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NBAA AIRCRAFT

GROUND DAMAGE
PREVENTION

Best practices for preventing


business aircraft ground
damage events

June 2002

Introduction
Purpose of program - reduce aircraft ground damage risk by

providing best practices interventions


Focused audience - corporate flight and maintenance crews
Intended use - training and awareness tool
Self-audit tool - gap analysis, how do we manage these risks?
(tbd)
Incident analysis flow chart -tool to look at human factors issues
What this is not - a tool to manage FBOs
Size of the problem ? Many costs uninsured, estimated at over
$100 million/year in direct costs

NBAA Safety Committee

Most significant risk factors for


ground
damages
Frequency of events
%

1.
2.
3.
4.

Towing
Ramp movements
Ground service equipment
Hangar movements

towing

Ramp

GSE

Hangar
0

NBAA Safety Committee

10

20

30

40

50

Most significant human factors


issues for ground damages
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Time pressures - task saturation


Skill based errors - over/under skilled
Customer satisfaction
Direct rule based violations
Environmental i.e. illumination, visual obstructions,

noise levels

6. Communications breakdowns
7. Loss of situational awareness

NBAA Safety Committee

Maintenance Related Exposures

NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Maintenance Related Exposures
Situation/Exposure

Mobile ladders/equip near

aircraft control surfaces


Walk paths near aircraft
storage positions
Use of non-rubber chocks
while in hangars
Static wick protection
warning devices
Complete a Job hazard
analysis for specific aircraft
maintenance exposures
related to unique situations
NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Maintenance Related Exposures
Situation/Exposure
Fire Protection - urea foam

deluge systems should


receive periodic inspection
Equipment that can move
due to vibration or jet blast
should be chocked or
secured
Aircraft log books should be
stored in a secure storage
system when not in use
Clothing - Belt buckles
covered and shoe protectors
used if required.
NBAA Safety Committee

Aircraft Movement

NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Aircraft Movement In/Out of
Hangars/Storage
Situation/Exposure

Use of at least 2

wingwalkers while moving


aircraft from or into
hangars along with tug
operator
Team completes an area
risk assessment before
moving aircraft
Perimeter floor marking
that delineates limits of
aircraft placement near
hangar walls
NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage
Situation/Exposure
Hangar doors - securing
methods to prevent
inadvertent closure due to
jet blast or high winds
Aircraft wings should not
overlap other aircraft due to
settling hazard
Hangar doors should be fully
opened before aircraft
movement
Aircraft should not be moved
through propeller arcs

NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage
Situation/Exposure

Floor/ramp markings

delineate best aircraft


positions for entry or
exit from hangars
Suggested hangar
staking diagrams should
be provided as visual
aids
Overhead doors systems
should have a periodic
inspection process
NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage
Situation/Exposure
A Job hazard analysis should be
completed for aircraft
movement exposures in hangar
areas related to unique
situations
Written procedures for aircraft
movement should be available
in both the flight and
maintenance operations
manuals
Employees who move aircraft
receive should receive training
on company procedures

NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage
Situation/Exposure

A visual inspection of the

aircraft should be completed


before any tow initiates
The team should complete an
area risk assessment briefing
before moving aircraft - all
sides of aircraft perimeter
visually inspected for hazards
Towing equipment - tugs/lektro
tugs visually inspected, brakes
checked, correct tow bar
verified
NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Aircraft Movement In/Out of Hangars/Storage
Situation/Exposure
Towbars should be labeled as

to aircraft type
Tugs are marked as to rated
maximum loads
A post tow inspection should
completed of aircraft
For aircraft pushes, the rear
area must be inspected
before movement
A written job hazard analysis
should be completed for
aircraft towing exposures

15,000lb

NBAA Safety Committee

Aircraft Towing

NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Aircraft Towing - Ramp Areas

Situation/Exposure

Verification that aircraft


brakes are off is
completed before the
tow or push is initiated
Employees who move
aircraft should receive
training on procedures
Aircraft are towed at a
safe walking speed
Towing safety rules
marked on tugs

NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Aircraft Towing - Ramp Areas
Situation/Exposure

Large/heavy aircraft

should require a person


acting as a brake
monitor during
movement - in cockpit
If the tow operator loses
sight of wing walker, an
immediate STOP
should occur
If there is any doubt as
to having adequate
space/clearance,an
immediate STOP should
occur
NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Aircraft Towing - Ramp Areas
Situation/Exposure

Aircraft should only be


moved by approved
vehicles

NBAA Safety Committee

Aircraft Taxi

Flight Crew Procedures

NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:

