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QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE (QCC)

OR
Kaizen Promotion Team (KPT)

1. What is Quality Control?


Quality Control is a total management emphasis
on the significance of quality in order to develop,
produce, sell and serve the products which satisfy
customers economically.
It tries to find problems in early stage and carry
out recurrent prevention according to the
problem data.
It is not only inspection
Inspection is simply sorting out good products
from poor according to given standards.
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2. What are QC Circles?

III. The basic concept of QC Circle


The origin of QC circle is Participative
and Human Oriented Management.
This management philosophy more focus
on human workforce.
Because it consider human being as the
biggest asset of any organization.

The basic concept of QC Circle


Due to this, the management philosophy
believe that any human workforce, with out
considering its position, should give the
chance to forward improvement ideas.

This kind of management


approach is important:
To draw out the most of abilities of
individuals and bring out hidden potentials.
To respect the workers and provide a cheerful
environment where employees can get the
feeling of meaningfulness, and
To contribute to reforming and developing
the organization through group activities as
part of CWCM (company wide quality mgt)
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Work place in the past


1. To manufacture
products, it is better
to divide the work
into as much simple
work as possible.
2. Workers are only
required to repeat
their work without
any mistake.
Mass Production.avi

These atrategies
were good indeed to
raise work
efficiency and to
reduce mistakes.
Lose meaningfulness
in their work
Lose enthusiasm for
manufacturing
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products

Roll of QC Circle
We humans regard our
given tasks as valuable
and try to accomplish it
properly
When we can utilize our
abilities in our work, we
can feel a huge amount
of interest and
meaningfulness

So when an emplyee is
trusted by a supervisor of
handling the job and
assigned to a job, he/she
will probably work to the
extent of his/her abilities.
For this purpose the need
of a group whose
members get together to
discuss their work arose.
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How to promote QC Circle

2. What are QC Circles?


QC Circles are small circle groups
consisting of first-line employees
who continually and collectively find
a problem and discuss on alternative
remedies to control and improve
the quality of their work, products
and services.
QC circles select and analyze work-related
problems
10

2. What are QC Circles?


The members are from the same
section that do the same type of
job in order to have common
understanding of problems and all
members participation.
QCC can be formed not only by
production workers but also
office workers.

11

2. What are QC circles?


QC circles operate autonomously and utilize QC concepts,
tools and techniques.
The QC Circle is likened to a small community where
everyone is familiar with everyone, where ones
contribution is easily recognized, and where sense of
belonging is realized.
The QC Circle Coming from the same workshop, it is
easier for them to talk about how to improve the way their
work is done because they have a common language, have
the same work environment and experiences, are affected
by the same factors, and have one goal.

12

3. Basis of QC Circle Activity


Number of QC Circle member is 5-10 people (1-group).
Has a Leader and Secretary. Leaders can be
from supervisor or leading person in the workplace.
Regular meeting at least once every week for 15 or
30 minutes.
QCC have to do continuous improvement
activities by tapping members creativity.
QCCs use several kaizen tools like QC 7 tools
(Pareto diagram, Fishbone diagram etc), 5S,
Brainstorming, Why-Why Approach, 5W1H etc.
Sub-groups can be made in case the workers
work in different shifts. Sub-groups should have
joint meeting once every 1 or 2 months.
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Basis of QC Circle Activity


There should be Coordination between
QC circles.
All members participation is required
in QCCs.
QCCs solve problems autonomously
related to workplace such as:
problems of quality,
cost,
morale,
safety,
improvement of service and quality of work,
self-discipline activities focused on humanity
etc.
14

Basis of QC Circle Activity


QCCs Choose a problem/theme
with big effect, and highly interest by
members
Follow steps of QC story to solve
the problem.
15

Practice of problem solving Activities


Opportunities for discussion
(Establishing team work)
and study
Carrying out problem solving activities

Analyzing problems
Selecting theme
Activity procedure
Assigning roles to each member
Scheduling
All circle members hold
QCC meeting in accordance
with the action plan
Documents the detail as a report
Using work-related knowledge
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and QC techniques

