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Generator

Construction

By

Ms. Soh Ley Bau

Generation Section--Electrical Unit


(ILSAS),TNB

System Overview
Principle of Thermal Power Plant

System Overview
Principle of Thermal Power Plant

System Overview
Furnace
The chemical energy from fuel is converted to
heat

Back

System Overview

Boiler

The heat from the burning fuel causes


water in the boiler change to steam

Back

System Overview
Steam Turbine
The steam is sent to the turbine,
where it causes the turbine blades to
rotate.

The turbine converts the energy in


the steam into mechanical energy.

Back

System Overview
Generator
The

turbine shaft connects the


turbine to the generator through a
coupling and as the turbine rotates,
the generator rotor shaft also
rotates.
Coupling?
Ask me

Next

System Overview
Generator
Then,

the generator converts the


mechanical(rotating) energy into
electrical energy

NEXT-DEMO

System Overview
Generator

Turbine
side

Side

Turbine

Coupling

I get it !!

How the electrical generator


work?

How AC
generator
work?

AC
Generator

Single Phase Generator/


Alternator

Prepared by @ Ms.Soh Ley Bau

13

Types of Generators
Turbo Generator (Cylindrical

Rotors)

Turbine Generator

Salient pole Generator

Hydro Generator
Diesel Generator

Salient Pole Generator

Salient Pole Generator


Hydroelectric Plant

(Chenderoh, Sg Perak)

Salient Pole Generator


Stator Windings~ Cameron Highland

Salient Pole Rotor


A 4 Pole rotor starts as a solid
rough forging
The shaft, spider and the 4
poles and pole tips are created
by machining away part of the
forging.
The strip wound fielding
winding is added to complete
the rotor

Solid 6 pole machine with


brushless exciter

Salient Pole Generator


Rotor Pole

Rotating Type Exciter

Salient Pole Rotor


Cameron Highland

Salient Pole Rotor


Kenyir (112MVA, 24 poles)

Salient Pole Generator


Diesel

Generator

Salient Pole Generator


6.6kV Black

Start Diesel Generator (PD1)

Salient Pole Generator


Diesel Generator,12 poles

What are the


functions of
generator in
the Power
Utility
Industry?

Introduction

To convert the rotational


mechanical energy (steam
turbine) into electrical energy
Main exciter

Generator

Steam Turbine

Introduction
To supply energy to the power grid
and route some power to
machine auxiliaries (via the Unit
Transformer)

One-line diagram for generator and


generator transformer

Layout of Power Plant

Pressure Rise in a Transformer

Transformer-Phase to Earth
Fault

Transformer-Phase to Earth
Fault

Transformer-Phase to Earth
Fault

Split Generator Shaft

Generator Main Circuit


Breaker (SF6)

Generator Main Circuit


Breaker (SF6)

Components of GMCB

Generator Construction
Stator
Rotor

Bracket

Generator Construction
Main

Components:

a.)Stator (stationary part)


b.)Rotor (rotating part)
c.)Rotor Bearing
d.)Pilot AC Exciter
e.)Main Exciter
f.)Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)
g.) Rotating rectifier
h.)Stator Output Leads and Isolated Phase Bus
i.)Generator Neutral Earthing
j.)Hydrogen Cooling system

Stator
Stator

consists of stator core,stator frame,


slot wedges and etc.
Function:
-Armature- produce output of the generator

Stator Construction
Stator Frame

-Special explosion proof


design- In case any gas
explosion inside, it
provides a safe tight
housing
-Material :No.1 SM41 AP,
of JIS G 3106 Rolled Steel
for welded Construction
and is tested to be free from
cracks etc. by a supersonic
test

Stator Construction
End winding
Stator
core
Wedge

Stator Construction
Stator Core
The functions of stator
core are :
a) Concentrate the
lines of magnetic
flux around the
stator windings
b) Support and hold
the windings in
position around the
rotor as the rotor
turns.

