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CAT

(Critical Appraisal of the


Topics)

VALIDITAS
1. Artikel ini berasal dari peer-reviewed
journal
Indian J Neurotrauma
Published Online, March 11, 2015

2.Penelitian ini tidak disponsori oleh


organisasi manapun yang dapat
mempengaruhi desain atau hasil
penelitian dan telah melewati penyaringan
etik

RELEVANSI
3. Penelitian ini dapat diterapkan di pusat
pendidikan kita metode aplikatif
4. Informasi ini, jika benar, memiliki dampak
langsung pada kesehatan pasien dan menjadi
sesuatu yang akan mereka pedulikan.
5. Masalah yang dibahas pada jurnal ini umum
ditemukan pada praktek kita dan intervensi
yang diteliti memungkinkan untuk dilakukan
pada praktek kita

MAKSUD PENELITIAN
Tujuan :
membandingkan
outcome
pada
penanganan kontusio serebri antara burr
hole with small craniectomy dengan
conventional craniotomy
4 kategori klinis mayor:

Terapi
Diagnosis
Etiologi
Prognosis

Clinical
category
Therapy

Diagnosis

Causation

Prognosis

Description

Prefered Study Design

Tests the effectiveness of a


treatment, such as a drug, surgical
procedure, or other intervention
Measures the validity (is it
dependable?) and reliability (will
the same results be obtained
every time?) of a diagnostic test,
or evaluates the effectiveness of a
test in detecting disease at a
presymptomatic stage when
applied
a large population
Assessestowhether
sex hormone

Randomized, doubleblinded, placebocontrolled trial


Cross-sectional survey
(comparing the new
test with a reference
standard)

levels associated with breast


cancer risk
Determines the outcome of a
disease

Cohort or case-control

Longitudinal cohort
study

Evaluate the Validity of the Article Based on Its


Intent

Therapy
Diagnosis
Causation
Prognosis

Level of Evidence
Level

Therapy/Prevention,
Aetiology/Harm

Prognosis

1a

SR (with homogeneity*)
of RCTs

SR (with homogeneity*)
SR (with homogeneity*)
of inception cohort
of Level 1 diagnostic
studies; CDR
studies; CDR with 1b
validated in different
studies from different
populations
clinical centres

1b

Individual RCT (with


narrow Confidence
Interval)

Individual inception Validating** cohort study


cohort study with >
with good
80% follow-up;
reference standards;
CDR validated in a
or CDR tested within
single population
one clinical centre

1c

All or none

All or none case-series

Diagnosis

Absolute SpPins and


SnNouts

Level
2a

Therapy/Prevention,
Aetiology/Harm
SR (with homogeneity*)
of cohort studies

2b

Individual cohort study


(including low quality
RCT; e.g., <80% followup)

2c

Outcomes" Research;"
Ecological studies

Prognosis

Diagnosis

SR (with homogeneity*)
of either retrospective
cohort studies or
untreated control
groups in RCTs

SR (with homogeneity*) of
Level >2 diagnostic studies

Retrospective cohort
study or follow-up of
untreated control
patients in an RCT;
Derivation of CDR or
validated on splitsampleonly
Outcomes"
Research"

Exploratory** cohort study


with good reference
standards; CDR after
derivation, or validated
only on split-sample or
databases

Level
3a
3b

Therapy/Prevention,
Aetiology/Harm
SR (with homogeneity*)
of case-control studies
Individual Case-Control
Study

Prognosis

Diagnosis

Case-series (and poor


Case-series (and poor
quality cohort and casequality prognostic
control studies)
cohort studies***)
Expert opinion without
Expert opinion
explicit critical appraisal, without explicit critical
or based on physiology, appraisal, or based on
bench research or "first
physiology, bench
"principles
research or "first
"principles

SR (with homogeneity*) of
3b and better studies
Non-consecutive study; or
without consistently
applied reference
standards
Case-control study, poor or
non-independent reference
standard
Expert opinion without
explicit critical appraisal, or
based on physiology, bench
"research or "first principles

Grades of Recommendation
A

consistent level 1 studies

B consistent level 2 or 3 studies or


extrapolations from level 1 studies
C level 4 studies or extrapolations from
level 2 or 3 studies
D level 5 evidence or troublingly
inconsistent or inconclusive studies
of any level