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Some interesting facts

Humans share 50% of their DNA with bananas.
Cells can contain approximately 2 meters of DNA. If all the DNA in your
body was put end to end, it would reach to the sun and back over 600

DNA in all humans is 99.9 percent identical. It is about one tenth of

one percent that makes us all unique, or about 3 million nucleotides
DNA can store 25 gigabytes of information per inch and is the most
efficient storage system known to human.

In an average meal, you eat

approximately 55,000,000
cells or between 100000 to
150000 kilometers of DNA.
It would take a person typing
60 words per minute, eight
hours a day, around 50 years
to type the human genome.

All living organisms are made of cells


In the next 60 seconds

your body
will produce enough new
DNA that
if it was linked together,
it would stretch 100,000

Something about DNA

DNA is composed of units called nucleotides, which are
composed of three sub-molecules:
1. Pentose Sugar (deoxyribose)
2. Phosphate
3. Nitrogen Base (purine or pyrimidine)

DNA is composed of two

complementary strands of nucleotides
joined by hydrogen bonds:
Adenine with Thymine (A-T or T-A)
They join with 2 hydrogen bonds
Cytosine with Guanine (C-G or G-C)
They join with 3 hydrogen bonds
DNA twists into a double helix

Functions of DNA
1. DNA directs the machinery of a cell to make specific
proteins, and, therefore, DNA indirectly controls all of the
functioning of all living things.

2. DNA stores the hereditary information of an individual

3. DNA has the ability to mutate (change). This allows for new
characteristics and abilities to appear which may help an
individual to survive and reproduce (EVOLUTION).

4. Self replication: DNA has the ability to

make copies of itself

1. DNA replication is called semi-conservative.

2. Semi-conservative replication is the process in which the
original strands of DNA remain intact and act as
templates for the synthesis of duplicate strands of DNA.

3. One copy of a DNA molecule will split apart to make two

complete copies of itself. Each new DNA molecule is
made up of half of the old molecule and half of a new

1) Mutations can occur naturally or
through environmental factors.
Environmental mutagens include
some chemicals and radiations.
We inherit these mutations only
from our fathers.

2) A gene mutation is a change of one or more nucleotides

in a single gene. There are 3 types.
a) Addition
b) Deletion
c) Substitution

Deletion: one nucleotide base is left out. All of the

amino acids after a deletion will be wrong, so shape
and function of protein are altered.

Addition: one extra nucleotide base is added. This

will also change the entire amino acid sequence of the
protein, so shape and function of protein are altered.

Substitution: when single bases or short pieces are

replaced with one another.
This type of mutation is usually not as serious as the 1 st two. It
just depends on which amino acid is affected (does it have an
R group with a +,-, or S group?)

3. Chromosomal mutations: a mutation of all or

part of a chromosome. These affect many genes.

Example :
crossing over where
one part of a
chromosome changes
places with another.
This can cause extra
pieces, missing pieces,
or the exchange of
pieces of chromosomes.

1. Gene displacing: add an extra copy of a gene or

deleting genes.

Gene modification: repairing a gene (as in gene



Gene transformation: inserting genes from a

species to give a new function (as in making goats
spider proteins in their milk or making bacteria that