4. Types of QC C
4.1. Sub-Circles: if a workplace
consists of more than 7 or 10
employees, it is better to form
more circles (sub circles), Or if
there is shift operation.
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Types of QCC
4.2. Joint Circles: also called united circles
or collaborative circles.
1)several circles work together
To tackle a single problem.
2)When QCC exchange information to
tackle
the same problem.
3)several QCC work on a significant theme
divided into sub themes.
4)part or all of the members join other QC
circles.
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Types of QCC
4.3.Theme-driven QCC: to solve a
problem effectively, a small group
may be formed by the members
from several different sections or
departments or managerial posts.
The circle is dissolved after the
successful solution of the theme.
Its members launch a different QCC
activity under a new theme in
collaboration with other individuals.
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5. Aims of QCC activity


To develop members capabilities and
achieve self-actualization.
To make the workplace more pleasant,
vital and satisfying.
To improve customer satisfaction and
contribute to society.
To create good workers relationship or
team spirit through close discussion.
To develop recognition of importance
of work and raise responsibility.
To establish discipline in workplace and
do proper work by reducing mistakes.

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6. Benefits of QC Circles
Quality control circles benefits the organization
as well as the employees
6.1 Benefits to the organization:- QC circles:
i. Improve employer-employees relation ship.
ii.Develop participative culture and team spirit.
iii.Reduce: work-related errors.
iv.Increase productivity and reduce cost.
v. Improve quality of goods and services produced
by the firm.
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Benefits of QC Circles
i. Leads to better efficiency in the organization.
ii. Catalyses attitudinal changes.
iii. Create consciousness regarding quality, cost,
safety, house-keeping, etc
iv. Save a certain amount of managerial time,
previously spent to solve problems which will
be now solved.

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Benefits of QC Circles cont


6.2 Benefits to the employee:- QC circles
i. Provide job interest which is absent in the routine work.
ii. Gives sense of participation.
iii.Develop latent/hidden problem solving capabilities of the
employees.
iv.Improve individuals communicative abilities
v. Advance employees career and personal development
(develops competence in creating changes and prepares
better for supervisory position)

Benefits of QC Circles
i. Inculcate team spirit
ii. Provide improved work environment and
work methods
iii. Improve morale on the shop.
iv. Involves workers in decision making.
v. Removes frustration
vi. Encourages employees to get involved with
common goals of the company.
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7.Activities of QC circle

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7.Activities of QC circle (cont.)


7.1.Ten points Activities of QC circle
(1) The purpose of activity is, to organize group in the same
workplace, and to make a workplace cheerfully and vitality
working together with keeping good communication.
(2) QC activities are connected to the work, to create
improvement minds not satisfy present condition, and
challenge for the future.
(3) Open QC circle meeting regularly and keep discussion freely
actively, and challenge a new theme one after another.
Solving problems at the work places
(4) This is activities to improve quality of work, product, and
service, and finally achieve goal to improve customer
satisfaction and to contribute to the society by managing the
work place(work place rules,standards and 5setc)
(5) QC circle activity is required self-development to enhancing
own ability and own possibility. It is just for yourself, and
attain self-capability and self-realization.learning through
QCC.

Ten points Activities cont


(6)It is independent activities, think by one-self, and participate,
work together with, cooperate with other members, and
planning by all member. The one is sharing and responsible a
part by each member.
(7)The activities are required continuous study session, to create
new knowledge, and utilize it to challenge a problem, such as
circle management, making solution, and so on.
(8)The activities are required special work knowledge and
technology, such as QC technique.
(9)The activities required wider view through participating the QC
circle convention, and the training meeting, and so on. These are
opportunities to development mutual power each other,
communicate with person by person, circle by circle.
(10)Managers and supervisors must recognize importance of
employee training and activating workplace, and guide and
support them continuously.

7.2 Problems not Discussed by QCC


Reward and wages
Personalities
Individual complaints
Staff benefits
Disciplinary policies
Work termination policies
Collective agreement issues

8. QC Circle Introduction Process

9. Promotion System of QC Circle


Activities and management roles
GM
Promotion
committee

Bureau
Section
committee
QCCircle

Leader
Member

Section
committee
QCCircle

Section
committee
QCCircle

Leader

Leader

Member

Member

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9.1 Managers Role


Put in direction of QC circle activity policy and
goal.
Train knowledge and skill necessary for QC circle
activities.
Make to acquire extensive skill, technology.
Give guidance, support, cooperation actively.
Evaluate properly QC circle activities.
Make opportunity of mutual
enlightenment/information sharing.
Managers must take lead to carry out the
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activities.

