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# TCOM 513

Optical Communications
Networks
Spring, 2006
Thomas B. Fowler, Sc.D.
Senior Principal Engineer
Mitretek Systems

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## Topics for TCOM 513

Week 1: Wave Division Multiplexing
Week 2: Opto-electronic networks
Week 3: Fiber optic system design
Week 4: MPLS and Quality of Service
Week 5: Heavy tails, Optical control planes
Week 6: The business of optical networking: economics
and finance
Week 7: Future directions in optical networking

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Heavy-tailed Distributions
For large x values, cumulative distribution function F(x) has
property that its complementary distribution

1 F ( x) 1 x
where

1 0

and

[0,2]

equation,
f ( x) 2 1 x 3

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## Heavy-tailed Distributions (continued)

Recall from calculus that

1
dx
p
x

only if p > 1

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## Heavy-tailed Distributions (continued)

Since Var ( x ) E ( x 2 ) [ E ( x )]2

2 1
E ( x ) x f ( x)
dx

## If in addition < 1, then for the mean, since

f ( x) dF ( x) / dx 1 x 2
1
E ( x) xf ( x)

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Variance
0.45

0.4
0.35

## Consider finite variance on

expanding time scales:

pdf

0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1

0.45

0.05

0.4

0.35

-20

-16

-12

-8

-4

12

16

20

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50

0.2

0.45

0.15

0.4

0.1

0.35

0.05

0.3

0
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

pdf

pdf

0.3
0.25

0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0

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## Physical Significance of Infinite

Variance (continued)
28
24
20

16
12
8

-20

20

70
4

60
3

50
2

40
1
0

-5
-5

5
5

30
20
10
0

-50

50

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## Network session or connection size

(length in bytes)
Empirical data from 220,000 connections at www site:

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## Network session or connection size

(length in bytes) (continued)
Use points to calculate F(x), then plot 1- F(x) against
corresponding session size
Behavior agrees with Pareto distribution
Yields 1.3
Corresponds to infinite variance
Aggregate property of traffic source

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10

## Heavy-tailed distributions (continued)

Upper tail declines like power law with exponent < 2
Appears as lack of convergence of sample variance as
function of sample size
Pareto distribution is simplest heavy-tailed distribution

k
, , k 0 x k
x
dF ( x)
p ( x)
k x 1
dx

F ( x) 1

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11

1
0.9

CDF=F(x)

0.8

0.9

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

0.1

5

10

0.7

CDF=F(x)

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

PDF=p(x)

0.1

0
0

0.8

15

20

0
0

10

15

20

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12

1

0.9

CDF=F(x)

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

0.2
0.1

0
0

10
x

15

20

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13

1

CDF=F(x)

0.1

0.01
0.001
0.0001

0.00001
0.000001
0.0000001
0.00000001
0.000000001
0

10
x

15

20

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## Relationship of Key Traffic Concepts

Heavy tails

Files, transmission
times

Infinite
variance

Selfsimilarity

Order of explanation

Order of discovery

Transmission
times

Packets,
sessions

Long-range
dependence

Packets,
sessions

Burstiness on
multiple scales
Packets

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## Analyzing networks in terms of planes

Management
Deploys and manages services

Control
Network-level coordination

Minimal in
standard IP
networks

## State information management

Decision-making
Action invocation

Data or bearer
Physical transmission of data through network

## Best effort utilizing

h/w and s/w in
components in
standard IP networks

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## Steps in the evolution of network

architectures (continued)
Dynamic IP Optical Overlay Control Plane
Ring replaced by mesh using DWDM
Dynamic wavelength provisioning
Easier, more scalable control
Enhanced restoration capabilities
Integrated IP Optical Peer Control Plane
Integrate dynamic wavelength provisioning processes
of Optical Transport Network (OTN) into IP network
routing
Make OTN visible to IP network

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## Old World networks

Utilize SONET for delivering reliable WAN connectivity at
layer 1
Large, interconnecting rings
Lots of expensive hardware, e.g., ADMs
Utilize ATM for provisioning data services
Connection oriented
Can assure QoS, VPN
High operational cost for high reliability

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## New World networks

Eliminate SONET, ATM
Still need to provide layer 2 functionality

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Packet over
SONET (POS)
Ref. p. 91
PPP does L2
functions

Dynamic
Packet
Transport
(DPT)
SRP=
spatial
reuse
protocol;
Intended
for ring
architecture
Ref. p. 105

Gigabit
Ethernet

ATM

Simple
(SDL)

## Source: Tomsu & Schmutzer

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Two-layer architecture
IP edge routers aggregate
traffic and multiplex it onto
Big Fat Pipes

