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# Continuous Time Signals

## Basic Signals Singularity Functions

Transformations of Continuous Time Signals
Signal Characteristics
Common Signals

Continuous-Time Signals
Assumptions:
Functions, x(t), are of the one
independent variable that typically
represents time, t.
Time t can assume all real values:
- < t < ,
Function x(t) is typically a real function.

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Singularity Functions

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## Unit Step Function

Unit step
function
definition:

1, t 0
u t
0, t 0
Unit Sample Signal

0.8

u(t)

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2
-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0
time [sec]

0.2

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0.4

0.6

0.8

Scaling:

f t Ku t

## Unit step function can be

scaled by a real constant K
(positive or negative)

Multiplication:

Multiplication of any
function, say x(t), by a unit
step function u(t) is
equivalent to defining the
signal x(t) for t0.

x t u t

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x t , t 0

## Unit Ramp Function

Unit Ramp Function
is defined as:

t, t 0
r t
0, t 0
Unit Sample Signal

0.8

r(t)

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2
-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0
time [sec]

0.2

0.4

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0.6

0.8

## Unit Ramp Function Properties

Scaling:
Unit step function can be
scaled by a real constant K
(positive or negative)

f t Kr t
Slope of the
straight line
t

## Integral of the unit step function

is equal to the ramp function:

r t u d

## Derivative of the unit ramp

function is the unit step
function.

dr t
u t
dt

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## Unit Impulse Function

Unit Impulse
Function, also know
as Dirac delta
function, is defined
as:

, t 0
0, t 0

d 1

0 &

0.8

(t)

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2
-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0
time [sec]

0.2

0.4

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0.6

0.8

## Unit Impulse Function

Properties

Scaling:
Unit impulse function can be
scaled by a real constant K
(positive or negative)

## Delta function can be

approximated by a pulse
centered at the origin

A
1

0.8

(t)

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2
-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

1
1

2A 2A

-0.2

0
time [sec]

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t lim d (t )
A

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## Unit Impulse Function

Properties
Unit impulse function is
du t
related to unit step
t
function:
t

dt

u t d

Conversely:

t & t 0

1.

2.

Proof:
t<0

u t d 0 t 0, since t 0

t>0

u t d 1 t 0, since d 1, 0

## December 19, 2015

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Time Transformation of
Signals

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Time Reversal:

y (t ) x(t )
y (t0 ) x(t0 )

t t0 ,
&
y (t ) x(t )
0
0

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Time Scaling
y (t ) x(at )

t t0 y (t0 ) x(at0 )

& ,
&
t0

a0
y ( ) x(t0 )

a
|a| > 1 Speed Up
|a| < 1 Slow Down
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Time Shifting

## Given a signal x(t) :

y (t ) x(t t0 )
t0 , is a constant
Note :
y (t0 ) x(0)
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Example 1

x(t ) e cos 3t
2

y (t ) x(t t0 )
t

e
cos 3 t t0
2

t t 0
e e cos 3t 3t0
2

t t 0

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Independent Variable
Transformations
y (t ) x(at b), a, b

b
at b t
a a
y (t0 ) x(at0 b)

t t0
t0 b
x(t0 ) y

a a
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Example 2

y (t ) x(2t 3)

3
2t 3 t
2 2

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Example 3

y (t ) x 1
2

t
1 t 2 2
2
x(t0 ) x(1) y (2 1 2) y (0)

1
t0 1

1
y (t0 ) x 1 x

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Independent Variable
Transformations
1. Replace t with , on the original plot of the
signal.
2. Given the time transformation:
Solve for

at b
b
t
a a

## 3. Draw the transformed t-axis directly below

the -axis.
4. Plot y(t) on the t-axis.
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Amplitude Transformations

y (t ) Ax(t ) B
A, B real constants

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Example 4
Consider signal in the
figure. Suppose the
signal is applied to an
amplifier with the gain of
3 and introduces a bias
(a DC value) of -1. That
is:

y (t ) 3x(t ) 1

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Example 5

t
y (t ) 3 x 1 1
2

t
1
t 2 2
2

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Transformations of Signals
y(t)

Name
Time reversal

x(-t)

Time scaling

x(at)

Time shifting

x(t-t0)

Amplitude reversal

-x(t)

Amplitude scaling

Ax(t)

Amplitude shifting

x(t)+B

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Signal Characteristics

Even
Functions

xe(t)=xe(-t)

Odd
Functions

xo(t)=-xo(-t)