9.2 Role of Promotion committees/


Kaizen core team
Set clear policy and goal for QC Circle
activity.
Establish operational guidelines.
Follow the condition of QCC.
Give guidance, support, and cooperate
actively.
Coordination of QCC activities in the
company.
Evaluate QC circle activities at least
once a year using criteria and give
advise as needed.
33

9.3 Role of Section committees


Provide active support to the QCC.
Organizes training programs for new QCC.
Organize QCC presentations.
Coordinate and ensure availability of
facilities to all QCC
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9.4 QCC Leader's Role


Make clear the purpose of the QC circles activities.
Direct activities of QC circle.
Perform as a member in the QC circle activities.
Maintain good atmosphere in which all members can
express their opinions.
Manage QC circle activities with appropriately
assigning roles to all the members.
Train next leader.

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9.5 Member's role

Responsible to business assignment in the workplace


Follow always the workplace rule and discipline
Participate in QC circle activities actively.
Participate in QC circle meeting.
Speak something actively in QC circle meeting.
Perform and responsible to ones part assignment
Cooperate with other members activities
Arrive at meetings on time.

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10. Continuous Improvement Cycles


Correct

Plan

Do

Act/
Improvement

If the
output/result
is Infeasible

Check

If the
output/result
is feasible

38

11. Process of problem solving type


o Process 1 : Selection of theme
Grasp problem
Decide theme
o Process 2 : Grasp present, setup goal
Collect facts
Decide attack object,
Evaluate size of the theme, contents, influence area, and
difficulty to make a solution.
Set goal (control character, goal value, time limit).
Avoid a theme which has pre-known result and measure.
Think the purpose of the theme to attain goal value.
Challenge drastic high goal to improve morale.

Process of problemcont
o Process 3 : Make activities plan
Decide execution item
Decide schedule and assignment part
o Process 4 : Analysis of factor.
Examine present characteristic
Fined factors
Proceed factor analysis
Decide applicable items
o Process 5 : Study of measure and execution
Show ideas for countermeasure
Study embodiment of countermeasure
Confirm contents of countermeasure
Study how to execute
Execute countermeasure
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Process of problemcont
o Process 6 : Confirm effect
Confirm countermeasure effect
Compare with goal value
Grasp tangible and intangible effect
o Process 7 : Standardization and fixing control.
Revise standard
Decided method of control
Get fully understood by related people
Train person in charge
Confirm that it is maintain
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12.How to Activate and perform QC


circle Activity

12.1 how to activate QC circle activity

Make QC circle Activity Goal clear


Understand an activity policy, and try it to numerical value to be able
to compare it before the activities and after.
Analyze present data precisely, and select data which compare to
result.

Clarify the condition to select theme


Select problem familiar with the members
Review the measure is possible to perform.
Select theme which result can be measured with numerical value.

Select theme to maintain long term activity

Select theme which members can understand.


Study method to analyze collecting data.
Select theme and guide measure which can be enforced in workplace.
Manage QCC meeting with all members participation, and present at
the announcement meeting with all members cooperation.
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12.2 How to Perform QC circle Activities.


Item

Contents of meeting

Regular
meeting

Decide date, day of week, time zone


Check open time, from work assignment and company event
Check available time utilizing production adjustment plan
Occasionally set meeting out of workplace with recreation
Meeting time is about 30-60 minutes

Mini
meeting

Mini-meeting at opening time (about 5-10 minutes)


Mini-meeting at lunch time (With taking lunch.)
Utilize time after end other purpose meeting
Meeting time is about 5-15 minutes

Place

Workplace Meeting room Reception room


Lunch room
out of workplace Out of
company

Preparati All members must understand the meeting subject.


on
Do their own role, homework to be ready
Member must attend after clearing their own work
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13. Organize QC Circle


13.1 Basic QC Circle Organization
Organize QC Circle members about 5-7 from same workplace.
Select group leader from supervisor or leading person in the workplace.
Give the training to all the members to be the leader in the future.

13.2 Consider to divide into sub-group in case


In case the workers are divided into the shift (daytime, night time,
morning shift, late shift).
In case line has many workers, divide them front process and back
process.
Set up joint meeting together with sub-groups once every 1 or 2 months.