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## Two-layer architecture (continued)

Ingress traffic multiplexed onto big fat pipes (BFPs)
Provided by optical layer
Optical layer functions as cloud for interconnecting
attached devices
Key point is that configuration within optical layer
controlled at same time that service layer is configured
(common management)
May use either DWDM or dark fiber
Can be point-to-point, ring, or mesh
Similar to ATM networks because any logical
connectivity between IP nodes can be implemented

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## New World: Overlay and Peer

Models
Main distinction in New World models is between overlay
and peer models
Overlay
OTN (Optical Transport Network) or bearer plane is
opaque to IP network
OTN merely provides connections to IP network above
Has its own control plane
Peer
Common control plane for both OTN and IP networks
Optical connections derived from IP routing knowledge
(paths)

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## Overlay and Peer Models (continued)

IP Network

IP + Optical Network

Peer Model
Optical Transport Network

Overlay Model

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## MPS overlay model

Two separate control planes
Interaction minimized
IP network routing and signaling protocols independent of
corresponding optical network protocols
Edge devices see only lightpaths, not topology
Similar to IP over ATM
Client/Server model: IP ~ client, optical network ~ server
Two versions
Static
Signaled

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## MPS overlay model

PXC
Metro optical network
(Access Ring)
DWDM

PXC

(Regional Ring)
DWDM

GigE
OC12

PXC

(Access Ring)
DWDM

PXC
OC12/
OC48

OC12/
OC48

## Optical Network UNI

Source: Cellstream

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## Dynamic Optical Control Plane

Central problem: wavelength provisioning
Optical cross-connects (OXCs) combined with IP routing
intelligence to control wavelength allocation, setup, and
teardown
Done dynamically
Allows same elements to be reconfigured rapidly to
improve utilization
Other benefits
Expedited provisioning
Enhanced restoration
Any virtual topology can be provided

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## Implementing dynamic optical control

plane: Wavelength routing
IP routing protocols (e.g., OSPF) adapted to create routing
protocol used by wavelength routers (WRs) in optical layer
Connections can be dynamically provisioned to
interconnect IP routers
Wavelength routing protocol only protocol running on
WRs
IP network does not participate in wavelength routing
process
IP network interacts with OTN on client/server
relationship
Overlay model
Typical use: OTN owned by optical interexchange carrier,
other service providers buy lightpaths to establish their own
IP networks

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## Overlay model: wavelength routing

IP Router B

IP Router A
IP Network

Wavelength Routing
Network
Lightpath
(IP Connectivity
between A and B)
Wavelength
Router

Wavelength
Router
Source: Tomsu & Schmutzer

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## Wavelength routing control plane

Responsible for establishing end-end connection or
lightpath
Two methods of implementing IP-based control plane
Attach external IP routers to each OXC
Integrate IP routing functionality into OXC

## Source: Tomsu & Schmutzer

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Method 1: details
Routers with control interface called wavelength routing
controllers (WRCs)
WRCs provide needed functions
Resource management
Configuration and capacity management
Routing
Traffic engineering
Topology discovery
Restoration

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## Method 1: details (continued)

Control interface specifies primitives used by WRC
Connect: cross connect input, output channels
Disconnect: remove connection
OXC communicates with WRC
Alarm: failure condition

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## Digital communication network

Control plane exchanges control traffic through Digital
Communications Network (DCN)
In band
Default-routed lightpath used
Out of band
Routers and leased lines used to set up completely
separate IP network interconnecting all WRs

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## Operation of control plane

WRs exchange info about network topology and status of
OTN across DCN
All elements have unique IP addresses
Routers
Amplifiers
Interfaces
MPS used for lightpath routing and service provisioning in
OTN
Provisions LSPs in service layer

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Centralized
Distributed

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## Centralized lightpath routing

Uses traffic engineering control server
Server maintains information database
Topology
Inventory of physical resources
Current allocations
WRs request lightpath to be set up
Server checks resource availability and initiates
resource allocation at each hop

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(continued)

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## Distributed lightpath routing

Each WR maintains information database and set of routing
algorithms
Perform neighbor discovery after bootup
Builds topology map
Creates resource hierarchies
Constraint-based routing used to define appropriate
path through network

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(continued)

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(continued)

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## Comparing WRs and LSRs

Similar in architecture and functionality
LSR (Label Switched Router) provides unidirectional
point-to-point connections (LSPs=Label Switched Paths)
Traffic aggregated in FECs (Forwarding Equivalence
Classes)
WR (Wavelength Router) provides unidirectional optical
point-to-point connections (lightpaths)
Used to transmit traffic aggregated by service layer
Two key differences
LSR must process packets (do label lookup)
WR does not do any packet level processing
Switching info for WR is lightpath ID, not any packet label