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## Even and Odd Signals

Any signal can be expressed as the sum of
even part and on odd part:

x(t ) xe (t ) xo (t )

x(t ) xe (t ) xo (t )
x(t ) xe (t ) xo (t )

1
xe (t ) x(t ) x(t )
2
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1
xo (t ) x(t ) x(t )
2

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Average Value
Average Value of the signal x(t) over a
period of time [-T, T] is defined as:

1
Ax lim
T 2T

x
(
t
)
dt

## The average value of a signal is contained

in its even function (why?).
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## Properties of even and odd

functions
1. The sum of two even functions is even.
2. The sum of two odd functions is odd.
3. The sum of an even function and an odd
function is neither even nor odd.
4. The product of two even functions is even.
5. The product of two odd functions is even.
6. The product of an even function and an
odd function is odd.

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Periodic Signals

## December 19, 2015

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Periodic Signals
Continuous-time signal x(t) is periodic if:

## x(t ) x(t T ), T 0 & t

T is period of the signal.
A signal that is not periodic is said to be
aperiodic.

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Periodic Signals
If constant T is a period of of a function x(t)
than nT is also its period, where T>0 and n
is any integer.

x(t T ) x(t 2T )
x(t ) x(t nT )
The minimal value of the constant T >0 is a
that satisfies the definition x(t)= x(t+ T) is
called a fundamental period of a signal and it is
denoted by T0.
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y (t ) cos(t )
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

y(t)=cos(wt)

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1
0

5
Time [s]

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## Sinusoidal Signal Properties

x t A cos t t
A Amplitude of the signal

Periodic Signal

0.8

0.6

0.4

cos(-t+0.00)

c o s ( t+ )

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

cos(-t+0.52)

-1

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

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0.5

1.5

33

Note:

cos 2 cos

sin 2 sin

## cos cos cos sin sin

sin sin cos cos sin

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## Periodicity of Sinusoidal Signal

x t A cos t
A cos t 2

2
A cos t

A cos t T
x t T
2

2f
T
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Waveform
1

0.8

y(t)

0.6

0.4

0.2

-3

-2

-1

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## Period and Frequency

Fundamental Period T0 Measured in
seconds.
Fundamental Frequency f0 Measured in Hz
number of periods (cycles) per second or

1
f 0 [ Hz ]
T0
1
0 2f 0 2
T0
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s

37

## Testing for Periodicity

1.

x(t ) e

sin( t )

x(t T ) e sin( t T )
sin(t T ) sin(t ) for T 2

x(t T ) e

sin( t )

x(t )

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## Testing for Periodicity

2.

x(t ) te sin( t ) ?
sin( t T )

x(t T ) (t T )e
sin(t T ) sin(t ) for T 2

x(t T ) (t T )e

sin( t )

te sin( t ) Te sin( t )
x(t ) Te sin( t )
x(t )
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Composite Signals
Each signal can be decomposed into a sum of series of
pure periodic signals (Taylor Series Expansion/Fourier
Series Expansion)
The sum of continuous-time periodic signals is periodic if
and only if the ratios of the periods of the individual
signals are ratios of integers.

## December 19, 2015

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Composite Signals
If a sum of N periodic signals is periodic, the
fundamental period can be found as follows:
1. Convert each period ratio, To1/Toi i N , to a ratio
of integers, where To1 is the period of the first
signal considered and Toi is the period of one of the
other N-1 signals. If one or more of these ratios is
not rational, the sum of signals is not periodic.
2. Eliminate common factors from the numerator
and denominator of each ratio of integers.
3. The fundamental period of the sum of signals is
To=koTo1 ; kois the least common multiple of the
denominators of the individual ratios of integers.
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Composite Signals
If
x1(t) is periodic with period T1, and
x2(t) is periodic with period T2,
Then
x1(t)+x2(t) is periodic with period equal to the
least common multiple (T1, T2) if the ratio of
the two periods is a rational number, where
k1 and k2 are integers:

T1 k 2

T2 k1

## December 19, 2015

k1T1 k 2T2
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Composite Signals
Let
T= k1T1 = k2T2
y(t) = x1(t)+x2(t)
Then
y(t+T) = x1(t+T)+x2(t+T)= x1(t+ k1T1)+x2(t+ k2T2)=
x1(t)+x2(t) = y(t)

## December 19, 2015

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Example 2.7 a)
Assume that v(t) is a sum of periodic
signals given below. Determine if the
signal is periodic and what its
periodicity?