13.3 Coordination between QC circles

Adopt common bigger theme as one team project, in the cases, divided
front process and back process, staff section and line section, sales department
and manufacturing section.
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13.4 Point of Organizing QC circle


Aim for continuous activities
1. The activities in early term : Aim for continuing activities, pile up
experience through practicing familiar theme.
2. The activities in growth term : Aim for experiencing interest of
activities to the members. A leader animates activities.
3. The activities in maturity term : Aim for challenging an important
theme to solve in workplace, and making confidence through deep
experiences.

The activities to grow up members


To have confidence through solving a theme.
To study business knowledge and improvement method through
continuing activities.
To produce good teamwork through meeting discussion with all.
To develop independent activities through a leader experience.
45

14. How to Choose Theme


14.1.Selection of Activities Theme

the problems must be solved in workplace.


Select a theme after grapes problems with evaluating.
Make clear the contents of selected problem.
Decide the activities theme, and give it a name.
Challenge 3 or more theme in a year.

14.2.Point of selecting theme


Select challengeable big theme.
A theme with difficulty to solve problem and to empower ones capability.
A theme which result of activities is recognized by the boss and the
colleagues of the workplace
A theme which can be achieved by the members from number and
experience.

14.3.Extracting of workplace problem


Think about workplace policy and goal to make plan.
Check appropriate condition and goal in workplace.
Compare with other workplace and other company.

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QC circle Activities Plan


Theme (briefly, to know good point badness).

mngr

comte

class

quality

morale

standard yes no

Section code

Circle name

cost

prdctvt
y

safe

Leader name

Member

Reason selected (sketch of item, the graph, palato figure,


etc)

Sec
mng

Super

Circle code
Section policy
Target
Activity term
Expected effect

Step

Member role

Present condition
Analysis
Countermeasure
Verification
Advice
Present condition graph, check sheet, paleto figure, etc

47

15.3 QC circle activities meeting


report

Team Name
Date

Leader
Name

Meeting
Length

Theme

1. What is to be discussed
Results
2. Cause of problem
3. Countermeasure which should be done by member
4. Countermeasure which should be asked to another department
5. Problems and/or improving items that come out during discussion
6. Comment by supervisor
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15.5.Selection of problem solution


program
theme
no
Do you hove experience on
Subject of theme
yes
Can you see Factors and
measures ?
Study a
device

Second type
Subject achievement
type

yes

no
Can you analyze a
factor?
First type

yes

Problem solution
type

Third type
Measure executive
type
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16.Example of QC Circle Activity


(QC Story)
Step-1 Introduction of QC circle.
QCC Name: Red Fox
QC Circle make up: Pasta and
Macaroni production line: 7 males
Step-2: Selecting a theme- General
theme: Minimize production loss in
pasta and macaroni line
The selected theme is Macaroni
wastage during starting and
stopping of production operation.
50

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Step 2: Current Situation


(identification and recognition
of the features of the problem)
Collect data from log book recorded by cause for six
months and analyze the data by Pareto diagram to
determine which causes are critical for big amount of
macaroni loss.
Cause: Macaroni loss during starting and closing of
machine
Area: At short cut pasta
production area
/macaroni line/

Average Amount of Macaroni loss for the


last month
(March August)

53

Step 3: Set goal


What? Decrease amount of
cracked Macaroni in quintals
during starting and stopping of the
machine.
When? By the End of November
2010
How many? From 41 Qtls to 12
Qtls

54

Step 4: Activity Plan

Why?

What?

Where?

Who?

When?

How?

Objectives

Items to be
implemented

Location

Person in charge

Sep 1 Nov 30

Method

Set up issues

Select theme

Meeting Room

All

Sep 3

BS Matrix

Collect
information

Planning

Meeting Room

All

Sep 10

5WIH

Examine

Present status

Macaroni
production area

Goal

Set goal

Meeting Room

Identify problems Analyze causes

Examine and List


alternatives
Examine measures Meeting Room
Implement
measures

Meeting Room

Confirm

Follow up
progress

Mr. Belachew
(leader)
Mr. Kiflu
All
All
All

Sep 11 Sep 20
Sep 22

Based on the data

Sep 22

Cause and Effect


Diagram

Oct 1

Cause and Effect


Diagram

Implement
measures

Macaroni
production area

Mr Belachew
(leader)
Mr Getahun

Confirm effects

Macoroni
production area

Mr Belachew
(leader)
Mr Getahun

Oct 11-Nov 12

Standardize

Macoroni
production area

Mr Henok
Mr Getachew

Nov 19

Review of future
issue

Macoroni
production area

All

Pareto Diagram

Oct 8-11

Everyday

5WIH

pareto diagram
5WIH
Communication
Review meeting
55

Step 5: Analyze factors


(find out the main causes)