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## Comparing WRs and LSRs (continued)

Lightpaths are very similar to LSP
Unidirectional, point-to-point virtual paths between
ingress and egress node
LSPs define virtual topology over data network, as do
lightpaths over OTN
Allocating label allocating channel to a lightpath

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## Comparing WRs and LSRs

(continued)
MPLS label = fixed length value in packet header
MPS label = certain wavelength over fiber span
Label space is significant
In MPLS, may be thousands of FECs
Wont work in MPS, because only 40-128 labels (s)
available
Must aggregate traffic into traffic trunks ~ lightpath
Suitable for core use

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## Integrated Optical Peer Control Plane

Second of the methods of integrating IP and optical
Differs from overlay model in that there is a single control
plane rather than two separate control planes
IP network sees optical network
Uses MPLS Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE) to implement
control plane and provision lightpaths across OTN and
service layer

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## MPS peer model (continued)

Single control plane spans entire network
IP, Optical networks treated as single network
OXCs treated as IP routers with assigned IP addresses
Edge devices see entire network
No distinction between NNI, UNI
Single routing protocol over both domains
Topology and link state information maintained by IP and
optical routers is same
Reuses existing MPLS framework

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## Control Plane Functions

Control Channels
May be on dedicated fiber(s)
Could also be Ethernet connection or IP tunnel
Bi-directional
Restoration
Establish LSPs

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## MPS peer model

PXC
Metro optical network
(Access Ring)
DWDM

PXC

(Regional Ring)
DWDM

GigE
OC12

PXC

## Metro optical network

(Access Ring)
DWDM

PXC
OC12/
OC48

OC12/
OC48

Source: Cellstream

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## Peer model OTN (continued)

Edge LSRs have two functions
Aggregate traffic flows
Request unidirectional lightpaths (LSPs) to be set up by
WRs through OTN
Dynamically switched through OTN
Terminated at Edge LSRs
Control plane requirements
Establish optical channels
Support traffic engineering functions
Protection and restoration mechanisms

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## Multiprotocol lambda switching

(MPS)

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Network-to-network issues

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## Network architecture incorporating

MPLS, MPS

MPS
Inner core
Highest degree of aggregation

## Outer core MPLS

Edge aggregation
(routing, < OC48)

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Future evolution

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and topologies

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(continued)

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## The overall networking problem

Metro access
Need to handle much legacy (existing) access types
First level of aggregation
Likely will move more in the Ethernet direction
Core switching
MPLS, MPS

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evolution

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## Optical core evolution: migration to

intelligently controlled meshed core

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## MPLS Traffic Engineering (MPLSTE)

Standard routing protocols compute the optimum path
from source to destination
Use routing metric
Hop count
Cost
Single least cost (according to metric) path chosen
Alternate paths ignored
Possibly longer, but faster
Do not understand nature of IP traffic
Fractal

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## MPLS-TE: example of inefficiencies of

standard routing protocols

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## Solutions to traffic engineering

problem
Non-scaling
Manipulate Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) metrics
Use of policy-based routing
Define complex access lists and characterize traffic
flows
Static
MPLS-TE
Utilization of all network resources analyzed and taken
into account in path calculation
If multiple paths exist, best chosen based on current
network situation

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Traffic Engineering
Objectives
Maximize network resource efficiencies
IP traffic has large variations, unpredictable
Fractal distribution
Continually tune network parameters
segments
Usually deals with longer timescales (hours, days)
Shorter variations dealt with by higher layers
On-line or off-line

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## Internet Time Scales

Multifractals:
Fractals:

Effects of network
transport
protocols

1 ms

10

100

Diurnal &
other
effects

Long-range
dependency

1s

Measurement time

10

100

1,000

104

105

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engineering

77

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## MPS Traffic Engineering (continued)

Utilizes concepts from MPLS
Overlay model: centralized network controller
Smaller networks, larger timescales
Given traffic matrix, resolve (figure out) LSP/lightpath
topologies
Fewer resource synchronization and lockout problems
due to central control
Single point of failure
Controller needs large amount of information
Router status
Traffic patterns

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## MPS Traffic Engineering (continued)

Peer model: distributed traffic engineering
Localized decisions
Better scalability
Heuristic routing algorithms
Robust
Still active research area
Multi-vendor operability may require standards

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## Network survivability principles

