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Dec 09, 2015

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Metering

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Metering

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Introduction

Desain statsiun meter dan pengaturan (mtering and regulating

station) yang baik diperlukan untuk:

Sustained Safety

Accuracy

Pressure/flow control

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR PROPER DESIGNING

Many particulars are to be considered and assembled into

specifications and drawings to accomplish for proper

design objectives.

As a first step establish the gas load

Maximum Flow Rate

Minimum Flow Rate

Whether loads are constant, have little or wide variations

Utmost care should be taken while assessing the load

In our conditions consumer try to provide low loads to save in

security deposit, which eventually result in meter under sizing /

bad design of metering station

Normally metering stations are designed for maximum flow

rate. However minimum hourly loads should be considered to

ensure that regulators and meters have satisfactory

rangibility / regulator to have tight shutof

Future Projections should also be included. It is appropriate to

have it agreed at the time of contract.

Pressure Conditions

Inlet pressure

Whether it is more than normal MAOP of the instruments,

good to deliver outlet pressure e.g. normally MAOP of meters

in distribution system is 175psig and that of Emcorrector is

100psig. If inlet pressure is more than 90psig than a

regulator at the inlet of the meter would be installed.

The maximum pressure will determine the MAOP of the

instruments, particularly of regulator

The minimum value of the pressure will be used for sizing

the regulator and metering equipment.

Pressure Conditions

Outlet Pressure

requirements

The regulator should be designed according to the

minimum and maximum outlet pressure acceptable to the

customer.

The amount of pressure reduction is a major indication of

whether a single stage pressure regulator will be

satisfactory or if multiple stage reduction is required.

Pressure Conditions

Type of Load

peak load (design load)

Loads that goes to zero require regulators capable of tightshut-of

For wider variation of loads, we would require higher

rangibility meters.

Special consideration should be given to select a meter for

continuous loads, such as process industries, city loads etc.

In these cases usually inferential meters which does not

block are more suitable. Sometimes to omprove rangibillity

multiple meter runs are installed with switching equipments

If dust or other particles (condensate / higher hydrocarbon)

are present, filtering equipments should be installed

upstream of the station.

Dust filters are equipped with suitable mesh or coalescing

filter elements. It is good practice to install a 10 micron

filter elements. The filters can be selected from the tables

according to gas loads and pressure.

If there are larger pressure cuts and ambient temperature

are expected to be low, the freezing of measuring

equipment should be considered. In such cases adequate

selection of heating tapes, indirect-fired gas heaters,

inhibitors like glycol injection etc.

Noise

A metering / regulating station should preferably

have noise level less than 85 db (decibel)

Metering

Station Survey

Survey of metering

station should be done

very carefully because

design of meter and

regulating station

depend on this survey.

A poor survey can

result in undersize or

oversize design.

Sample

Station

Survey

%age of initial

Differential pressure

regulating station to protect regulator pilots / main valves,

meters etc.

Maximum flow rate at minimum inlet pressure

Maximum diferential pressure = 2 psi

Maximum 10 microns solids

Design must meet ASME code and ANSI B16.34 code

Pressure Differential Vs Percent Plugged

400

300

200

100

0

25

50

75

100

clogged plugged to 50% had a 100% increase in diferential

pressure, and 75% plugged element had a 400% increase of

diferential pressure. It is therefore assumed that when the

diferential pressure across the filter increases 100% from the

original diferential , the filter elements are 50% plugged and

when the diferential reaches 4 times the original, the

element are 75% plugged.

It is recommended that the filter should be replaced when the

diferential pressure is of the maximum allowable pressure

drop

The 75% plugged condition is normally suggested. So the

initial diferential pressure of the filter would be 1/4 th of the

recommended diferential pressure for filter replacement (i.e.

of the maximum allowable pressure)

Example

Conditions

Working Pressure = 100psig, Flow Rate = 60,000 ft3/hr

Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop = 6 psig

Diferential Pressure for replacement of elements

= of Maximum Allowable Pressure drop =1/26= 3psig

Now 3 psig is the maximum pressure diferential limit for filter

element replacement. According to 75% plugged rule 3psig

(80 in W.C.) diferential will be experienced when filter

elements are 75% plugged. So the initial diferential pressure

needs to be 80 = 20 in W.C.