56

Main causes
1. Frequent power interruption.
2. Low grade raw material.
3. No preventive maintenance according to
schedule.
4. Lack of operator training.
5. Cutter sharpness is not enough.

57

Step 6: Examine and Implement


measures
Problems

Facts

Frequent Power
interruption

Insufficient
power from the
source

Low grade Raw materials

Wheat doesnt
meet standard

No preventive maintenance Lack of spare


according to schedule
part
Not following
Schedule

Lack of operator training

Cutter sharpness is not


enough

Not enough
standard and
training plan
Long time usage

Counter
measures (Plan)
-The back up
generator should
have enough
fuel.
- Change supply
from local to
import
- Improve spare
part ordering
system
- Training to
follow schedule
-Make necessary
standard and
give training
-Make it sharp
-Replace it on
time
-Place the cutter
on right place

Judge

58

Actions
(to eliminate the causes)
What?

When?

QCC
: Sept. 1Who?
- Nov. 30 2010
Where?
How?

Why?

Frequent
Interruption of
power

By the end
of Oct.

Macaroni
production
area

Leader&
Operator

-The back up
To prevent
generator should have damage due to
enough fuel
interruption

Low grade raw


material

By the end
of Oct.

Meeting
room

Leader

-Change supplier
from local to import

-to have
standard wheat

No preventive
maintenance

By the end
of Oct.

Meeting
room

Incorporation
with
maintenance
head &
Leader

- Training to follow
schedule
-Improve spare part
order system

- to keep
continuous
machine
running

Lack of
training

By the end
of Nov.

Meeting
room
Office of
leader

Leader &
members
Leader

- Make necessary
standard
-Give training
-Prepare training plan

For each
worker to have
enough
knowledge

Cutter
sharpness not
enough

By the end
of Oct.

Macaroni
production
area

Operator

- Make it Sharp
-Replace on time
-place it on right
place

- To keep its
sharpness
59

Step 7 : Confirm Result by


Comparing with the set target
(confirmation of the effectiveness of
the action and make sure the
problem is prevented from occuring
a) Macaroni loss reducedagain)
from 41quintal to 15 quintal
and the achieved goal is 80%.
b) Reduced damage loss 980 x (41 15) = 25,480 Birr.
c) Workers developed good attitude towards their work.
d) Workers became more
familiar to their work

60

Step 8: Standardization
(eliminate the cause of the problem
permanently)

61

Amount of Macaroni Loss in Quintal on


October

62

Amount of Macaroni Loss in Quintal on


November

63

Step-10 conclusion
(review the problem-solving procedure and plan
fiture work)

Activities:
1.Sum up the problems remaining.
2.Plan what is to be done to solve those
problems.
3.Think about what has gone well and badly
in the improvement activities.

64

17.Evaluate QC circle Activities


Evaluate QC circle activities once a year
1. Meeting number of times (more than 4 times/month).
2. Meeting participation rate (more than 91%).
3. Meeting speak out rate (more than 91%).
4. Solved number of theme (more than 3 cases/circle, year).
5. Technique use occasion (more than 5 kinds/theme).
6. Number of doing announcement (2 cases/circle, year).
7. Number of suggestion (25 cases/circle, year).
8. Number of study times (more than 4 times/circle, year)

65

18.QC circle activities at office work,service


section and indirect section.
18.1.Qccircle activities at office work
What is quality of office work, indirect section
Result of work" which customer evaluates is quality
Quality control is create activities with cooperation to get
customers satisfaction as result of work with economically.
On the process, think that next process is customer.
Judged and acts based on fact Use QC technique
Turn the control cycle (PDCA)
Focus on dispersion Use histogram, graph, control
figure
Important intention Use Parato figure
Investigate cause thoroughly Use fish bone figure
Make a point of process quality is made in the process
66

18.2.QC circle activities of office work


Carefulness to select theme
Study how to apply to the
office work after understand
QC circle activities base.
Select theme to establish a
bright workplace with
discussing all of members.
Improve work process, and
keep the effect in future.
Select theme to focus on
avoiding work error.
It is also important themes
to study and use QC technique.
Establish new work process
when evaluate its used result.