Definition: ability of a network to maintain an acceptable
level of service during a network or equipment failure.
(Lucent)
Multilayer survivability: possible nesting of survivability
schemes among subtending network layers, and the way
these schemes interact with each other. (Lucent)
Survivability is important because of expected growth
(scaling) of optical networks
Failure of a single link can affect tens or hundreds of
thousands of customers
QoS is dependent on an effective restoration method

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Survivability concepts
Classification
End-to-end: single survivability mechanism used to
deliver end-to-end survivability
Example: single backup line which takes over if any
problem occurs with main line
functioning in a limited area or domain
Example: Main line divided into segments with
switches at each node; backup lines between nodes
Nested: multiple survivability mechanisms for a single
domain

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## Protection and restoration

Two closely related concepts
Difference is in scope and layer
Protection: lower layers, narrower scope
Both commonly used to provide maximum degree of
survivability

Restoration
Node failures
Multiple failures

Protection

Protection

Protection

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Protection
Lower layer (physical layer) mechanism
First line of defense against faults such as fiber cuts
Topology and technology specific
Fast
Limited usefulness
Does not correct node faults
Cannot handle multiple faults, e.g., two cable cuts
Types
Dedicated: 50% of entire network capacity set aside
Example: Unidirectional Path Switched Rings (UPSR) used
in SONET
Shared: certain amount of total capacity set aside and shared
across all network resources
Example: Multiple LSP tunnels sharing single backup LSP
tunnel

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Protection types
1+1
All traffic sent over 2 paths simultaneously
In case of failure, destination switches to other path
1:1
Two parallel paths, only one used in normal operation
In unidirectional systems, source will not know if one
path is cut
In normal operation, low priority traffic can use backup
path
1:N
Similar to 1:1, except that n working paths share one
protection path

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## Protection switching characteristics

Methods of handling traffic when failed path comes back on line
Nonreverting
Backup remains as primary path
Restored path becomes backup
Reverting (common in 1:n protection)
Restored path resumes normal role
Backup path reverts to backup role
Switching methods
Path
Source, destination control
Entirely new, disjoint path used
Line

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## Source: Tomsu & Schmutzer

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Restoration
Overlaid mechanism
Can handle more types of failures
Nodes
Multiple failures
Typically used in mesh topologies
Basic idea is to utilize alternate paths to route traffic
around failure location
Two approaches
Centralized
Distributed
Precomputed alternate paths
No single point of failure for restoration method itself

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Restoration (continued)
Typically done at layer 2 or layer 3
ATM
PNNI routing protocol reroutes virtual circuits
IP
Dynamic routing protocol (OSPF, IS-IS, RIP, BGP)
find new path through network
MPLS
Reroute onto backup paths (labels)
Backup paths may be preselected

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91

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MPLS

IP

ATM PNNI

SONET
shared

SONET
dedicated

Restoration
time

50 ms 1 s

1-10 s

1-10 s

< 100 ms

< 100 ms

Restoration
capacity
(dedicated)

0-100%

0%

0%

< 100%

100%

Rest. capacity
useable by low
priority traffic

Yes

N/A

N/A

Yes

Depends on
config.

Linear
topologies

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ring topologies

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Mesh
topologies

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Standards

In progress

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

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OTN

Optical channel
protection (OCH)

protection (OMS)

Line protection

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## Survivability mechanisms for OTN

OCH

OMS shared

OMS
dedicated

Line

Restoration time

< 50 ms

< 200 ms

< 200 ms

< 50 ms

Restoration capacity
(dedicated)

100%

< 100%

100%

100%

## Rest. Capacity useable

by low priority traffic

No

Yes

Depends

No

Linear topologies

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ring topologies

Yes

Yes

Yes

N/A

Mesh topologies

Possible

No

No

N/A

Standardization

In
progress

In
progress

In
progress

In
progress

## Source: Tomsu & Schmutzer

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Multilayer survivability
Typically layer 1 protection is fastest
~100 ms
If this is adequate, higher layer restoration unnecessary
Higher layer restoration slower
Kicks in if layer 1 protection cannot solve problem
1 s or more
Coordination of mechanisms may be necessary if time
constants too close
To prevent network from becoming unstable

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## Survivability design trends for optical

networks
Eliminating SONET and ATM
Eases problem of interaction between layers
But decreases available survivability mechanisms
DWDM system may not automatically provide optical
protection
Forces higher layers (IP or ATM) to handle
Not designed to do this
Necessary to modify routing protocols to converge
faster
~1 s about the best at present

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## Survivability in MPS networks

Typically 1:1 or 1:n protection used
Optical LSPs (OLSP) for protection predefined
If failure occurs, adjacent nodes switch all aggregated
LSPs onto backup OLSP
No end-end signaling required
Path protection can also be used
Requires signaling between endpoints of OLSP