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THE HEALING PROPERTIES OF FOOD EcoCare 2009 Facilitator: Ashley Smyth, RHN, NNCP, HBSc 19 October 2009
THE HEALING PROPERTIES
OF FOOD
EcoCare 2009
Facilitator: Ashley Smyth, RHN,
NNCP, HBSc
19 October 2009
FACILITATOR ASHLEY SMYTH, RHN, NNCP, HBSc • Registered Holistic Nutritionist and professional member of the Canadian
FACILITATOR
ASHLEY SMYTH, RHN, NNCP, HBSc
• Registered Holistic Nutritionist and professional
member of the Canadian Association of Natural
Nutritional Practitioners
• Graduate of the Canadian School of Natural
Nutrition
• Honours Bachelor of Science (University of
Waterloo)
• Owner of Pure Vitality in Chatham, ON, offering:
• Nutritional consulting
• Wellness plans and detoxification support
SEMINAR OVERVIEW Today we will:
SEMINAR OVERVIEW
Today we will:

Discuss the history of the human diet Identify the leading causes of death in Canada & diet Scientific literature review versus improving diet for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and Type-2 diabetes Discuss how we should be eating Discuss eating locally and creating mindfulness How do we get our patients on board with a

THE HUMAN DIET – AN OVERVIEW In the beginning • 4 million years ago – Australopithecus
THE HUMAN DIET – AN
OVERVIEW
In the beginning
• 4 million years ago – Australopithecus (bipeds)
• diet mainly consisting of plant foods
• possibly also small animals
• 2 million years ago – Homo habilis
• changes in tooth characteristics as well as introduction of tools
indicates a shift towards an omnivorous diet
• majority of meat was most likely carrion left by predators
• 1.5 million years ago – Homo erectus (“upright man”)
• stature and brain volume more like humans than apes
• increasingly sophisticated hunting tools and first use of fire circa
500,000 years ago increased digestibility and nutritional value of
meat → brain development
THE HUMAN DIET – AN OVERVIEW In the middle • 200,000 years ago – Homo sapiens
THE HUMAN DIET – AN
OVERVIEW
In the middle
• 200,000 years ago – Homo sapiens
• diet largely composed of gathered plants,
supplemented with meat hunted by increasingly
sophisticated hunting strategies
• covered approximately 10 km per day in search of food
• analyses on preserved skeletons indicate similar height
to modern day man with no signs of serious nutritional
deficiencies
• isolated communities, such as the Kung San of the
Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa, still follow this
lifestyle, resulting in a consumption of over 100 different
plant species, several different animal proteins, and

sometimes insects → virtually no cardiovascular disease,

THE HUMAN DIET – AN OVERVIEW Present day • 10,000 to 12,000 years ago – the
THE HUMAN DIET – AN
OVERVIEW
Present day
• 10,000 to 12,000 years ago – the dawn of
agriculture
• it is believed that climate change and subsequent
temperature increase caused decline of available food
sources, mainly game
• wheat, corn, rice, and potato (in this order) were the
first cultivated crops at 4 completely disparate regions of
the world
• milk was introduced as a food source as sheep, goats,
and cows were domesticated 9,000 years ago → 50% of
world’s population are unable to digest milk due to loss

of lactase upon adulthood

DIETARY HABITS THROUGHOUT EVOLUTION Adapted from Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating Well, Living Well: An
DIETARY HABITS THROUGHOUT
EVOLUTION
Adapted from Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating Well, Living Well: An Everyday Guide for
Optimum Health. McClelland & Stewart Ltd., Toronto, 2009.
CHANGES IN THE HUMAN DIET
CHANGES IN THE HUMAN DIET

Source: Eaton, S.B., et al. 1997. Paleolithic nutrition revisited: A twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51: 207-216.

LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH Source: Statistics Canada Online www.statcan.gc.ca Statistics are for all ages, both sexes
LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH
Source: Statistics Canada Online www.statcan.gc.ca
Statistics are for all ages, both sexes in all of Canada
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE What does this include? • Myocardial infarction • Cerebrovascular accident • Deep vein thrombosis
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
What does this include?
• Myocardial infarction
• Cerebrovascular accident
• Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary
embolism
• Rheumatic heart disease
• Congenital heart defects
• Peripheral artery disease
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE A DISEASE OF INFLAMMATION Damage to heart and blood vessels Fatty plaque pressure High
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
A DISEASE OF INFLAMMATION
Damage to heart and blood vessels
Fatty plaque
pressure
High blood
Reduces blood flow
Plaque rupture
Thrombosis

Heart attack

Stroke

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE THE ROLE OF CHOLESTEROL • precursor of bile acids and sex hormones • required
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
THE ROLE OF CHOLESTEROL
• precursor of bile acids and sex hormones
• required for manufacture of cellular
membranes and nerve sheaths
BUT cannot be transported easily in the blood
Tagged by lipoproteins
HDL
LDL
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE THE ROLE OF CHOLESTEROL
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
THE ROLE OF CHOLESTEROL

HDL cholesterol → transports excessive cholesterol from blood and tissues to liver to be metabolized and removed from body possibly reduces inflammation in body LDL cholesterol → causes damage when excess is stored in the lining of blood vessels → attacked by free radicals and oxidizes → damages artery & activates immune system to repair damage → inflammation

HEART DISEASE PREVENTION A Dietary Approach EAT LESS EAT MORE Simple carbs Sugar and associates White
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
A Dietary Approach
EAT LESS
EAT MORE
Simple carbs
Sugar and
associates
White flour
White rice
Complex carbs
Fruits
Vegetables
Legumes
Whole grains
Saturated &
Trans fats
Polyunsaturated &
mono-unsaturated
fats
70% dark chocolate
Green tea
Red Wine
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION Relation between cholesterol and carbohydrate source Stage Stage Stage Stage 1 2 3
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
Relation between cholesterol and
carbohydrate source
Stage
Stage
Stage
Stage
1
2
3
4
Source: Winitz, M., et al. 1964. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on serum
cholesterol levels. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 108: 576-579.
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains • Significant reduction of heart disease with intake
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains
• Significant reduction of heart disease with intake of:
• green vegetables
• cruciferous vegetables
• estimated that each daily portion of fruits and
vegetables reduces risk of coronary diseases by
4% and that by replacing white bread with whole
grains can reduce the risk of heart disease by
40%!
• provides protection with phytochemical compounds
and antioxidants, fiber, vitamins and minerals
(specifically folic acid and vitamins B12 and C)
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION Fats and Cholesterol Type of Fat Main Sources LDL HDL Levels Levels Trans
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
Fats and Cholesterol
Type of Fat
Main Sources
LDL
HDL
Levels
Levels
Trans
Processed foods and
commercial baked goods,
shortening, deep fried
foods, fast foods
Saturated
Whole milk, butter, cheese,
red meat, coconut and
palm oils, lard
Polyunsaturate
d (omega-3)
Canola oil, flaxseed, chia
seeds, fatty fish (salmon,
sardines, mackerel, tuna),
walnuts
Mono-
unsaturated
Olives and olive oil, canola
oil, cashews, almonds,
Adapted from Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating Well, Living Well: An Everyday Guide for
peanuts, avocadoes
Optimum Health. McClelland & Stewart Ltd., Toronto, 2009.
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION How much fat? • many studies have demonstrated that incidence of heart disease
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
How much fat?
• many studies have demonstrated that
incidence of heart disease and cholesterol
levels isn’t related to the amount of total fat,
but the kind of fat consumed
• examples include traditional diets of the
populations of the Inuit and the island of
Crete

Lyon Diet heart study (began in 1988)

HEART DISEASE PREVENTION “You can live to be a hundred if you give up all the
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
“You can live to be a
hundred if you give up all
the things that make you
want to live to be a
hundred”

~ Woody Allen

HEART DISEASE PREVENTION It’s not all that bad!
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
It’s not all that bad!

