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# 9th Conference of the Macedonian

## National Committee in the

International Council on Large Electric
Systems MAKO CIGRE
27 to 29 September, Ohrid

## Power Factor Correction at Time

Variant Load in Presence of
Distortions
Iljas Iljazi, Zlatko Nikolovski, Mile
Markovich, Zlatko Krstevski, Alajdin
Abazi
29 September, 2015
Ohrid

Introduction
Electricity is a specific product which need to meet
certain quality requirements defined in the European
standard EN 50160, EN61000-4-7 and EN61000-4-30.
Harmonic distortion is a deviation of a current or
voltage waveform from a perfect sinusoidal profile.
The current harmonics in nonsinusoidal situations can
be evaluated using the IEEE Standard 1459-2010.
Non-linear loads, such as power supplies and charge
controllers, current distortion is very common due to
the use of power electronics switches to convert
power from an AC to a DC form.

## For an industry optimum performance,

namely cost-efficient production is of
primary interest. Therefore, from this point
of view, any investment in the power
supply is always seen as a cost. This
applies in particular to Power Factor
Correction and at same time including
Power Quality equipment, which is justified
only if it enables increased production or
energy savings.
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## Electrical Load Classification and

Types
The Electrical Load is the part or component in a circuit
that converts electricity into light, heat, or mechanical
motion.
According To Load Nature Classification of Electrical load:
- Resistive Electrical Loads
- Capacitive Electrical Loads
- Inductive Electrical Loads
- Combination Electrical Loads

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## The major differences between

Linear and Non-linear Loads

## Electrical Load Classification

According To Load Operation Time
Time Invariant (TI) Load
- Time invariant linear and
- Time invariant nonlinear load
Time variant electric loads, fluctuating around
their nominal point, cause fluctuations also of
current and power.

## Time Variant Load

The transformation to a time-invariant equivalent
circuit in many cases is a wrong approach.
The variances on the other hand contribute for the
generation of disturbances in the power supply
system.
Results for both phenomena derive from a real
industry system and is validated by measurements
for three-phase system. Measurements are done
during a day with a normal production.
Measured data used to find solution for
compensation.
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## None-Linear Electrical Load

Example: Nonlinear load, compact fluorescent
lamp (CFL) 20W, wave shape, total harmonic
distortion (THDI) 105% and frequency analysis of
electric current.

IEEE 1459
IEEE Standard Definitions for the Measurement of Electric
Power Quantities Under Sinusoidal, Nonsinusoidal,
Balanced, or Unbalanced Conditions.

## The definitions for active, reactive, and apparent powers that

are currently used are based on the knowledge developed
and agreed on during the 1940s. Such definitions served the
industry well, as long as the current and voltage waveforms
remained nearly sinusoidal.
There is not yet available a generalized power theory that
can provide a simultaneous common base for
Energy billing
Evaluation of electric energy quality
Detection of the major sources of waveform distortion
Theoretical calculations for the design of mitigation
equipment such as active filters or dynamic compensators
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Sinusoidal Conditions
v 2V sin t
Sinusoidal voltage source
Supplying a linear load,
i 2 I sin t
will produce a sinusoidal current:

## Active power (W) P VI cos

Q VI sin
Reactive power (var)
S V I
Apparent power (VA)
Power factor

P
PF
S

S P2 Q2

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Nonsinusoidal Conditions
Apparent power (VA)S V I
P P1 PH
Active power (W)
kT
1
Fundamental active power (W)P1 kT v1i1dt V1 I1 cos 1

## Harmonic active power (nonfundamental active

power) (W)
Q1 V1 I1 sin 1
Fundamental reactive power (var)
S1 V1 I1 S 2 P12 Q12
harmonic
Fundamental
power
(VA) distortion of the current
Total
distortionapparent
of the voltage
Total harmonic

V
V
THDv H 1
V1
V1

I
I
THDi H 1
I1
I1

P
PF
S
P
Power factor
PF1 cos 1 1

S1
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PFC

## Nonlinear load, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) 20W, with

integrated PFC, wave shape, total harmonic distortion
(THDI) 8.2% and frequency analysis of electric current.

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## L6562, the ST's Transition Mode (TM) controller

for high Power Factor Corrector stages

## Besides providing good results in term of power factor, this

IC considerably reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion
(THD): an innovative circuit improves the behavior of the
system reducing the conduction dead-angle that occurs to
the AC input current near the zero-crossings of the line
voltage making easier the compliancy with regulation.

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Boost Converter
A boost converter (step-up converter) is a DC-toDC power converter with an output voltage
greater than its input voltage. Since power (P =
VI) must be conserved, the output current is lower
than the source current.