Initial Aircraft Taxi Approach to Ramp Area


Situation/Exposure
Pilots should visually scan the

ramp for risks while taxing in


Ground marshallers should
provide the correct hand signals
- if in doubt, stop
While taxiing, the area should
continually be scanned for
threats such as: drain grates,
narrow rows of positioned
aircraft, ramp slope, blind
spots,jet blast hazards, wind
direction, loose chocks,
vehicle movements
NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:

Initial Aircraft Taxi Approach to Ramp Area


Situation/Exposure
Pilots should
communicate (radio) with
unicom or for taxi in
assistance from FBO, etc.
Pilots should observe any
hazards related to ground
service equipment
movements or positioning
hazards - plan ahead for
departure routes
NBAA Safety Committee

Flight Crew Precautions


(departure)
Flight crew should

complete a visual
inspection of the aircraft
prior to departure
Pilots should ensure that
wing walkers are used in
confined areas or areas
where marshalling person
cannot see all positions of
the aircraft.
Pilots should visually
survey the ramp area for
risks during pre-start and
taxi
NBAA Safety Committee

Aircraft Parking
Flight Crew Precautions

NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:

Aircraft Parking/Tie Down - Ramp Areas


Situation/Exposure

Warning cones should be

placed at wing tips and tail


Potential jet exhaust blast
hazards should be planned
for
Aircraft should be
positioned to avoid wing
overlap hazards
Triple chocks should be
placed at mains and nose
gear for overnight parking
NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:

Aircraft Parking/Tie Down - Ramp Areas


Situation/Exposure

The main gear should be

chocked at all ramp


parking situations
A ground marshler should
be used to aid for taxi in
and departure from
parking spots
Ground air stair mats
should be removed
before engine start
NBAA Safety Committee

Ground Service Equipment

NBAA Safety Committee

Risk Exposure - Area:


Ground Service Equipment
Fuel Trucks should be chocked

when servicing aircraft


All mobile equipment should be
positioned to not face aircraft
Ground power units should not be
positioned under tail sections and
must be chocked
Special precautions should be
followed to insure the removal of
GPU plugs before the unit is moved
Tugs and other types of GSE such
as golf carts should be shut-off,
parking brakes set, and chocked
when left unattended

NBAA Safety Committee

Flight crew communications


with ground crews

Hey, do you have


crew cars? Fuel her
up and I will see
you in the AM
Pilot
Ground crew

NBAA Safety Committee

Crew Communications
Flight and Ground - Towing

Flight Crew
Questions

Grnd Crew
Response

Will you be
No
towing our
aircraft today?

Are you
familiar with
this type of
aircraft?

Actions

Present the companys written


suggested procedures that outlines
ground chocking procedures and
protection - cones, etc.

Yes

Inform ground crew - be advised, the


brakes are off and here is a copy of our
companies preferred methods for
towing and secureing our aircraft.

Yes

If time permits, assist as a spotter

No or shows
uncertainty

Ask that the aircraft remain where it is


or that an employee who is familiar
with towing the type of aircraft be
locSafety
ated beCommittee
fore it is towed
NBAA

Crew Communications
Flight and Ground - Towing
Flight Crew
Questions

Grnd Crew
Response

Actions

Have you been


No
trained to tow this
type of aircraft?

Ask that the aircraft remain where it is


or that an employee who is familiar
with towing the type of aircraft be
located before it is towed

Will the aircraft


be towed during
times the flight
crew is not
available?

Request that a wing walker be present


and that the perimeter of the aircraft
be cleared before movement. The use
of a brake monitor maybe required on
heavy aircraft.

Yes

NBAA Safety Committee

Crew Communications
Flight and Ground - Hangar
operations
Flight Crew
Questions

Do you have
room for our
aircraft in a
hangar?

Grnd Crew
Response

Yes

Actions

Present the companys written


suggested procedures for hangar
movements, i.e., required wing
walkers, chocks, movement speed, etc.

NBAA Safety Committee

Crew Communications Between


Flight and Ground Crews - Fueling
Flight Crew
Questions

Grnd Crew
Response

Are you familiar No


with the fueling
procedures for this
aircraft?
Yes

Actions

Present the companys written


suggested procedures that outlines
fueling methods.
If time permits assign a pilot to
observe fueling.
As much as practical, fueling should
be conducted only when a flight
crewmember or employee of the
aircrafts owner is present.