70% dark chocolate → cacao polyphenols have been proven to dilate arteries (by releasing NO) and decrease platelet aggregation. Milk prevents the absorption of the polyphenols Green tea → studies have shown that green tea reduces mortality rates by 25% for coronary disease and 60% with stroke Red Wine → contains the powerful antioxidant resveratrol has been shown to restrict the formation

CANCER The most feared of all diseases Cell division Initial mutation Pre-cancerous cells Unhealthy Favourable
CANCER
The most feared of all diseases
Cell division
Initial mutation
Pre-cancerous cells
Unhealthy
Favourable

Healthy body body Unfavourable conditions Conditions Cells destroyed

CANCER What creates an unfavourable environment? Source: Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating Well, Living Well:
CANCER
What creates an unfavourable
environment?
Source: Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating Well, Living Well: An
Everyday Guide for Optimum Health. McClelland & Stewart Ltd.,

Toronto, 2009.

CANCER What creates an favourable environment? • Largest study ever conducted on the link between lifestyle
CANCER
What creates an favourable
environment?
• Largest study ever conducted on the link between
lifestyle choices and cancer: American Institute for
Cancer Research and Fonds Mondial de Recherche
contre le Cancer (FMRC) Report on Foods, Nutrition,
Physical Exercise and the Prevention of Cancer: A
Global Perspective
• published in fall 2007
• 500,000 studies evaluated
10 RECOMMENDATIONS BY FMRC 1. Stay as slim as possible, with a BMI between 21 and
10 RECOMMENDATIONS BY
FMRC
1.
Stay as slim as possible, with a BMI between 21 and 23
2.
Be physically active for at least 30 minutes a day
3.
Avoid soft drinks and keep consumption of calorie-rich foods to
a minimum
4.
Eat generous amounts of a variety of fruits, vegetables,
legumes, and whole grains
5.
Reduce consumption of red meat to 500 grams per week
6.
Limit daily consumption of alcohol to 2 glasses for men, 1 for
women
7.
Limit consumption of salty pickled foods
8.
Don’t use cancer preventing supplements
9.
Mothers should breast-feed their children for 6 months
Adapted from Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating Well, Living Well: An Everyday Guide for
Optimum Health. McClelland & Stewart Ltd., Toronto, 2009.

10. Cancer survivors should follow the recommendations given

b

CANCER PREVENTION Foods # of participants Type of cancer Reduced risk (%) Cruciferous 47,909 60 vegetables
CANCER PREVENTION
Foods
# of
participants
Type of cancer
Reduced
risk (%)
Cruciferous
47,909
60
vegetables
4,309
30
29,361
50
Tomatoes
Citrus fruits
47,365
25
521,457
25
Green vegetables
(dietary folate)
81,922
75
11,699
Bladder
Lung
Prostate
Prostate
Stomach, esophagus
Pancreas
Breast (post-
menopause)
Breast (post-
menopause)
Head and neck
Head and neck
44
Lignans
58,049
28
Carrots
490,802
46
Apples, pears,
plums
490,802
38
Green tea
69,710
Colorectal
57
Vegetable oils and
Source: Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating Well, Living Well: An
295,344
Prostate
32
nuts
Everyday Guide for Optimum Health. McClelland & Stewart Ltd.,
Toronto, 2009.
CANCER PREVENTION Phytochemical plant compounds Pharmacological Metabolic effects effects Anticancer Cell Increased Reduced cytotoxicity environment bioavailability
CANCER PREVENTION
Phytochemical plant compounds
Pharmacological
Metabolic
effects
effects
Anticancer
Cell
Increased
Reduced
cytotoxicity environment bioavailability
calorie intake
Immuno-
Anti-
Anti-
Decrease
Source: Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating Well, Living Well: An
modulator
Everyday Guide for Optimum Health. McClelland & Stewart Ltd.,
inflammatory
angiogenic
in
Toronto, 2009.
CANCER PREVENTION A dietary approach
CANCER PREVENTION
A dietary approach

Cruciferous vegetables → high content of glucosinolates that act to increase our immune system reaction, as well as increasing free radicals that kill cancer cells boiling causes a 75% loss of glucosinolate content best steamed, microwaved, or stir-fried (al dente) → no loss Allium → garlic, onions, chives, leeks linked to sulphur compounds (eliminate toxic substances) particularly helpful for stomach and colon cancer garlic also prevents cancer cell growth Green tea → rich source of catechins (1/3 of leaves’ weight) prevents microtumours from developing new blood vessels