Example of office work theme


Improve controlling secretarys
work

Standardize preparation visitors lunch


Simplify reception business
Shorten telephone calling time
Reduce business mistake
Simplify business form
Shorten calculation time and prevent
mistake
Improve making budget process
Improve and standardize office work
Shorten document pickup time
Prevent data entry mistake and control
delivery time
Reduce times of telephone call and the
cost
Work on arrangement and ordering in
workplace.
Be strict on making report time limit
Expertise month-end make up work
67

18.3.QC circle activities of service


section

Characteristics of service section work


All the work objects are human".
Almost all the work is also produced only by human.
Goal achievement is made by humans morale.
Avoid monotonous repeating work, and establish workplace
respecting humanity.
Make good human relationship, with close discussion.
Being recognized importance of work, and raise responsibility.
Produce Joy in work, and create vigor mind in workplace.
Establish discipline in workplace and proceed proper work.
Stop work mistake
Improve work efficiently with improving mind , problem
consciousness.
Improve service for customer.
68

18.4.QC circle activities of indirect


section
There are problems in indirect section work as follows
A common goal is hardly made because each employees
work is separate and little common work.
It is difficult to catch result as direct money effect.
Quality and improvement consciousness is low because their
work isn't connected with production directly.
But when analyze them, indirect section work is classified in to
three groups.
Indirect manufacture section (electric power, maintenance,
analysis work) : Work content is manufacture work.
Service section (telephone exchange, data entry, guard) :
Work is repetitive, and manufacture experience can be utilized.
Office work (accounting, general affairs, personnel,
material) : It is the same as the office work explained before.
69

19.Training of QC circle Activities


A leader training meeting.

Operate 1 day and night training for targeting 30 leader to develop leadership.
Contents is lecture of the manager, group discussion, knowledge for nation wide
activities.

Leader lunch meeting.

Manager listen about activities story from about 10 leaders to exchange


information.
Listen opinion to activate QC circle activities, and help toward the request

Hold job class meeting for horizontal development of skill.

Interchange meeting on 1 night 2days with 20 leaders of same or related type of


job.
Opinion exchange through workplace tour each other.
Take good debate in same job type and group discussion and announcement.

The creativity skill training meeting to raise an idea.

A 2 days training meeting for managers promoted and sub managers.


Contents are lecture, group practice and the announcement "the practice of
brainstorming and evaluation

Training meeting of processing subject achievement activities.

Make "Activities practical manual" Cases studies book" of subject achievement.


Train manual on order managers, supervisors, and QC circle members.
70

20.Awarding QC Circle Activities:Awarding QC Circle activities leads to the activation and promotion
of these activities. It is important to establish an award system.
Example of awarding system
Type of award
Theme
Completion
award

Presenter

Description

Presentation within
department

Department
/Section
director

Recognizing circles for their presentation at


department-level or section-level QC Circle
presentation meeting

Improvement
proposals

According
to rank
classification

Awarding circles based on results of review


in the proposal system

QC Circle conference awards in a


business unit

Director of
business unit

Awarding circles for their presentation at QC


Circle conference held at the business office

Company wide Company-wide QC


QC Circle
Circle conference
conference
presentation awards
awards

Top
management

Awarding circles for their presentation


representing their respective department at a
company-wide QC Circle conference

QC Circle
activities
awards

Annual awards for


activities

Awarding circles for their exemplary activities


through the year.
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Celebrate Results

Team work

Whats the difference between good and poor teams?

Traps

I Know-it-all
Not learning quickly/moving slowly
Isolation/Departmentalism/
Territory
Keeping existing team &
Culture(Status quo)
Talking too much on little results
Misleading reports
Just to please bosses
Captured/influenced by wrong
people/RENT SEEKERS
Oscillation

Video Session

77

Industry Leaders and Must Correctly


Understand
and Practice Kaizen in All Activities

End