Example

2 FA AND FS FILTER CAPACITY TABLE

In the table see the capacity at the intersection of 100psig inlet pressure and 20 in

W.C. diferential pressure. The capacity is 66,000 ft3/Hr. which is good for given

conditions.

Removal of Condensate

Removal of condensate is accomplished by installing a

knock-out vessel at the inlet of the metering station.

Normally the direction of gas fluid is changed either by

putting an obstruction plate or by employing multiple

cyclones in parallel to remove liquid particles. The change

in velocity enables the liquid particles to drop down in the

bottom of the scrubber.

Line Heater

constant pressure will bring

the gas stream in the right of

the Dew Point Boundary (i.e.

Gas Phase)

Pressure

Hydrate condensate within gas stream to clog pilot line and

regulator orifice

Ice deposition around outside of regulator and control line

Gas

Condensate

Gas

Hydrocarbon Dew

point Boundary

Temperature

Line Heater

Line Heater Selection is based on :

Normal inlet station pressure

Minimum outlet station pressure

Design flow rate

Inlet gas temperature

Outlet gas temperature required

Maximum pressure drop across Heater Coil at design flow

(less than 10 psi)

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of given

quality of gas to desired temperature is calculated from the

enthalpy curve.

Line Heater

At 500psig and 75F desired outlet temperature Enthalpy=8.9 Btu/ft3

Diference = 0.4 Btu/ft3, If the flow rate = 4 MMCFD = 166,666 ft3/Hr

Then amount of Heat Required = 166,666 0.4 = 66,666 Btu / Hr

By using this heating value the suitable size of Heater can be selected from the

manufacturers catalog

Regulator Selection

pressure in the metering station at one or more points

Regulators are sized for maximum anticipated flow

requirement with the minimum inlet pressure

Although many regulators can operate over a wide flow

and pressure ranges, often it is necessary to consider

parallel runs to have better control, redundancy and

capacity increase

Regulators required to operate nearly closed position over

long periods of time will tend to have more valve and seat

damage, than a unit that is sized to have valve open at

least 10%

A small regulator can be installed in one line and the

larger regulator in the parallel line to handle larger flows

up to the required capacity

Regulator Selection

plug valves maintenance

Regulators with an external control line should have

sensing point 5 10 pipe diameters. Control line may be

,1/2 or depending upon the types of regulator and

distance from the pressure sensing point to the regulator

Each regulator should have a separate sensing tap and

control line.

Sensing tap should not be installed on the fittings such as

expanders, Tees, Elbows etc.

Continuity of operation is the most essential consideration.

In case of fail to close regulators, freezing possibilities, it is

a good practice to have parallel regulator runs.

Regulator Selection

small filters can be installed on the pilot lines

For safety of regulator operation normally, regulators with

relief valve or monitoring regulators are used. For

distribution system monitoring operation is preferred

whereas relief valve is used for remote locations in general

Regulator by-pass and parallel legs are good for performing

routine maintenance

For fixed factor applications the droop should be in 1%

(accuracy). However, for field tapping up to 10% droop is

available.

Regulator Sizing

Most control valves are rated with a capacity term called Cv,

which is defined as the number of gallons of water per

Minute that will flow through the valve with 1 psi pressure

drop across the valve.

Cv = Q / (P 62.4/6)

Where Q = quality of water in gpm

P= Pressure drop in psi

Normally Cv or K values of the regulators are given by the

manufacturers and formulae for calculating the regulator

capacity at critical and non-critical flows are given. The

capacity tables can also be used.