CANCER PREVENTION • Citrus fruits → anticancer effect probably linked to 1.monoterpenes → block protein activity
CANCER PREVENTION
• Citrus fruits → anticancer effect probably linked
to
1.monoterpenes → block protein activity involved in
tumour growth, as well as reducing tumours ability
to invade adjacent tissue
2.Flavanones → preserves blood vessel structure,
preventing inflammation and depriving tumour of
food
• grapefruit compounds block the systems in the
liver from eliminating anticancer molecules,
increasing overall levels
CANCER PREVENTION • Super fruits → berries → contain the polyphenols ellagic acid and delphinidin →
CANCER PREVENTION
• Super fruits → berries → contain the polyphenols
ellagic acid and delphinidin → block angiogenesis
• pomegranate → high content of punicalin,
punicalagin, and ellagic acid
•antioxidant activity 3 times that of red wine or
green tea
• very helpful with prostate and lung cancer
• Soy → rich in phytoestrogens, specifically
isoflavones
• reduces risk of breast cancer only if consumed
before puberty
CANCER PREVENTION The role of inflammation • helps pre-cancerous cells develop into mature cancer cells by
CANCER PREVENTION
The role of inflammation
• helps pre-cancerous cells develop into mature
cancer cells by increasing DNA mutations caused by
free radicals
Anti-inflammatory foods

Red wine → resveratrol Turmeric → curcuma → highest anticancer properties of all! Ginger → gingerol Omega-3’s → produces DHA and EPA

CANCER PREVENTION Immunomodulators • increase the ability of the immune system to identify and destroy any
CANCER PREVENTION
Immunomodulators
• increase the ability of the immune system to
identify and destroy any potentially harmful cells,
including cancer cells

Foods as immunomodulators Probiotics → yogurt, fermented foods → beneficial bacteria in the gut, specifically bifidobacteria, and lactobacillus acidophilus increases immune function against foreign invaders Mushrooms → contain polysaccharides

CANCER PREVENTION • Seaweed → specifically kombu and wakame → high content of 1.Fucoxanthin → carotenoid
CANCER PREVENTION
• Seaweed → specifically kombu and wakame →
high content of
1.Fucoxanthin → carotenoid family → extremely high
anticancer activity, specifically seen for prostate
cancer (even higher than lycopene in tomatoes)
2.Fucoidan → prevents growth of cancer cells
•Cytotoxic activity as well
•Reduces inflammation
•Increases beneficial immune activity
TYPE-2 DIABETES Global Incidence of Type-2 Diabetes
TYPE-2 DIABETES
Global Incidence of Type-2 Diabetes

Source: Lieberman, L.S. 2003. Dietary, evolutionary, and modernizing influences on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Annual Review of Nutrition, 23: 345-377.

PREVENTING TYPE-2 DIABETES Adopting a healthy lifestyle can prevent up to 90% of Type-2 diabetes cases!!!
PREVENTING TYPE-2
DIABETES
Adopting a healthy lifestyle can
prevent up to 90% of Type-2 diabetes
cases!!!
1.Reduce simple sugars → learn how to read food
labels to find “hidden sugar”
•In 2001, Canadians ate an average of 60 grams of sugar
per day = 12 teaspoons!
Look for the names: sugar, sucrose, dextrose, fructose,
corn
syrup, malt sugar, cane sugar/juice

5 g = 1 teaspoon

PREVENTING TYPE-2 DIABETES 2. Eat lower glycemic load foods → calculated by multiplying the glycemic index
PREVENTING TYPE-2
DIABETES
2. Eat lower glycemic load foods → calculated by
multiplying the glycemic index (a measure of how a
food increases blood sugar in comparison to pure
glucose) by the amount of carbohydrates in a serving
of food
Focuses on whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and
legumes
In 2 major studies following health professionals over
a span of 30 years (Nurses’ health study and Health
professionals follow-up study) found that participants
who ate the equivalent of a bowl of oatmeal and 2
pieces of whole wheat bread (7.5 g of whole grains)
th
30% l
lik
l
t
d
l
T
2 di
b
t
 