NBAA Safety Committee

Case studies of what can go wrong


Aircraft Towing (Hangar)
Event:
Two ground crew employees were positioning a Falcon 50 into a hangar when the left wing tip struck a golf cart. One
employee was operating the Lektro tug and the other employee was acting as the wing walker. The aircraft was being
nosed into the hangar. There was a golf cart being charged on the left side of the hangar and a car was parked on the
right side of the hangar. As the aircraft was being pulled in, the wing walker was at the rear of the aircraft going between
the right wing and left wing to monitor clearance. As the right wing cleared the car the wing walker started to move back
to the left wing when the left wing tip struck the golf car` `

Lear60 Ground Power Unit


Event:
A Lear-60 requested a GPU start assist. Upon completion of both engine starts, and proper shut down procedures of the
GPU, the line service technician noticed the GPU cable plug head felt very hot to the touch during disconnect from the
aircraft GPU receptacle. The crew was notified, shut down the engines, and requested a maintenance inspection of the
GPU receptacle and related components. The aircraft maintenance representative discovered a lose wire on the internal
bracket of the GPU receptacle located within the fuselage.
.

NBAA Safety Committee

Case studies of what can go wrong


Aircraft Towing and Hangar Storage
Event:
Two line service employees with the additional assistance of two aircraft crewmembers were preparing to pull an aircraft from a hangar.
The tractor operator misjudged the gear pattern noted on the transmission stick selector, and upon release of the clutch pedal the tractor
lurched forward several inches pushing the aircraft into another aircraft positioned directly behind. The intended tow aircraft suffered a dent
to the right outboard flap, and the other aircraft suffered a scratch to the nose cone.

Use of Approved Tow Bars


Event:
The owner of a Mitsubishi MU-2 recently requested his aircraft to be towed from a hangar utilizing the customer owned tow bar. Upon the
initial tow bar inspection, it was noticed the tow bar was not equipped with manufacturer identification tags and the tow bar was bent.
The line crew notified their supervisor of their findings, and the supervisor instructed the crew not to use the tow bar. The supervisor
notified the pilot of the issue and requested the manufacturer labeled tow bar, designed for the aircraft be used. The pilot understood the
concern and had no issue with utilizing the approved tow bar. The approved tow bar was used with no further incident.

NBAA Safety Committee

Case studies of what can go wrong


Crew miscommunication
Event:
The ground crew was informed by the flight crew that the aircraft ( King Air 200 ) brakes were set in the off position. A tow was initiated
which resulted in damage to the brake and wheel assembly.

Aircraft Towing - lektro tug


Event
An employee used the Lektro 8750 to tow a Cessna 425 Corsair to a hangar. After the employee captured the C-425 he installed the front
gate guard on the bucket of the Lektro. The aircraft was towed to and placed in the common hangar. The operator of the Lektro unit
lowered the bucket and released the winch strap prior to chocking the aircraft. The C-425 rolled backwards into the front gate guard
crushing the nose wheel fender. The nose wheel fender, which covers the rear of the nose wheel, was crushed against the tire and the
fender brackets were broken.

NBAA Safety Committee

Case studies of what can go wrong


The result of
unauthorized
vehicle operation on
ramp
areas

NBAA Safety Committee

Case studies of what can go wrong


The result of no chocks
on a sloping ramp

NBAA Safety Committee

Self-audit tool:Gap Analysis

We have written standard operating procedures


Y N
Employees trained on procedures
Y N
Employees provided risk awareness training
Y N
Incident investigations conducted
Y N
We have completed a risk assessment
Y N
Compliance evaluations completed
Y N
We have the correct ground equipment
Y N
We monitor FBO actions
Y N
We have an accountability system in place
Y N
Access to ramp areas is controlled
Flight crews provided ground damage awareness training

NBAA Safety Committee

Incident

For Each

For Each UnSafe


Condition

At-Risk Behavior

Yes

Unforced Behavior
Was the Behavior Simply an Error by
the
Individual?

Yes
Explore Soft System Issues
Procedures
Training
Human Factors

Make Improvements to:


Procedures
Training
Human Factors

No

Ground damage incident


review process
No

Did Condition
Result from a
Behavior?

Forced Behavior
Was the Behavior Out of Control of the
individual?

No

Yes
Explore Hard System Issues
Workstation Design
Tool/Equipment Design
Tool/Equipment Availability

Redesign Workstation
Redesign Tool/Equipment
Purchase Necessary Tool/Equipment

NBAA Safety Committee

Influenced Behavior
Was there a Risk/Reward Influence on
the Behavior?

Yes
Conduct an Analysis to Determine What
Drives the
At-Risk Behavior

Identify and Implement Antecedents


and Consequences that Support Desired
Behaviors and Reduce At-Risk
Behaviors

Special Thanks to:


Home Depot FTY
Hill Aircraft FTY
Signature Flight Support
Purdue University

NBAA Safety Committee