Stator core

Figure : Side view of the stator core


*Note : Air-cooled generator in Serdang power station

Stator Construction

Slot Wedge
Function:
The stator windings or
stator coils are simply
long insulated bars
which are assembled
and wedged-locked into
the stator core slots
running length wise
through the generator.

Stator Construction

Slot Wedge

End
winding

Wedge is
located on
the top of
each slot

Stator Construction

Stator Lamination

-To form a stator core, high


quality silicon steel plates of
little core loss are used and
punch them with a die in
such segments as shown in
the illustration.

-After giving them varnish


treatment, pile them up on a
stator frame.

Stator Lamination
*Stator

Core

Stator Lamination

Stator Construction
Stator core

end

Stator Construction
Stator core end

Functions:

-The coil end is rigidly tied with a glass cord to the micarta

coil support which is bolted to the stator core and


laminated core.
(Reason: withstand the immense power at the time of short
circuit )
-At the extreme end is placed a resin ring made of epoxy
impregnated glass fiber, and molding mixtures are stuffed
in the space between the said ring and coil in order to
support them.

Effect of the Flexible Mounting

Flexible Mounting
~ To prevent high level vibration (two-pole
machines) from being transmitted to the
frame and foundation, the stator core is
supported from the frame by a flexible
mounting.
~ To support the weight of the core and to
withstand short circuit torque.

Flexible Mounting

Rotor Construction

Rotor shaft of an inner cooled


generator
Pole face

Rotor Forging

@soh-Serdang GT5
Prepared by @ Ms.Soh Ley Bau

65

Rotor Construction
Rotor coil

Example of rotor end winding


*Serdang

Power Station Nov.2003,Unit 2

Rotor Construction
Rotor Coil
Material

: cold worked silver bearing

copper
Function:

Field coil of the generator

Rotor Construction

@Unit 1 SJSSAA,kapar(Oct 03)

Rotor

Coupling at
turbine side

Rotor Construction

Retaining ring

@Unit 1 SJSSAA,kapar(Oct 03)

Retaining Ring
Function:
~To support the rotor coil end,
thin cylindrical coil retaining
rings are force fitted to both
ends of the rotor body

@Sohlb Serdang GT5

Rotor Construction

@Unit 1 SJSSAA,kapar(Oct 03)

End windings of
the rotor coil

Generator Parts

NEXT

Generators Journal Bearing

Bearing # 5
(Turbine side)

Bearing # 6
(Excitation side)

@Unit 1 SJSSAA,kapar(Oct 03)

NEXT

Generators Journal Bearing


Function:
To support

the generator rotor.


(In order to keep the shaft free from undue
stress because of deflection of shaft and
misalignment, the bearings are of spherical
surface which are machined to have a high
pressure oil-line,lubricating oil line, etc.
BACK

Bearing Bracket
Top half of bearing bracket
Bottom half of bearing
bracket
Rotating Rectifier

NEXT
Main Exciter side
@Unit 1 SJSSAA,kapar(Oct
03)

Bearing Bracket
@Unit 1 SJSSAA,kapar(Oct 03)

Dismantle the
top half bearing
bracket using
overhead crane

NEXT

Bearing Bracket
- Welded construction & is directly fixed to the stator frame
-

It is divided into two parts both at the turbine side & the
exciter side.

Having sufficient mechanical strength by means of many


ribs.

In the bracket are included bearings, gland seal ring and oil
seal and the lower section of the lower bracket constitutes
a deforming tank.

To fix the stator frame, gasket and sealing compounds are


used and the construction is such that gas leakage is kept
to the minimum.

BACK

Gland seal

@Unit 1 SJSSAA,kapar(Oct 03)

Gas tight enclosure for


hydrogen cooled
generator

Function:
-To prevent hydrogen
gas leakage along the
shaft

NEXT

Gland seal

BACK

Seal ring
Position of seal
ring
Gland seal
Seal ring (Bottom half)

Seal ring

BACK

Air Gap Baffle


Air Gap Baffle
Function:
-To separate the
high pressure and
the low pressure
ventilation zones at
the exciter end of
the rotor & stator.