7
x3 (t ) cos( t )
6
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-1

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30
time

40

50

60

x2(t)

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
1
0.5
0

x3(t)

x2 (t ) cos(2t )

0
-0.5

-0.5
-1
4
2
v(t)

x1 (t ) cos(3.5t )

x1(t)

v(t ) x1 (t ) x2 (t ) x3 (t )

1
0.5

0
-2
-4

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Solution
Determine whether v(t) constituent
signals have periods with ratios that are
integers (rational numbers):
2
T01 3.5
2
4

T02 2 3.5 7
2
2
7
T01 3.5
7
6

T03 2 3.5 21
7
6

2 2
T01

1 3.5
2 2
T02

2
2
2 2
T03

7
3
6
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Solution
Ratios of periods are rational numbers thus the
composite signal v(t) is periodic.
Elimination of common factors:
T01/T02 = 4/7
T01/T03 = 7/21=1/3
Least common multiple of the denominator
ratios:
n1= 3*7=21
Fundamental period of v(t) is:
T0= n1 T01 = 21*2/3.5=12
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Example 2.7 b)
Assume that to v(t) is added a periodic
signal x4(t) given below. Determine if the
signal is periodic and what its
periodicity?
v(t ) x1 (t ) x2 (t ) x3 (t ) x4 (t )
x1 (t ) cos(3.5t )

x2 (t ) cos(2t )
v (t )

7
x3 (t ) cos( t )
6
x4 (t ) 3 cos(5t )

-2

-4

-6

## December 19, 2015

10

20

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time

40

50

60

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Solution
Since ratio of the x1(t) and x4(t) periods is
not a rational number the v(t) is not
periodic.
T04

## December 19, 2015

2
T01 3.5 5 10

T04 2 3.5 7
5

2 2

4 5

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Homework #1:
1. For x(t)=Acos(t+) find
What are its maximum and minimum values?
What are corresponding times when they
occur?
What is the value of the function when it
crosses vertical y- axis (ordinate) and
horizontal x-axis (abscissa)?
At what time instances the function becomes
zero?
Indicate all the above point values in a plot.
December 19, 2015

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Homework #1

## Use the following MATLAB

script to test your
calculations and plot the
function:

## function pfunc(A, f, th1, th2)

%
% Periodic Sine Function
% A
- gain (1)
% f
- frequency (1)
% th1 - phase of the first signal (0)
% th2 - phase of the second signal
(pi/6)
%
w
fs
mint
maxt
miny
maxy

=
=
=
=
=
=

0.0001*f;
-pi*f/2;
pi*f/2;
-1.2*A;
1.2*A;

## December 19, 2015

t
= mint:fs:maxt; % time axis
y
= A*cos(w*t+th1);
plot(t, y, 'b', 'LineWidth',2);
title('Periodic Signal');
grid on; hold; axis([mint maxt miny
maxy]);
y = A*cos(w*t+th2);
plot(t, y, 'r', 'LineWidth',2);
ylabel('cos(\omegat+\theta)');
grid on; hold; axis([mint maxt miny
maxy]);
x=-0.8;
text(x,A*cos(w*x+th1),sprintf('%s+
%3.2f)','\leftarrow
cos(-\pit',th1),...
'HorizontalAlignment','left',...
'BackgroundColor','b');
x=-0.6;
text(x,A*cos(w*x+th2),sprintf('%s+
%3.2f)','\leftarrow
cos(-\pit',th2),...
'HorizontalAlignment','left',...
'BackgroundColor','r');

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Homework #1
Problems 2.1, 2.2, 2.9, 2.10, 2.13,
2.14, 2.20.

## December 19, 2015

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Example

Consider the signal to the left and its time reversed version.
The signal is decomposed into its even and odd functions:

1
xe (t ) x(t ) x(t )
2

## December 19, 2015

1
xo (t ) x(t ) x(t )
2

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Common Signals in
Engineering

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Common Signals
Continuous-time physical systems are
typically modeled with ordinary linear
differential equations with constant
coefficients.

dx(t )
ax(t ), a constant
dt
Solution :
x(t ) x(0)e at , t 0
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Exponential Signals
x(t ) Ce at , C & a can be complex constants

Real part
a j

Imaginary part

## December 19, 2015

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Eulers Formula
e

cos j sin

e cos j sin
cos cos & sin sin
j

e e
cos
2
December 19, 2015

e e
& sin
2j
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Example of Exponential
Functions
1.

## C and a real, x(t)=Ceat

a=Increasing Exponential:

a=Decaying Exponential:

## Chemical Reactions, Uninhibited growth of bacteria, human population?

Radioactive decay, response of an RC circuit, damped mechanical
system.

