is the most important factor in
concrete design. The water content in a mix
controls the moistures rate of entry (which
may contain aggressive chemicals) and the
movement of water during the freeze-thaw
process.
2.The more excess water in a mix, the lower
the strength, durability and watertightness.
Excess mix water results in capillary pores
entrapped air pockets in hardened concrete
that will reduce its resistance to leakage. On
the other hand, too little water can cause
placement difficulties and undesirable effects
such as honeycombing.
3.Durability and densification can also be
improved with admixtures.

WATERTIGHTNESS RULE
Watertightness Rule #2
Meet minimums for cementitious material
1.Sufficient cement must be used to achieve
required strength, but high cement contents can
causeshrinkage and increase cracking
2.Rich concrete mixes provide a denser, more
impermeable and superior finished product.
Consequently, specifying that cement content not
exceed a minimum amount is recommended. In the
case of watertight structures, a minimum cement
content of 564 lbs/cu yd is suggested.
3.The use of supplementary cementitious materials
such as fly ash, slag and silica fume can also
increase concretes density, thus reducing capillary
porosity and permeability.

WATERTIGHTNESS RULE
Watertightness Rule #3
Use well-graded aggregates
1.Gradation of the aggregates is a most important factor and
should be of primary consideration. Shape and texture of the
particles will also affect workability.
2.Rounded coarse aggregates are preferred, if available, as they
can be more uniformly placed.
3.Fine aggregate (sand) with a higher fineness modulus (> 2.8)
is preferred, as it will provide the necessary coarser particles in
the mid-range of the combined aggregate

WATERTIGHTNESS RULE
Follow quality manufacturing
processes
1.Quality concrete manufacturing
processes are critical to the
production of durable, watertight
concrete products. Proper attention
to important pre-pour activities
such as maintaining prescribed mix
proportions, form cleanliness, and
specified reinforcement placement
and minimum cover is very
important.
2.Concrete must be adequately
cured if its optimum properties are
to be developed. An adequate
supply of moisture, either by
covering or other means, is
important to ensure full hydration
and reduce the porosity level such

Watertightness Rule #4

WATERTIGHTNESS RULE
Watertightness Rule #5
Execute joints and penetrations carefully
1.A system is only as strong as its weakest link. Close attention
to all jointed, connected and sealed areas is absolutely
necessary to ensure watertightness. Potential differential
settlements and thermal movements must be addressed in the
design and manufacture of joints and penetrations.
2.Construction joints need to be adequately prepared and
bonded to ensure a complete contact between two pours.

DESIGN OF WATERRETAINING STRUCTURES


CODES OF PRACTICES :
British Standard Code Of Practice BS 8007: 1987
Design of concrete structures for retaining
aqueous liquids.
American Concrete Institute ACI 350 R-83:
Concrete Sanitary Engineering Structures
Australian Standard AS 3735 1991 Concretes
Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids
New Zealand Standars NZS 3106 : 1986 Code of
Practice for Concrete Structures for the Storage
of Liquids

CONCLUSION
Durability of concrete for water-retaining structure generally
affected by corrosion on reinforcement, Abrasion, Chemical Attack
and Freeze-Thaw Protection
In order to extend the durability of concrete in hydraulic structure,
we must make our concrete watertigtht enough. Rules for
making watertight concrete are :
Use a low w/c ratio mix design
Meet minimums for cementitious material
Use well-graded aggregates
Follow quality manufacturing processes
Execute joints and penetrations carefully
To protect concrete in water tanks, polymer-modified
cementitious coatings have been used with much success.
However, the quality of the polymer component of the coating is
an important ingredient that dictates just how flexible and
dense the coating will be. Acrylic and styrene-acrylic based
polymers provide the desired properties.