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## The boost convertor is the most popular topology used in

PFC application.
Power factor Correction (PFC) is mandated by IEC 61000-3-2
standard

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Mode PFC

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IEEE 1459-2010

## Measurements are made with realized instrument for

measuring electrical power at nonsinusoidal conditions,
using definitions of electrical power according IEEE
1459/2010 standard:

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Conditions

## DAQ - Data acquisition

Virtual Instrumentation

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1459

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## This designed instrument satisfy the requirements of standard

IEC 61000-4-7.
The instrument is realized using a 24 bit analog / digital
converters as input modules for voltages and currents and the
software was developed in LabVIEW development environment.
To determine the measurement uncertainty of the developed
instrument is calibrated using a laboratory calibrator Fluke
5500A.
Instrument has the following characteristics: accuracy of
measuring voltage of 0.05%, sampling speed each channel
1024 samples during one cycle of 20ms, which guarantees the
capture transients and other defects in voltage granulation of 5
microseconds, recording harmonic distortion up to 511th
harmonic.
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## Realized measurements justify the introduction of

an obligation to integrate the PFC to device will be
connected to the mains and adherence to strict
standards for achieving power factor of the device
more than 0.95.
Devices that are present today in the market
generally have low power factor and high THDI,
total harmonic distortion of current.
Lighting in total electricity consumption accounts
for over 15% in the US (source 2014, EIA) for the
whole world 20% (source 2013, Nippon Electric Co.
Ltd.).
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Thyristors

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## Phase Control Using

Full-wave ThyristorThyristors
control of 100W resistant load with
phase control (0 to 65 switched off and 115 to 180
switched on in a half-cycle).

(Sinusoidal)

## With 3F capacitive compensation

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Measured values
according to standard 1459-2010

## On the thyristor power control, the capacitive compensation

complicates the system further.
We notice the appearance of even harmonics and
intermodulation components. Although we have received
good compensation primary reactive power Q1 and PF1 unit
still the total power factor is lower than the case without
compensation.

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## Time Variant Loads

The most complex situation of compensation is under time variant
loads which at the same time and often are nonlinear loads too.
The next section will present a time variant load, complex industrial
electric system connected to transformer 6/0.4kV with power
1600kVA, connected on the power grid.
Measurement is performed with advanced, high-speed Power
Analyzer, ELSPEC BlackBox G4500.
BlackBox G4500 analyzer has the following characteristics: high Class
A, accuracy of measuring voltage of 0.1%, sampling speed each
channel 512 samples during one cycle of 20ms, which guarantees the
capture transients and other defects in voltage granulation of 20
microseconds, recording harmonic distortion up to 511 th harmonic.
The G4500 Portable BLACKBOX continually records & measures over
10,000 electrical parameters automatically, all the time for more than
a year.

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Technical Evaluation
Only exact technical evaluation can guarantee adequate
solution, working concept is based on four steps:
1. Determining the Current Situation
2. Measurements of electrical parameters of the
transformer with a fast power quality analyzer
3. Analysis of the recorded results with powerful
software tool in the time domain (rms and instantaneous
values) and frequency domain. Technical definition of
solution.
4. Software simulation - modern approach that is
used in completing the verification process of the
decision through the simulation process of compensation.
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24h profile

## Working voltages, currents, power, harmonic distortion and power

factor over the 24h period of recording.
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24h profile

## Operating voltage, current, power and flickers 10min (Pst) and 2h

(Plt) for 24 hours

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1h profile

recording.

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5min profile

recording.

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10s profile

recording.
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1s profile

of recording.
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Harmonics

## Voltage and current harmonics (absolute and relative)

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Solution
Given the current approved state and the conducted analysis, to
compensate the transformer the following characteristics are required:
- Full compensation cycle by cycle: 5-20ms (for 50Hz)
- Total reactive power 1200kvar
- Compensation with 5 steps 240kvar (1:1:1:1:1)
- 14% detuned filter with iron core
Compliant with standards N60831/1/2, EN50081-2, EN50082-2,
EN55011, EN61000-4-2/3/4/5, ENV50204, ENV50141 and safety
requirements EN61010-1, EN50439-1
The proposed compensation with Elspec Equalizer provides the fast
compensation (15ms two thirds of a 50 Hz cycle), via solid state
transient free switching, the Equalizers controller uses FFT (fast Fourier
transforms) to analyze each and every cycle and apply appropriate
compensation per cycle. The Equalizer can apply different levels of
reactive compensation to each and every 50Hz cycle!

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Elspec Equalizer

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## Principled scheme of solution

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Other benefits
Significantly improve voltage stability under the most
Significantly reduce current spikes from large motor startups or other large sudden reactive loads.
Prevent damage to sensitive electronic equipment
Free up capacity on transformers overloaded with reactive
power
Extremely long life expectancy
Integral power quality analyzer
Accurate power factor correction even under dynamic loads
Unique self testing and reporting features
Solid state transient free switching
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Simulation

## Network parameters before and after compensation - black original

measurements, purple color simulation.
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Simulation

## Network parameters before and after compensation - black original

measurements, purple color simulation.
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Conclusions
Devices for power supply, converters and inverters with switching elements have a
low power factor. To increase the efficiency and the exploitation of such devices in
addition should be used a correcting power factor (PFC - Power Factor Correction)
embedded in them, which are often complex circuits that reach the power factor
greater than 0.95 (PF> 0.95).
On the thyristor power control, the capacitive compensation complicates the system
further.
For the correction of the power factor in a time variant loads in presence of
distortions, should be used compensators with dynamic response in the order of
period of network voltage. Derived from analysis of parameters for an industrial
complex time variant load with fast dynamic compensation of 17ms order are
achieved good results at rapid changes in dynamic events around 200-300ms (10-15
cycles). The proposed system of compensation for time variant load improves power
quality in real time by: correcting the power factor to nearly ideal value of 1, saving
electricity, reducing flickers, harmonics and current spike reduction
Based on the analysis of the measured values of electrical parameters of time variant
load in the presence of distortions, using a fast dynamic compensator with a
response time in the order of the grid voltage period gives very good results in the
correction of the Power Factor and improving the Power Quality of network.

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