According to AGAs recommendation

Regulator Sizing

If P is less than 8% of (P1) inlet pressure than use formula:

Qh = 76.99Cv(P(P1)) MSCF/Hr formula - 1

Otherwise use formula

Qh = 54.5 Cv (P(P1+P2)/2) formula - 2

Capacity Formula as given by diferent manufacturers

ROCKWELL (Now SENSUS)

Q = K (P0(P1-P0))

for P1/P0 < 1.894

Q = K P1/2

Orifice

K

Single Port

Double Port

1/8

3/8

3/4

2 1/8

33

132

292

520

850

1300

2000

4270

5450

8880

17740

Regulator Sizing

Example:

P1 = Minimum inlet pressure = 100psia

P0 = outlet pressure = 60 psia

Capacity = 200,000 SCF/Hr

P1/P0 = 100/6- = 1.66 <1.894 use formula 1

200,000 = K (60(100 60))

K = 4081, so from the above table we can select the orifice

size of 1 having K=4270

for monitoring total capacity of both regulators is normally

taken as 70% of the capacity of a single regulator. So 2 dia

regulator with an orifice size of 1 will be selected

Regulator Sizing

Find Q for K=4081

Q=4270(60(100-60)) = 209,230 SCF/Hr

If monitoring is required,

calculated K=4081 will become

= 5830

Which means now we need an orifice size of 2 1/8 dia.

Which is available in 3 dia as RW-441-57S regulator. Its

MAOP is 175 psig which can handle inlet pressure of 100 psig

FISHER REGULATORS

Capacities can be calculated / regulator selected from the

software developed by them

Capacity tables can be consulted

Regulator Sizing

(FISHER

REGULATORS)

Formulas

(i) Q = P1(abs) (Cg) (1.29)

P0/P1 >0.5

where

P1 = Inlet Pressure

P0 = Outlet Pressure

C1 = C g / C v

Important Considerations

A regulator is usually capable of having more than one orifice

size. MAOP of the regulator defines the maximum operating

pressure of the regulator body, but pressure rating for diferent

orifices may be less than MAOP. So great care should be taken

for the selection of orifice for a particular orifice size, otherwise

regulator would not provide tight lock-up.

Two types are generally used

Plug Valves

Ball Valves

PLUG VALVES

Reduced port

Lubricated

Recommended to be used downstream of regulator or meter

BALL VALVES

Full opening (lesser pressure drop)

Non-lubricated

Recommended to be used upstream of the meter / regulator

The capacities of the valve can be calculated from the AGA

formulas for regulators if Cv is given. However as a thumb

rule one step lower than pipe size can be used for valve size

(i.e. for 4 pipe 2 valve is normally OK. Some designers

prefer to use same size valves for symmetry and to avoid

fittings like reducers / expanders.

Block valves are installed on the inlet / outlet of the

metering and regulating stations, other locations could be.

Isolations of diferent sections such as filters, regulators,

meter stations, by-pass legs, blow downs, relief valves,

scrubbers etc.

for ease of disassembly

Welded valves eliminate potential for leaks, these are more

suitable for underground applications

Thread valve joints have high potential for leakage, these

should be avoided as far as possible. Can be used for small

instrument valves

AGA recommend velocities in piping system from 50 ft/sec to

200 ft/sec. Diferent companies use their own limits on

pipelines velocities. Lower velocities are used to have a

quieter system and to have low wear and tear of

instruments

SNGPL may use the value of pipeline velocity of 80ft/sec for

designing purposes

formula for calculation of velocity:

V = 0.75 Qh/D2Pf

V=velocity (ft/sec),

Qh=volumetric flow rate (SCF/Hr)

D= inside diameter (inch), Pf=flowing pressure (psia)

From this formula we can calculate the diameter of piping in

various sections of the metering regulating stations

D= (0.75Qh/VPf)

Measurement

First of all determine the type of meter that will be best

suited for the load applications

In SNGPL following types of meters are generally used

Domestic / Low Capacity Commercial Metering Station

These consumers have very large variations in load which

require very high rangibility as such diaphragm meters

having rangibility of 1:100 are used

General Industry /High Pressure Large Capacity

Commercial Metering Stations

Comparatively lower fluctuations in load. Normally large

capacity diaphragm or positive displacement rotary meters

are used which have rangibility of 1:20

In case of process industry where it is not desirable to have

gas supply shutof, turbine meters are more suitable

Measurement

Large Capacity Meter Stations such as fertilizers

Cement and Power

Normally inferential meters, orifice or turbine meters are

used for such applications

Orifice meters have a rangibility of 1:3.5 and turbine meters

have rangibility of 1:18 (at 40) and 1:44 at a pressure of

75psig

For diaphragm and rotary meters there is no specific

requirement of straight upstream and downstream piping

Measurement

Selection of Diaphragm and Rotary Meters

Load in SCF /Hr (maximum and minimum)

