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# Introduction to

## Special Topics in Computers and Circuits

30(Wed), March, 2011
2007144078 Min, Kyungsik

Context
Terminology
Local Oscillator (LO)
Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)
Intermediate Frequency (IF)

Heterodyne
SuperHeterodyne
Direct-Conversion (Zero-IF)
Low-IF
Quasi-IF

## Introduction to RFIC receiver architecture

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Terminology

Local Oscillator(LO)

(by wikipedia)

## Heterodyning : process of conversion

produces the sum and difference frequencies of the frequency of the local oscillat
or and frequency of the input signal of interest.

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LNA

## first amplifier in the receiver,

right after the antenna and the
duplex filter

## To boost the received signal out from

the noise and reduce the
noise interference

## The gain of the LNA helps to suppress

the noise of the subsequent blocks

Friis Equation
++

## Introduction to RFIC receiver architecture

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Intermediate Frequency(IF)
Definition

## a frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in trans

mission or reception
Created by mixing the carrier signal with a local oscillator signal

Merits

## Introduction to RFIC receiver architecture

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Intermediate Frequency(IF)
Television receivers: 30 MHz to 900 MHz
Analogue television receivers using system M: 41.25 MHz (audio) and 45.75 MHz (video). Note, the c
hannel is flipped over in the conversion process in an intercarrier system, so the audio IF frequency is l
ower than the video IF frequency.
Analogue television receivers using system B and similar systems: 33.4 MHz. for aural and 38.9 MHz.
for visual signal.
FM radio receivers: 262 kHz, 455 kHz, 1.6 MHz, 5.5 MHz, 10.7 MHz, 10.8 MHz, 11.2 MHz, 11.7 MH
z, 11.8 MHz, 21.4 MHz, 75 MHz and 98 MHz.
AM radio receivers: 450 kHz, 455 kHz, 460 kHz, 465 kHz, 470 kHz, 475 kHz, 480 kHz
Terrestrial microwave equipment: 250 MHz, 70 MHz or 75 MHz
RF Test Equipment: 310.7 MHz, 160 MHz, 21.4 MHz

## Introduction to RFIC receiver architecture

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Terminology

detector concept
introduced in 1901 by Reginald Fessenden (Canadian inventor-engineer)

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## exploits high quality filters to provide desired performance

1st filter
: duplex filter

2nd filter
: image rejection filter

3rd filter
: channel selection filter

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Problem #1 : It is very difficult to tune an amplifier and/or filter!

## We can change the frequency response of an amplifier/filter by changing the valu

es of the reactive components(i.e., inductors and capacitors).

But the center frequency and bandwidth of an amplifier/filter are related to the in
ductor and capacitor values in very indirect and complex ways.

Additionally, a filter of high selectivity(i.e., fast roll-off) will be a filter of high ord
er -> high order means many inductors and capacitors!

Result : Tuning a good heterodyne receiver can be very difficult, requiring a precise ad
justment of many control knobs!

## Introduction to RFIC receiver architecture

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Problem #2 : The signal reaching the detector can be any one of many frequencies(e.
g., w1, w2, w3, w4) distributed across a very wide bandwidth.

## As a result, the detector must be wideband!

Unfortunately, a good wideband detector/ demodulator is difficult to build. Generally
speaking, a detector/demodulator will work well at some frequencies, but less well at
others.

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superheterodyne : creating a beat frequency that is lower than the original signal

## to purposely mix in another frequency in the receiver, so as to reduce the signal fr

equency prior to processing

## Incoming signal, centered at

the carrier frequency

## Intermediate frequency signal,

at constant frequency, IF

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Reduces the signal from very high frequency sources where ordinary compon
Devices can be optimized or made more inexpensively
Can be used to improve signal isolation by arithmetic selectivity

Difficulty
Hard to treat high quality of digital signal
Duplication of original signal and image signal

## Introduction to RFIC receiver architecture

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Direct-conversion

## Introduction to RFIC receiver architecture

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Direct conversion

## Introduction to RFIC receiver architecture

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Direct conversion

## Amplification and filtering : performed at baseband

Low current drain in amplifiers and active filters

## Two high frequency conversion stages in parallel

LO frequency deviation
Spurious LO leakage
DC offset connected to direct-conversion

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Low-IF

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Low-IF

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Low-IF

## Analog implementation : hard to provided superior performance and a degree of

flexibility
downconversion of information signal to a low-IF frequency

## no duplication of desired signal with image frequency

power consumption

Use of I/Q-demodulation

## I/Q demodulation providing for 20-40 dBs of image rejection

a less selective filter

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Quasi-IF

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Quasi-IF

## Combining a non-tunable I/Q down-conversion mixer and a tunable image rejecti

on mixer for down-conversion to baseband and channel selection

first LO : optimized with respect to phase noise as no switching requirements are
now present

Tunable second LO : operates at low frequencies whereby phase noise and undesir
ed non-linearities may be minimized

absence of IF filter

DC offset

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Comparison
Heterodyne

Direct-conversion

Low-IF

Selectivity

Low

High

High

Analog
Requirements

High

Moderate

Low

Flexibility

Low

Low

High

CMOS
Compatibility

Low

Moderate

High

Noise

Low

Moderate

Low

Dynamic Range

High

High

High

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Comparison

Difficulties

Directconversion

No IF filters(2 LPFs)
No image
Low power consumption
Easy integration

LO leakage
DC offset due to device
mismatch
1/f noise
High linearity mixer

Low-IF

## Low freq. low Q BPF

No LO leakage
No DC offset
Easy integration

Image rejection
Path matching
Increased hardware than
direct-conv.

Quasi-IF

No IF filters(2 LPFs)
No LO leak
Low phase noise
Easy integration

Image rejection
Path matching
Increased hardware than
direct-conv.

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Thank you.