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Design Of Meter and

Regulating Stations (MRS)

Introduction
Desain statsiun meter dan pengaturan (mtering and regulating
station) yang baik diperlukan untuk:

Sustained Safety

Accuracy

Pressure/flow control
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR PROPER DESIGNING
Many particulars are to be considered and assembled into
specifications and drawings to accomplish for proper
design objectives.

Flow Range Considerations


As a first step establish the gas load
Maximum Flow Rate
Minimum Flow Rate
Whether loads are constant, have little or wide variations
Utmost care should be taken while assessing the load
In our conditions consumer try to provide low loads to save in
security deposit, which eventually result in meter under sizing /
bad design of metering station
Normally metering stations are designed for maximum flow
rate. However minimum hourly loads should be considered to
ensure that regulators and meters have satisfactory
rangibility / regulator to have tight shutof
Future Projections should also be included. It is appropriate to
have it agreed at the time of contract.

Pressure Conditions
Inlet pressure

Does it have wide variation


Whether it is more than normal MAOP of the instruments,
good to deliver outlet pressure e.g. normally MAOP of meters
in distribution system is 175psig and that of Emcorrector is
100psig. If inlet pressure is more than 90psig than a
regulator at the inlet of the meter would be installed.
The maximum pressure will determine the MAOP of the
instruments, particularly of regulator
The minimum value of the pressure will be used for sizing
the regulator and metering equipment.

Pressure Conditions
Outlet Pressure

This pressure is set by the contract / operational


requirements
The regulator should be designed according to the
minimum and maximum outlet pressure acceptable to the
customer.
The amount of pressure reduction is a major indication of
whether a single stage pressure regulator will be
satisfactory or if multiple stage reduction is required.

Pressure Conditions
Type of Load

Cyclic loads needs critical analysis, to ascertain the exact


peak load (design load)
Loads that goes to zero require regulators capable of tightshut-of
For wider variation of loads, we would require higher
rangibility meters.
Special consideration should be given to select a meter for
continuous loads, such as process industries, city loads etc.
In these cases usually inferential meters which does not
block are more suitable. Sometimes to omprove rangibillity
multiple meter runs are installed with switching equipments

Gas Conditions / Ambient Conditions

The pipeline quality gas should be dry and clean


If dust or other particles (condensate / higher hydrocarbon)
are present, filtering equipments should be installed
upstream of the station.
Dust filters are equipped with suitable mesh or coalescing
filter elements. It is good practice to install a 10 micron
filter elements. The filters can be selected from the tables
according to gas loads and pressure.
If there are larger pressure cuts and ambient temperature
are expected to be low, the freezing of measuring
equipment should be considered. In such cases adequate
selection of heating tapes, indirect-fired gas heaters,
inhibitors like glycol injection etc.

Noise
A metering / regulating station should preferably
have noise level less than 85 db (decibel)

Metering
Station Survey
Survey of metering
station should be done
very carefully because
design of meter and
regulating station
depend on this survey.
A poor survey can
result in undersize or
oversize design.

Sample
Station
Survey

Selection of Dust Filter

%age of initial
Differential pressure

Dust filter should be installed at the inlet of the metering /


regulating station to protect regulator pilots / main valves,
meters etc.
Maximum flow rate at minimum inlet pressure
Maximum diferential pressure = 2 psi
Maximum 10 microns solids
Design must meet ASME code and ANSI B16.34 code
Pressure Differential Vs Percent Plugged
400
300
200
100
0

25

50

75

100

Selection of Dust Filter

It has been experimentally established that filters when


clogged plugged to 50% had a 100% increase in diferential
pressure, and 75% plugged element had a 400% increase of
diferential pressure. It is therefore assumed that when the
diferential pressure across the filter increases 100% from the
original diferential , the filter elements are 50% plugged and
when the diferential reaches 4 times the original, the
element are 75% plugged.
It is recommended that the filter should be replaced when the
diferential pressure is of the maximum allowable pressure
drop
The 75% plugged condition is normally suggested. So the
initial diferential pressure of the filter would be 1/4 th of the
recommended diferential pressure for filter replacement (i.e.
of the maximum allowable pressure)

Example
Conditions
Working Pressure = 100psig, Flow Rate = 60,000 ft3/hr
Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop = 6 psig
Diferential Pressure for replacement of elements
= of Maximum Allowable Pressure drop =1/26= 3psig
Now 3 psig is the maximum pressure diferential limit for filter
element replacement. According to 75% plugged rule 3psig
(80 in W.C.) diferential will be experienced when filter
elements are 75% plugged. So the initial diferential pressure
needs to be 80 = 20 in W.C.