Ae

2.5

Aet, <0

t
Ae , >0

A e +/-t

1.5

t
Ae , =0

0.5

0
-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0
Time [sec]

0.2

0.4

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0.6

0.8

57

## Time Constant of the Exponential

Function
The constant parameter t is called the time constant in
of the exponential function presented below.

x t Ce at Ce , 0
To relate to the time constant the following is necessary:

dx t d
C

Ce e , 0
dt
dt

C
y at b; a

t 0

bC

2.5

1.5

C
t 0, x 0 C e

Ae

Ae

0.5

0.368

0
-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0
Time [sec]

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Example of Exponential
Functions
2.

## a=jC=Aej A and are real:

x t Ce at Ae j e jt Ae j t A cos t jA sin t

## For C real (=0)

x t Ce at Ae jt A cos t jA sin t

2.

x(t) is periodic:

3.

## Why x(t) is periodic?

x t x t T T is the period

## December 19, 2015

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Periodicity of Complex
Exponential
x t Ce jt

x t T Ce j t T Ce jt e jT e jT x t
~
e jT cos T j sin T
T

1
2
& 2f T
f

2
2
cos T j sin T cos
j sin

e jT cos 2 j sin 2 1 j 0 1
~
x t T e j T x t x t
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Example of Complex
Exponentials
3.

## a=jare also real.

x t Ce at Ae j e j t
Aet jt j Aet e jt j Aet e j t

cos t j sin t

t
Ae

Damping Factor

Ae cos t j Ae sin t

t

Re
December 19, 2015

Im
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Time-Shifted Signals
Time-Shifted Impulse Function
Shift (t) by t0:

1, t t0
t t0
0 t t0

f t d f t
0

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## Properties of the Unit Impulse

Function

1.

f t t t dt f t ,

f t continuous at t t0

f t t t dt f t ,

f t continuous at t t0

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

f t t t 0 f t 0 t t 0
d
t t0 u t t0
dt
t
1, t t0
u t t 0 t 0 d
0, t 0
-

t0
1

at

t
dt

dt
0
-

a -
a
t t

## December 19, 2015

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f t continuous at t t0

64

u(t) & u(t-td)

0.8

0.6
u(t-td)

u(t)
0.4

0.2

1, t t0
u t t0
0 t t0

-10

u t & u t 4

-8

-6

-4

-2

0
Time [sec]

10

0.8

0.6
u(t-t d)

u(t)

0.4

0.2

-10

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-8

u t & u t 5
-6

-4

-2

0
Time [sec]

10

65

## Continuous & Piece-wise

Continuous Functions

Rectangular Function

p(t)

p(t)
1

1, t
p t p t ,
2
2
0 elsewhere

0.8

p (t)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
-/2
-10

## December 19, 2015

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-8

-6

-4

-2

+/2
0
Time [sec]

10

66

Rectangular Function

p t p t , u t u t
2
2

p(t)=u(t+t d)-u(t-td)
p(t)
1

0.8

0.6
u(t)

d)

0.4

0.2

-/2

+/2

-0.2

-0.4
u(t-t d)
-0.6

-0.8

-1

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0
Time [sec]

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ptr (t)

0.8

0.6
tr

p tr (t)

2t
1, t 0

2
ptr t
2t

1 0 t
2

ptr(t)
1

0.2

0
-/2

-0.2
-10

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p (t), t<0
0.4

-8

-6

+/2

-4

-2

0
Time [sec]

10

68

## Straight Line Equation

y y0 m x x0
[x0,y0] - a point on the line
[x1,y1] - a point on the line
[x2,y2] - a point on the line
m = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1) - slope

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## Composite Signal from Straight

Lines
x0 t m0 t t0 u t t0 , t t1
x t x0 t , t t

x1 t m1 t t1 u t t1 , t1 t t 2

x t x0 t m0 t t1 u t t1 x1 t t t 2
x2 t m2 t t 2 u t t 2 , t 2 t t3

x t x0 t m0 t t1 u t t1 x1 t m1 t t 2 u t t 2 x2 t t t3

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## Example of Composite Signal

f t 3u t tu t t 1 u t 1 5u t 2
5
f(t)=3u(t)+tu(t)-(t-1)u(t-1)-5u(t-2)
4

u(t)

f(t)=3u(t)+tu(t)-(t-1)u(t-1)-5u(t-2)

tu(t)

0
-(t-1)u(t-1)
-1

-2
-5u(t-2)
-3

-4

-5
-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0
Time [sec]

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