BACK

Blower
- Multi-stage axial
blower is installed only
at turbine side (inner
cooled machine)
Function:
-To feed the cooling
gas(cold gas) into a
long and narrow
vent duct in the axial
direction ventilation.

Next

Blower

Blower Blade
Material:
Ni-Cr-Mo steel

Cooling Fan/blower
**Unit 5 Port Dickson Power Station**

BACK

Blower Shroud

BACK

Gas cooler/Hydrogen Cooler

NEXT

Gas Cooler Hydrogen Cooler


-Two gas coolers are each
arranged vertically both on the
right side and the left side of the
turbine side in the generator.
(a)

(b)

-Cooling tubes with spiral


copper fins are used as shown
(b).
-The cold gas temperature is
designed to maintain below 45C
when the cooling water
temperature is 40 C .
NEXT

Gas Cooler Hydrogen Cooler


1.

2.
3.
4.

During generator operation, electrical resistance


heating in the gen.windings-creates large amount
of heat
This heat is removed from gen.windingscirculating hydrogen gas through windings
Circulation is accomplished by cooling fan.
The heat from hydrogen gas is then removed by
cooling water flowing through hydrogen coolers
BACK

Generator
Exciter System
Fundamentals

Excitation System
Functions
a.) Supply, control and regulate the amount of field

current applied to the generator field winding, so that


the generator output voltage kept constant, at
predetermined levels, under varying load conditions.
b.) Allow

the operator to change the reactive loading


of the machine

Basic Exciter Principles

Three factors which affect the output of a generator.

1. The number of conductors (fixed for a particular


generator)
2. The speed of rotation of the rotor(
rotor fixed at 3000RPM
for 2 pole machines operating on a 50Hz system)
3.

The strength or density of the magnetic flux or


field( varied by increasing or decreasing field current)

Types of Exciters
1. Static Type System

AC power directly from the main generator


leads
The power taken from the generator leads
is first stepped down through a special
transformer and then fed to rectifiers for
conversion to dc.

Types of Exciters
2. A-C Generator (Alternator)/PMG
Excited System
The main generator drives an
alternator to produce ac power, which
is then converted to dc by means of
rectifiers.

Static Excitation

Static Excitation

20 sec 30sec
0 sec

If generator voltage not reaches to 60% within 20 sec, initial excitation failure alarm is raised.

Excitation Transformer

Dry type Excitation Transformer

( 3.44MVA 15/0.88kV)

Core Type Transformer

PMG Excited System


AC

Photo

Advantage of Brushless Excitation


System
1.

Reliability. AC Exciter-Rotating Rectifier


mounted on a common shaft
2. Maintenance cost is reduced because there is no
brush, commutator and slip ring
3. There is no troubles of insulation resistance since the
adhesion of carbon duct is varnish.
4. All devices are placed in closed housing and not
exposed to the atmospheric conditions.

Advantage of Brushless Excitation


System
5.

Change of brush is needless during operation so


that with an increase of safety, the operation can
continue for the long term.

6.Generator

field breaker,field regulator and


exciter bus or cable become unnecessary.
(not required any DC bus duct from excitation
transformer to IPB for static excitation)

Advantage of Brushless Excitation


System
7.

Foundation cost will also reduces since air ducts


and exciter bus (Excitation Transformer) are not
needed in foundation.

8.

It permits continuous conservative operation


and tolerates transitory over loads to ceiling
voltages.

9.