Example
2 FA AND FS FILTER CAPACITY TABLE

In the table see the capacity at the intersection of 100psig inlet pressure and 20 in
W.C. diferential pressure. The capacity is 66,000 ft3/Hr. which is good for given
conditions.

Removal of Condensate
Removal of condensate is accomplished by installing a
knock-out vessel at the inlet of the metering station.
Normally the direction of gas fluid is changed either by
putting an obstruction plate or by employing multiple
cyclones in parallel to remove liquid particles. The change
in velocity enables the liquid particles to drop down in the
bottom of the scrubber.

Line Heater

Increasing gas temperature at


constant pressure will bring
the gas stream in the right of
the Dew Point Boundary (i.e.
Gas Phase)

Pressure

These are used to prevent :


Hydrate condensate within gas stream to clog pilot line and
regulator orifice
Ice deposition around outside of regulator and control line

Gas
Condensate

Gas

Hydrocarbon Dew
point Boundary
Temperature

Line Heater
Line Heater Selection is based on :
Normal inlet station pressure
Minimum outlet station pressure
Design flow rate
Inlet gas temperature
Outlet gas temperature required
Maximum pressure drop across Heater Coil at design flow
(less than 10 psi)
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of given
quality of gas to desired temperature is calculated from the
enthalpy curve.

Line Heater

At 500psig and 40F inlet temperature Enthalpy=8.5 Btu/ft3


At 500psig and 75F desired outlet temperature Enthalpy=8.9 Btu/ft3
Diference = 0.4 Btu/ft3, If the flow rate = 4 MMCFD = 166,666 ft3/Hr
Then amount of Heat Required = 166,666 0.4 = 66,666 Btu / Hr
By using this heating value the suitable size of Heater can be selected from the
manufacturers catalog

Regulator Selection

Regulators are required to control the downstream


pressure in the metering station at one or more points
Regulators are sized for maximum anticipated flow
requirement with the minimum inlet pressure
Although many regulators can operate over a wide flow
and pressure ranges, often it is necessary to consider
parallel runs to have better control, redundancy and
capacity increase
Regulators required to operate nearly closed position over
long periods of time will tend to have more valve and seat
damage, than a unit that is sized to have valve open at
least 10%
A small regulator can be installed in one line and the
larger regulator in the parallel line to handle larger flows
up to the required capacity

Regulator Selection

Adequate working space should be available for regulator,


plug valves maintenance
Regulators with an external control line should have
sensing point 5 10 pipe diameters. Control line may be
,1/2 or depending upon the types of regulator and
distance from the pressure sensing point to the regulator
Each regulator should have a separate sensing tap and
control line.
Sensing tap should not be installed on the fittings such as
expanders, Tees, Elbows etc.
Continuity of operation is the most essential consideration.
In case of fail to close regulators, freezing possibilities, it is
a good practice to have parallel regulator runs.

Regulator Selection

Pilots require clean and dry operating supply, heating taps,


small filters can be installed on the pilot lines
For safety of regulator operation normally, regulators with
relief valve or monitoring regulators are used. For
distribution system monitoring operation is preferred
whereas relief valve is used for remote locations in general
Regulator by-pass and parallel legs are good for performing
routine maintenance
For fixed factor applications the droop should be in 1%
(accuracy). However, for field tapping up to 10% droop is
available.

Regulator Sizing
Most control valves are rated with a capacity term called Cv,
which is defined as the number of gallons of water per
Minute that will flow through the valve with 1 psi pressure
drop across the valve.
Cv = Q / (P 62.4/6)
Where Q = quality of water in gpm
P= Pressure drop in psi
Normally Cv or K values of the regulators are given by the
manufacturers and formulae for calculating the regulator
capacity at critical and non-critical flows are given. The
capacity tables can also be used.
According to AGAs recommendation