Metering Pressure (Minimum)

In diaphragm meters the capacity does not increase

corresponding to the pressure factor, as such consult table

against the maximum load and minimum metering pressure

to find select the adequately sized meters

Company is presently switching over to rotary meters due

to their sustained accuracy, smaller size and non-adjusting

accuracy features

Measurement

Rotary Meter Selection

Calculate the pressure factor against the metering

pressure, suppose metering pressure = 40psig (min.)

P.F. = (40+14.65) / 14.65 = 3.73

Maximum load = 12,000 Cuft/Hr

Calculate uncorrected volume i.e. compressed volume of

the gas to be passed through the meter at metering

pressure = 12,000 / 3.73 = 3217 ft3/Hr

Divide this volume by 0.85 as a facor of safety = 3785

Capacities of rotary meters in company used are: RC3M175 = 3000 ft3/Hr , RC5M175 = 5000 ft3/Hr

RC7M175 = 7000 ft3/Hr , RC11M175 = 11000 ft3/Hr

Measurement

ft3/Hr and less than 5000 ft3/Hr, so we will select meter

RC5M175, the suffix 175 depicts its MAOP

Company has decided to go for the automatic Electronic

Volume Correction by use of Electronic Volume Correctors.

So meter RC5M175 with EVC will be selected

Similar principle shall be applied for the selection of Turbine

meters. However, great care should be taken to have

straight run piping upstream and downstream of the meter

as recommended in AGA-7

Normally 10 pipe dia upstream of the turbine meters and 5

pipe dia. Downstream are to be used

A dia by-pass line across the inlet valve of the turbine

meter leg is very essential which is needed for

commissioning of the meter

Measurement

for sizing orifice meters formula

Q = C (hwPf) is used

Beta Ratio = =d/D =Orifice Dia / pipe dia = 0.5

may be used for design purposes

As a thumb rule C = Fb (AGA-3) 1.291

minimum value of hw may be taken as = 28 in H2O

pf = Absolute Static Pressure = 500 psia

Q = Fb 1.291 (28 500)

Measurement

Q = 167,000

Fb= 167,000 / (1.291 118) = 10970 (given value of about 7 orifice dia.)