Spare exciter is also unnecessary

Generator
AVR
card
Rotating
Rectifier
PMG
Main
generator

NEXT

Brushless Excitation System-Main Exciter


PMG

Rotating
Armature

Rotating Rectifier

Back

Brushless Excitation System-PMG


Rotating armature

PMG or Pilot Exciter

NEXT

Permanent Magnet Generator


PMG Stator

PMG Rotor

NEXT

Pilot Exciter/PMG/High
Frequency Generator
PMG=

Permanent Magnet Generator


Function:
To provide

a constant source of excitation power


for exciter field via the Automatic Voltage
Regulator(AVR) which is the controlling device
governing the level of excitation provided to the
exciter field

Back

Automatic Voltage regulator


(AVR) Panel
Function:
-AVR responds to a voltage
sensing signal derived, via
an isolating transformer
(Potential Transformer)
from the main stator
winding.
NEXT

Automatic Voltage
Regulator (AVR) Panel
Functions:
Control the field current in order to
maintain the generator output voltage at
a predetermined level, with minimal
changes over a wide range of load
demand.
Adjusting

the Q(Mvar) reactive power

Automatic Voltage
Regulator (AVR) Panel
Improve

the power system stability


(transient stability)

Suppress

the over generator voltage on


the load rejection

Back

Exciter Stator & Exciter Rotor


Field coil on
the stator of
main exciter
(Rotating
Armature)

Next

Exciter Stator & Exciter Rotor


Function:
-As

an AC Generator (Rotating Armature)


-Exciter Stator-Create magnetic field
-Exciter Rotor-Induced current

Back

Rotating Rectifier
Function:
AC

to DC Converter-To provide excitation


(DC supply) into the main rotor

Back

Excitation with carbon brush


SJTJ,Unit 5~2003

Cartridge Type
SJTJ,PD1 2004

Slip Ring BrushGear

Slip Ring

Prepared by Ms.Soh

Stator Terminal Box and


Bushing

Terminal Box

Stator Terminal
Bushings
Function:
- To route the
electricity produced
in the stator windings

Isolated Phase system


Function:
-The output of the stator
is connected to the
generator transformer
via an isolated Phase
Bus (IPB) system

Isolated Phase system


Required high reliability
Made of high quality materials and welded
constructions are adopted.
Dry air is constantly feed into IPB bus through
the air supply equipment
Prevent external air from flowing into IPB
Prevent the inside of IPB from dewing

Generator Neutral Earthing


Function:

To limit the stator


earth fault current
that can flow

(to prevent the earth fault


current flow through the core of
the generator)

Generator Transformer &


Transmission

Generator Transformer
(11kV/275kV)

Note:*PD power station

Transmission side
(switchgear) 275kV

Seal Oil System

Seal Oil System


Function:
-To lubricate

the seals and prevent hydrogen


from escaping from the generator without
introducing an excessive amount of air and
moisture into the generator

Hydrogen cooling system


(Inner Cooling)

Figure :Longitudinal sectional view of generator

Characteristics of Hydrogen Cooling

Table 1:
Air

Hydrogen

Density

1.00

0.07

Thermal conductivity

1.00

7.00

Heat Transfer coefficient


from surface gas
Specific heat

1.00

1.35

1.00

0.98

Support of combustion

Yes

No

Oxidizing agent

Yes

No

Serdang
GT5
Siemen

Prepared by
Ms.Soh
Prepared by
Ms. SOh

Prepared by
Ms.Soh

Prepared by @ Ms.Soh Ley Bau

132

Serdang
GT5
Siemen

Prepared by Soh

Prepared by @ Ms.Soh Ley Bau

133

Prepared by @ Ms.Soh Ley Bau

134

Characteristics of Hydrogen Cooling


An ideal cooling medium

The combination of low density and high specific


heat of hydrogen
Lower effectiveness of air as a cooling medium

(requires a 20% to 30% size increases over a hydrogen cooled machine


a similar rating).

Design for higher electrical loading compared

the air cooled machine due to better cooling.

to

Hydrogen Inner-cooling
system
To remove

heat directly from the stator and rotor


conductors by hollowing them and flowing a high
velocity gas through these hollows

Advantages:
Sharply increase output in similar size
Possible to employ higher hydrogen gas pressures

than a conventional hydrogen cooled unit

Acknowledgement
Mr. Low Siew Wooi,JPS
Mr. Foo Hi Kium, ILSAS
Mr. Mok Kin Wah,ILSAS
Mr. Lew Kar Wong, SJTJ
Mr. Thong Lit Yen, TNBH