Regulator Sizing
If P is less than 8% of (P1) inlet pressure than use formula:
Qh = 76.99Cv(P(P1)) MSCF/Hr formula - 1
Otherwise use formula
Qh = 54.5 Cv (P(P1+P2)/2) formula - 2
Capacity Formula as given by diferent manufacturers
ROCKWELL (Now SENSUS)
Q = K (P0(P1-P0))
for P1/P0 < 1.894
Q = K P1/2

for P1/P0 > 1.894

K factor for various orifices


Orifice
K

Single Port

Double Port

1/8

3/8

3/4

2 1/8

33

132

292

520

850

1300

2000

4270

5450

8880

17740

Regulator Sizing

Example:
P1 = Minimum inlet pressure = 100psia
P0 = outlet pressure = 60 psia
Capacity = 200,000 SCF/Hr
P1/P0 = 100/6- = 1.66 <1.894 use formula 1
200,000 = K (60(100 60))
K = 4081, so from the above table we can select the orifice
size of 1 having K=4270
for monitoring total capacity of both regulators is normally
taken as 70% of the capacity of a single regulator. So 2 dia
regulator with an orifice size of 1 will be selected

Regulator Sizing
Find Q for K=4081
Q=4270(60(100-60)) = 209,230 SCF/Hr
If monitoring is required,
calculated K=4081 will become
= 5830
Which means now we need an orifice size of 2 1/8 dia.
Which is available in 3 dia as RW-441-57S regulator. Its
MAOP is 175 psig which can handle inlet pressure of 100 psig
FISHER REGULATORS
Capacities can be calculated / regulator selected from the
software developed by them
Capacity tables can be consulted

Regulator Sizing

(FISHER

REGULATORS)

Formulas
(i) Q = P1(abs) (Cg) (1.29)

when P0/P1 0.5

(ii) Q = (520/GT) Cg Sin (3417/C1 p/P1) DEG When


P0/P1 >0.5
where
P1 = Inlet Pressure
P0 = Outlet Pressure
C1 = C g / C v

, Cg = Gas Sizing Co-efficient, See tables

from Fisher catalog for 399 regulators

Important Considerations
A regulator is usually capable of having more than one orifice
size. MAOP of the regulator defines the maximum operating
pressure of the regulator body, but pressure rating for diferent
orifices may be less than MAOP. So great care should be taken
for the selection of orifice for a particular orifice size, otherwise
regulator would not provide tight lock-up.

Shutof Valve Selection


Two types are generally used
Plug Valves
Ball Valves
PLUG VALVES
Reduced port
Lubricated
Recommended to be used downstream of regulator or meter
BALL VALVES
Full opening (lesser pressure drop)
Non-lubricated
Recommended to be used upstream of the meter / regulator

Shutof Valve Selection


The capacities of the valve can be calculated from the AGA
formulas for regulators if Cv is given. However as a thumb
rule one step lower than pipe size can be used for valve size
(i.e. for 4 pipe 2 valve is normally OK. Some designers
prefer to use same size valves for symmetry and to avoid
fittings like reducers / expanders.
Block valves are installed on the inlet / outlet of the
metering and regulating stations, other locations could be.
Isolations of diferent sections such as filters, regulators,
meter stations, by-pass legs, blow downs, relief valves,
scrubbers etc.

Valve Joint Selection

Weld neck flanges are used for above ground applications


for ease of disassembly
Welded valves eliminate potential for leaks, these are more
suitable for underground applications
Thread valve joints have high potential for leakage, these
should be avoided as far as possible. Can be used for small
instrument valves

Pipe Sizing / Configuration


AGA recommend velocities in piping system from 50 ft/sec to
200 ft/sec. Diferent companies use their own limits on
pipelines velocities. Lower velocities are used to have a
quieter system and to have low wear and tear of
instruments
SNGPL may use the value of pipeline velocity of 80ft/sec for
designing purposes
formula for calculation of velocity:
V = 0.75 Qh/D2Pf
V=velocity (ft/sec),
Qh=volumetric flow rate (SCF/Hr)
D= inside diameter (inch), Pf=flowing pressure (psia)
From this formula we can calculate the diameter of piping in
various sections of the metering regulating stations
D= (0.75Qh/VPf)

Measurement
First of all determine the type of meter that will be best
suited for the load applications
In SNGPL following types of meters are generally used
Domestic / Low Capacity Commercial Metering Station
These consumers have very large variations in load which
require very high rangibility as such diaphragm meters
having rangibility of 1:100 are used
General Industry /High Pressure Large Capacity
Commercial Metering Stations
Comparatively lower fluctuations in load. Normally large
capacity diaphragm or positive displacement rotary meters
are used which have rangibility of 1:20
In case of process industry where it is not desirable to have
gas supply shutof, turbine meters are more suitable

