Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

Coastal Structures:

Dunes (Soft Structure) and Bulkhead (Hard

Cyrus, Dexter, Qi Wen & Janet


Introduction to Coastal Protection Measures

Introduction to Dunes
Formation of Dunes
Stages of Succession along a Coastal Sand Dune
Introduction to Bulkhead
Types of Bulkhead & Advantages & Disadvantages
Case Studies (Bulkhead)

Introduction to
to Coastal
Coastal Protection
Protection Measures

Introduction to Coastal Protection Measures

Use to protect coastline from Coastal Erosion.

There are two types of Coastal Protection Measures
- Soft Engineering
-Hard Engineering

1. Dunes (Soft

2. Bulkhead ( Hard

Introduction to
to Sand
Sand Dunes

Introduction to Sand Dunes

In a plant free
landscape (e.g. after
a landslide or lava
flow, a fresh sandy
coastline or derelict
waterland) plants
become established
over a number of
years and move
from the pioneer
stage through
succession to
mature climax
community of stable

Formation of Sand Dunes

1. When speed larger than 15kph, the large supply of sand

will be picked up and blown by the wind.
2. When the wind is slowed sufficiently by the plants
growing at the shoreline, a pile of sand will begin to
accumulate providing an ever increasing wind break
which eventually grow into a dune.
3. With high wind speeds, the sand is continually pushed
over the crest of the dune falling down the steeper
windward slope.

Stages in Succession along A Coastal Sand Dune

There are 5 main stages in succession across a

coastal sand dune:
Stage 1: Embryo Dune
Stage 2:Yellow (Main) Dune
Stage 3: Semi Fixed Dune
Stage 4: Grey/fixed Dune
Stage 5: Climax Vegetation

Stage 1: Embryo Dune

Strandline: a line of seaweed litter and debris

along the high tide mark which provides nutrients
for sea rocket and couch

Stage 2: Yellow (Main) Dune

As pioneer plants grow

they provide shelter for the
thin humus layer which is
being formed by the
decomposition of the
pioneer biota
The environment here is
still very hash though and
only very hardy plants can
survive such as Marram

Stage 3: Semi fixed Dune

At around 10m above sea

level, the marram grass
dies out as the sand
supply is reduced,
meaning a thin humus
layer is now permanent
and soil can form.
Improved conditions and
increased moisture
content leads to a greater
variety of vegetation
A greater variety of plants

Stage 4: Grey/ fixed Dune

With the increasing variety of plants, the soil becomes deeper

and more fertile and can support an almost complete covering
of vegetation. Typical plants: Mosses, Lichens, Clover and herbs
such as Red Fescue.

Stage 5: Climax Vegetation

When a dune succession reaches its climax stage,

the vegetation found largely depends on the
mineral composition of the sand.
Calcareous (alkaline, shell based) rich grassland
Silica (acidic rock fragments) heath land then


Low lying areas in between dunes (found at

all stages in the succession). These are
often marshy due to rise in water table.
March species develop, along with peat in
the waterlogged soil

Introduction to
to Bulkhead

Introduction to Bulkheads

1. Structure built parallel (or nearly

parallel) to the shore along a bank
or shoreline.
2. A bulkhead may also called as a
retaining wall.
3. A bulkhead is fairly effective at
deflecting wave run up. Bulkhead
are often used in situations where
there is little or no fronting beach to
protect the shore.

Types of
of Bulkhead

Timber Wall Bulkhead

Wire Fence Bulkhead

Advantages & Disadvantages

1. Provide good protection to property.
2. May provide direct boat access to the shore
3. Fair and easy to repair

1. Structure integrity depends upon toe protection, bracing, or
2. May increase erosion immediately at downdrift.
3. Pile driving requires special equipment/ skill
4. Relatively expensive to build

Socioeconomic Effects

limit recreational uses of the

Floating trash will trap in any sharp
angle turns on the bulkhead.

Effects on Coastal Process

1. Cause some depletion of the down drift shore

2. Waves reflected by the bulkhead may increase beach
depletion, or beach steepening immediately in front of or
adjacent to the structure.

Case Studies
Studies (Bulkhead)

Sandy Hook Spit, New Jersey

The Use of Bulkheads

Effects on Coastal Process

Effects on Coastal Process




All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means
(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the permission of the copyright owner.