Now find the value of orifice dia from the tables of AGA-3

report

Meter run dia can be found by using ratio=d/D=0.5, hence

D= d/0.5, D=7/0.5 =14 pipe dia for meter tube

The meter run can also be sized by using a computer software

programme developed by manufacturers

Normally 100 diferential pressure recorder is used for

recording hw in the company

Provide maximum possible straight pipe upstream and

downstream of the orifice fittings as recommended in AGA-3

other pertinent instructions of AGA-3 should be followed

Stations

Regulators

Filter

ON/OFF VALVE

Gas Flow

Diaphragm /Rotary

Meters

ON/OFF VALVE

Pressure

Gauge

Regulators

Distribution Metering Stations

Regulators

Regulators

Filter

ON/OFF VALVE

Meter

Gas Flow

ON/OFF

VALVE

Regula

tors

Gas Flow

Regula

tors

Met

er

Filte

r

Distribution Metering Stations

Station

These stations normally have four blocks

1. Filtration

2. Regulation for the Meter

3. Meters

4. Regulation for the delivery pressure if required. Typical

sketches of piping of large capacity meters in the

company

Gas Flow

Gas Flow

Example

Load = 20 MCF/Hr

maximum

= 2 MCF/Hr Minimum

Inlet Pressure = 90 psig maximum

= 40 psig

minimum

Outlet Pressure = 8 psig

Other Information

Type of Industry = General Industry in Private Sector

Monitoring Required = Yes, by way of Data Logging

Delivery Pressure Required = Constant

Gas Quality = Probability of Presence of Dust

Example

Proposal

Type of Measurement = Meter with EVC will be suitable

Filters = Filters will be required for the removal of dust

Regulation = Pilot Operated with minimum droop

Filter

Pressure (minimum) = 40 + 15 = 55 psia

Q(max) = 20 MCF/Hr

Example

Regulators

P1/P0 = 55/23 = 2.39 >1.890

so, we will use Q = K P1/2 or K = 381

for K=381, orifice size of is suitable

for monitoring K=381/0.7 = 544 implied orifice size of

Consult Regulator catalog of various regulator manufacturers

and select regulator size with orifice or equilent

P0/P1 = 23/55 =0.41

use formula

Q= Pabs Cg 1.29

Cg = 20,000 / 1.29 55 = 281

Fisher 1 399 at 60% has Cg =359

Fisher 299 has Cg=200 and has Cg=430

So Fisher 299 will be selected for monitoring

Example

Example

Meter

Rangibility = 2:20 i.e 1:10

Diaphragm or Rotary Meters can be selected.

since Rotary meters are more rugged and EVC is required, we

will go for Rotary Meter with EVC

Minimum Metering Pressure = 40 psig

Pressure Factor = 40+14.65 / 14.65 =3.73

Uncorrected Volume = 20 /3.73 = 5.36 MCF/Hr

maximum flow through the meter should be 0.85 of the

maximum rated capacity of the meter.

so uncorrected volume for design purpose = 5.36/0.85=6.3MCF

RC 5M = 5 MCF

and

RC 7M = 7 MCF

So meter RC 7M175 with EVC or equivalent will be selected which

has connection size of 3

Example

Piping

Inlet Piping:

Inlet Pressure (Minimum) = 55

Qmax = 20 MCF/Hr

D = (0.7520,000)/(6555) = 2.00

Outlet Piping:

Outlet Pressure = 23

Qmax = 20 MCF/Hr

D = (0.7520,000)/(2350) = 3.16 4

To check if relative 2 dia section of pipe can be used against

calculated 4 dia pipe, assume pipe section = 1ft

Darcy Equation:

dp=(w/144)xfx(L/D)x(V2/2g)

dp=0.0471/1440.851/2(5050)/(232.17)

dp=0.0054 psig 0.148

Example

Filter

ON/OFF

P/VALVE

2 Pipe

32

Gas Flow

Diaphragm /Rotary

Meters

ON/OFF VALVE 2

32

Pressure

Gauge

Regulators

Example

Regulators

2 dia.

Filter

22

ON/OFF VALVE 1

Meter

12

12

6

3

Gas/Air Flow

Pipe Dia. 2

1/2 Needle Valve

(0 100psig)

Tee to be connected

with Air Compressor

(0 100psig)

ON/OFF VALVE 1

Height from

Floor 42

1.

dp = 0.116F/PpsiaZ(Q/A)2

2.

Q in MSCF

dp(inches of H2O) = 3.22F/PpsiaZ(Q/A)2

where dp = pressure drop

Ppsia = Absolute Static Pressure in upstream pipe

Q(SCFH)=Gas Flow in SCF/Hr

A = Pipe Flow Area in inches

Z = compressibility Factor

Calculations

Inlet valve

since pipe sizing =2 so we will first analyze 2 dia valve

F=0.43 (from table)

Assume = dp=1psi , Q=20MSCF/Hr, Pressure=55psia

Z=0.98

Use dp=0.116F/Pabs Z(Qscfh/A)2

1=0.1160.43/550.98(20/A)

A2=0.355 or A=0.6

From table for A=0.6, 1 dia valve is sufficient. However for

symmetry 2 dia valve can also be recommended, which

will provide lower diferential pressure.

Downstream / Outlet Valve

dp=10 inches of H2O (as downstream pressure is very low

we have to keep pressure loss to be minimum)

Z=0.99

from graph

Since pipe size is 4 we will initially calculate A for 4

use formula F=0.7

dp (inches of H2O)=3.22F/Pabs Z(Q/A)2

10=3.22 0.7/23 0.99(20/A)2

A=1.6 from table again A=1.6, valve size b/w 1 to

1 1/2 is good, so we will select 2 valve.

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