Measurement
Large Capacity Meter Stations such as fertilizers
Cement and Power
Normally inferential meters, orifice or turbine meters are
used for such applications
Orifice meters have a rangibility of 1:3.5 and turbine meters
have rangibility of 1:18 (at 40) and 1:44 at a pressure of
75psig
For diaphragm and rotary meters there is no specific
requirement of straight upstream and downstream piping

Measurement
Selection of Diaphragm and Rotary Meters
Load in SCF /Hr (maximum and minimum)
Metering Pressure (Minimum)
In diaphragm meters the capacity does not increase
corresponding to the pressure factor, as such consult table
against the maximum load and minimum metering pressure
to find select the adequately sized meters
Company is presently switching over to rotary meters due
to their sustained accuracy, smaller size and non-adjusting
accuracy features

Measurement
Rotary Meter Selection
Calculate the pressure factor against the metering
pressure, suppose metering pressure = 40psig (min.)
P.F. = (40+14.65) / 14.65 = 3.73
Maximum load = 12,000 Cuft/Hr
Calculate uncorrected volume i.e. compressed volume of
the gas to be passed through the meter at metering
pressure = 12,000 / 3.73 = 3217 ft3/Hr
Divide this volume by 0.85 as a facor of safety = 3785
Capacities of rotary meters in company used are: RC3M175 = 3000 ft3/Hr , RC5M175 = 5000 ft3/Hr
RC7M175 = 7000 ft3/Hr , RC11M175 = 11000 ft3/Hr

Measurement

In this example the uncorrected flow rate is more than 3000


ft3/Hr and less than 5000 ft3/Hr, so we will select meter
RC5M175, the suffix 175 depicts its MAOP
Company has decided to go for the automatic Electronic
Volume Correction by use of Electronic Volume Correctors.
So meter RC5M175 with EVC will be selected
Similar principle shall be applied for the selection of Turbine
meters. However, great care should be taken to have
straight run piping upstream and downstream of the meter
as recommended in AGA-7
Normally 10 pipe dia upstream of the turbine meters and 5
pipe dia. Downstream are to be used
A dia by-pass line across the inlet valve of the turbine
meter leg is very essential which is needed for
commissioning of the meter

Measurement

Line & Valve

Orifice Meter Sizing


for sizing orifice meters formula
Q = C (hwPf) is used
Beta Ratio = =d/D =Orifice Dia / pipe dia = 0.5
may be used for design purposes
As a thumb rule C = Fb (AGA-3) 1.291
minimum value of hw may be taken as = 28 in H2O
pf = Absolute Static Pressure = 500 psia
Q = Fb 1.291 (28 500)

Measurement
Q = 167,000
Fb= 167,000 / (1.291 118) = 10970 (given value of about 7 orifice dia.)
Now find the value of orifice dia from the tables of AGA-3
report
Meter run dia can be found by using ratio=d/D=0.5, hence
D= d/0.5, D=7/0.5 =14 pipe dia for meter tube
The meter run can also be sized by using a computer software
programme developed by manufacturers
Normally 100 diferential pressure recorder is used for
recording hw in the company
Provide maximum possible straight pipe upstream and
downstream of the orifice fittings as recommended in AGA-3
other pertinent instructions of AGA-3 should be followed

Normal Piping Arrangement of Distribution Metering


Stations
Regulators
Filter
ON/OFF VALVE

Gas Flow

Diaphragm /Rotary
Meters

ON/OFF VALVE

Pressure
Gauge

Regulators

Normal Piping Arrangement of


Distribution Metering Stations

Regulators

Regulators

Filter
ON/OFF VALVE

Meter
Gas Flow

ON/OFF
VALVE

Regula
tors

Gas Flow

Regula
tors

Met
er

Filte
r

Normal Piping Arrangement of


Distribution Metering Stations

Large Capacity Metering


Station
These stations normally have four blocks
1. Filtration
2. Regulation for the Meter
3. Meters
4. Regulation for the delivery pressure if required. Typical
sketches of piping of large capacity meters in the
company

Large Capacity Metering Station

Gas Flow

Large Capacity Metering Station

Gas Flow

Example

Load and Pressure Requirements


Load = 20 MCF/Hr
maximum
= 2 MCF/Hr Minimum
Inlet Pressure = 90 psig maximum
= 40 psig
minimum
Outlet Pressure = 8 psig

Other Information
Type of Industry = General Industry in Private Sector
Monitoring Required = Yes, by way of Data Logging
Delivery Pressure Required = Constant
Gas Quality = Probability of Presence of Dust

