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BUS

BUS 472
472
Power
Power &
& Politics
Politics

AADefinition
Definition of
of Power
Power
Power
A has the capacity to influence
the behavior of B, so B does
what A wishes

Dependency
Bs relationship to A
when A has something
that B requires/needs.

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132

Bases
Bases of
of Power:
Power: Formal
Formal Power
Power
Formal Power
Is established by an individuals position in an
organization; conveys the ability to coerce or
reward, from formal authority, or from control
of information.
Coercive Power
A power base dependent on
fear.
Reward Power
Compliance achieved based
on the ability to distribute
rewards that others view as
valuable

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133

Bases
Bases of
of Power:
Power: Formal
Formal Power
Power (contd)
(contd)
Legitimate Power
The power a person receives as a
result of his or her position in the
formal hierarchy of an
organization.
Information Power
Power that comes
from access to and
control over
information.

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134

Bases
Bases of
of Power:
Power: Personal
Personal Power
Power
Expert Power
Influence based on
special skills or
knowledge.
Referent Power
Influence based on
possession by an individual
of desirable resources or
personal traits.
Charismatic Power
An extension of referent power stemming
from an individuals personality and
interpersonal style.

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135

Power
Power Tactics
Tactics
Power Tactics
Ways in which
individuals translate
power bases into
specific actions.

Influence
InfluenceTactics
Tactics: :
Legitimacy
Legitimacy
Rational
Rationalpersuasion
persuasion
Inspirational
Inspirationalappeals
appeals
Consultation
Consultation
Exchange
Exchange
Personal
Personalappeals
appeals
Ingratiation
Ingratiation
Pressure
Pressure
Coalitions
Coalitions

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136

Factors
Factors Influencing
Influencing the
the Choice
Choice and
and
Effectiveness
Effectiveness of
of Power
Power Tactics
Tactics
Sequencing of tactics
Softer to harder
tactics works best.
Skillful use of a tactic
Experienced users are
more successful.
Relative power of the
tactic user
Some tactics work
better when applied
downward.
The type of request
attaching to the tactic
Is the request
legitimate?
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How the request is


perceived
Is the request
accepted as ethical?
The culture of the
organization
Culture affects users
choice of tactic
Country-specific cultural
factors
Local values favor
certain tactics over
others.
137

Politics:
Politics: Power
Power in
in Action
Action
Political Behavior
Activities that are not required as part of
ones formal role in the organization, but that
influence, or attempt to influence, the
distribution of advantages or disadvantages
within the organization.
Legitimate Political Behavior
Normal everyday politics.
Illegitimate Political Behavior
Extreme political behavior that violates the
implied rules of the game.
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138

Politics
Politics Is
Is in
in the
the Eye
Eye of
of the
the Beholder
Beholder
Political Label
Label
1. Blaming others vs.
2. Kissing up
vs.
3. Apple polishing vs.
4. Passing the buck vs.
5. Covering your rear vs.
6. Creating conflict vs.
innovation
7. Forming coalitions vs.
8. Whistleblowing vs.
9. Scheming
vs.
10. Overachieving vs.
11. Ambitious
vs.
12. Opportunistic
vs.
13. Cunning
vs.
14. Arrogant
vs.
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15.
Perfectionist

Effective Management
Fixing responsibility
Developing working relationships
Demonstrating loyalty
Delegating authority
Documenting decisions
Encouraging change and
Facilitating teamwork
Improving efficiency
Planning ahead
Source: Based on T. C. Krell, M. E.
Competent and capable
Mendenhall, and J. Sendry, Doing
Research in the Conceptual Morass of
Career-minded
Organizational Politics, paper
presented at the Western Academy of
Astute
Management Conference, Hollywood,
CA, April 1987.
Practical-minded
E X H I B I T 133
Confident
E X H I B I T 133
139
Attentive to detail

Employee
EmployeeResponses
Responsesto
to
Organizational
OrganizationalPolitics
Politics

E X H I B I T 135
E X H I B I T 135
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1310

BUS
BUS 472
472
Conflict
Conflict and
and Negotiation
Negotiation

Conflict
Conflict
Conflict Defined
Is a process that begins when one party
perceives that another party has negatively
affected, or is about to negatively affect,
something that the first party cares about.
Is that point in an ongoing activity when an interaction
crosses over to become an interparty conflict.

Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that


people experience in organizations
Incompatibility of goals
Differences over interpretations of facts
Disagreements based on behavioral expectations

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Transitions
Transitions in
in Conflict
Conflict Thought
Thought
Traditional View of Conflict
The belief that all conflict is harmful and must
be avoided.

Causes:
Causes:
Poor
Poorcommunication
communication
Lack
Lackof
ofopenness
openness
Failure
Failureto
torespond
respondto
to
employee
employeeneeds
needs
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Functional
Functional versus
versus Dysfunctional
Dysfunctional Conflict
Conflict
Functional Conflict
Conflict that supports the
goals of the group and
improves its performance.

Dysfunctional Conflict
Conflict that hinders
group performance.

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Types
Types of
of Conflict
Conflict
Task Conflict
Conflicts over content
and goals of the work.
Relationship Conflict
Conflict based on
interpersonal
relationships.
Process Conflict
Conflict over how work gets
done.
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Conflict
Conflict Management
Management Techniques
Techniques
Conflict
ConflictResolution
ResolutionTechniques
Techniques
Problem
Problemsolving
solving
Superordinate
Superordinategoals
goals
Expansion
Expansionof
ofresources
resources
Avoidance
Avoidance
Smoothing
Smoothing
Compromise
Compromise
Authoritative
Authoritativecommand
command
Altering
Alteringthe
thehuman
humanvariable
variable
Altering
Alteringthe
thestructural
structuralvariables
variables

Source: Based on S. P. Robbins,


Managing Organizational Conflict:
A Nontraditional Approach (Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall,
1974), pp. 5989

E X H I B I T 144
E X H I B I T 144
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Conflict
Conflict Management
Management Techniques
Techniques
Conflict
ConflictResolution
ResolutionTechniques
Techniques
Communication
Communication
Bringing
Bringingin
inoutsiders
outsiders
Restructuring
Restructuringthe
theorganization
organization
Appointing
Appointingaadevils
devilsadvocate
advocate

Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional


Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 5989

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 144 (contd)
E X H I B I T 144 (contd)
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Negotiation
Negotiation
Negotiation
A process in which two or more parties
exchange goods or services and attempt to
agree on the exchange rate for them.
BATNA
The Best Alternative To
a Negotiated
Agreement; the lowest
acceptable value
(outcome) to an
individual for a
negotiated
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Staking
Staking Out
Out the
the Bargaining
Bargaining Zone
Zone

E X H I B I T 146
E X H I B I T 146
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The
The
Negotiation
Negotiation
Process
Process

E X H I B I T 147
E X H I B I T 147
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