Example

Proposal
Type of Measurement = Meter with EVC will be suitable
Filters = Filters will be required for the removal of dust
Regulation = Pilot Operated with minimum droop

Filter
Pressure (minimum) = 40 + 15 = 55 psia
Q(max) = 20 MCF/Hr

2 FA AND FS FILTER CAPACITY TABLE

Example

Regulators
P1/P0 = 55/23 = 2.39 >1.890
so, we will use Q = K P1/2 or K = 381
for K=381, orifice size of is suitable
for monitoring K=381/0.7 = 544 implied orifice size of
Consult Regulator catalog of various regulator manufacturers
and select regulator size with orifice or equilent
P0/P1 = 23/55 =0.41
use formula
Q= Pabs Cg 1.29
Cg = 20,000 / 1.29 55 = 281
Fisher 1 399 at 60% has Cg =359
Fisher 299 has Cg=200 and has Cg=430
So Fisher 299 will be selected for monitoring

Example

Example

Meter
Rangibility = 2:20 i.e 1:10
Diaphragm or Rotary Meters can be selected.
since Rotary meters are more rugged and EVC is required, we
will go for Rotary Meter with EVC
Minimum Metering Pressure = 40 psig
Pressure Factor = 40+14.65 / 14.65 =3.73
Uncorrected Volume = 20 /3.73 = 5.36 MCF/Hr
maximum flow through the meter should be 0.85 of the
maximum rated capacity of the meter.
so uncorrected volume for design purpose = 5.36/0.85=6.3MCF
RC 5M = 5 MCF
and
RC 7M = 7 MCF
So meter RC 7M175 with EVC or equivalent will be selected which
has connection size of 3

Example

Piping
Inlet Piping:
Inlet Pressure (Minimum) = 55
Qmax = 20 MCF/Hr
D = (0.7520,000)/(6555) = 2.00
Outlet Piping:
Outlet Pressure = 23
Qmax = 20 MCF/Hr
D = (0.7520,000)/(2350) = 3.16 4
To check if relative 2 dia section of pipe can be used against
calculated 4 dia pipe, assume pipe section = 1ft
Darcy Equation:
dp=(w/144)xfx(L/D)x(V2/2g)
dp=0.0471/1440.851/2(5050)/(232.17)
dp=0.0054 psig 0.148

Example
Filter
ON/OFF
P/VALVE

2 Pipe
32

Gas Flow
Diaphragm /Rotary
Meters

ON/OFF VALVE 2

32
Pressure
Gauge

Regulators

Example
Regulators
2 dia.
Filter
22
ON/OFF VALVE 1

Meter

12

12

6
3

Gas/Air Flow

Pipe Dia. 2
1/2 Needle Valve
(0 100psig)
Tee to be connected
with Air Compressor

1/2 Needle Valve


(0 100psig)

ON/OFF VALVE 1

Height from
Floor 42

Selection of shutof valve


1.

For pressure drop in psig (subject to P=3% of P inlet)


dp = 0.116F/PpsiaZ(Q/A)2

2.

Q in MSCF

For pressure drop in inches of water column


dp(inches of H2O) = 3.22F/PpsiaZ(Q/A)2
where dp = pressure drop
Ppsia = Absolute Static Pressure in upstream pipe
Q(SCFH)=Gas Flow in SCF/Hr
A = Pipe Flow Area in inches
Z = compressibility Factor

Selection of shutof valve

Calculations
Inlet valve
since pipe sizing =2 so we will first analyze 2 dia valve
F=0.43 (from table)
Assume = dp=1psi , Q=20MSCF/Hr, Pressure=55psia
Z=0.98
Use dp=0.116F/Pabs Z(Qscfh/A)2
1=0.1160.43/550.98(20/A)
A2=0.355 or A=0.6
From table for A=0.6, 1 dia valve is sufficient. However for
symmetry 2 dia valve can also be recommended, which
will provide lower diferential pressure.

Selection of shutof valve


Downstream / Outlet Valve
dp=10 inches of H2O (as downstream pressure is very low
we have to keep pressure loss to be minimum)
Z=0.99
from graph
Since pipe size is 4 we will initially calculate A for 4
use formula F=0.7
dp (inches of H2O)=3.22F/Pabs Z(Q/A)2
10=3.22 0.7/23 0.99(20/A)2
A=1.6 from table again A=1.6, valve size b/w 1 to
1 1/2 is good, so we will select 2 valve.