Food

Glycemic Index

Glycemic load

 

Corn flakes

85

72

White bread

85

59

High Load

Sweetened cereals

70

56

Potato chips

80

39

Chocolate candy

70

42

 

Whole wheat bread

50

24

Banana

65

13

Medium Load

Basmati rice

50

12

Apple

38

6

Boiled potato

65

9

 

Lentils

22

4

Carrots

85

5

Low Load

Nuts

15

1

Green Beans

30

1

Green vegetables, mushrooms, tomatoes

10

1

Source: Foster-Powell, K., et al. 2002. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76: 5-56

PREVENTING TYPE-2 DIABETES 3. Make healthier fat choices → certain saturated • fats have been shown
PREVENTING TYPE-2
DIABETES
3.
Make healthier fat choices → certain saturated
fats have been shown to indirectly cause insulin
resistance (inflammation)
Omega-3 fats improve the insulin response of our
organs, and oleic acid (olive oil) reduces
inflammation, improving insulin response
4.
Spices!
Cinnamon → improves glucose tolerance, interferes
with glycation products that harm blood vessels
Jamaican allspice, black pepper, and thyme →
block glycation

Turmeric → reduce blood glucose, anti-inflammatory

HOW TO EAT Target Parasympathetic Sympathetic effects organ/system effects Digestive system Increases smooth Decreases activity of
HOW TO EAT
Target
Parasympathetic
Sympathetic effects
organ/system
effects
Digestive system
Increases smooth
Decreases activity of
muscle mobility
digestive system,
(peristalsis) and
constricts digestive
amount of secretion of
sphincters
digestive glands;
relaxes sphincters
Liver
No effect
Causes glucose to be
released into blood
Blood vessels
No effect
Constricts visceral and
skin vessels, dilates
those in skeletal
muscles and heart
Salivary, lacrimal
Increases production
Inhibits function; result
glands
of saliva and tears
is dry mouth and dry
Source: Marieb, E.N. Essentials of human anatomy & physiology,
eyes
eighth edition. Pearson Education, Inc., San Francisco, 2006.
HOW TO EAT 1. Do not eat big, heavy meals when you are stressed 2. Do
HOW TO EAT
1.
Do not eat big, heavy meals when you are
stressed
2.
Do not eat meals too late at night
3.
Eat 5 smaller meals throughout the day
4.
Eat with your family (unless they stress you out)
5.
Eat at the dinner table
6.
Take your time → chew, chew, chew!
7.
Eat food with a minimal ingredient list, or none
at all
8.
Eat food prepared with love!
WHY USE NUTRITION FOR HEALING? Chimpanzee Example • Chimpanzees are able to choose specific foods, some
WHY USE NUTRITION FOR
HEALING?
Chimpanzee Example
• Chimpanzees are able to choose specific foods,
some that they would not normally eat, as
effective treatments for parasites and injuries
sustained from fighting
• If chimps can do it, why can’t we?
• Cheap
• Low incidence of side effects
• Offers variety
• Completely able to be personalized
FACING OPPOSITION #1 excuse for a patient not changing diet or lifestyle: IT RUNS IN MY
FACING OPPOSITION
#1 excuse for a patient not changing diet or
lifestyle:
IT RUNS IN MY FAMILY
“Genes load the gun, but
environment pulls the
trigger.”

~ Dr. David Heber (Director, UCLA Center for Human

FACING OPPOSITION
FACING OPPOSITION

studies on identical twins show that the risk of developing the same cancer is less than 15% adopted children whose adopted parents died of cancer → 5 times cancer risk if biological parents died of cancer → no increased risk Inuit in Canada eating the traditional diet high in fat had virtually no heart disease or atherosclerosis, but now have the highest rates of diabetes and heart disease when eating traditional western food Japan has a very low incidence of breast and prostate cancer, but when Japanese people move to the US,

FACING OPPOSITION #2 excuse for a patient not changing diet or lifestyle: I CAN JUST TAKE
FACING OPPOSITION
#2 excuse for a patient not changing diet or
lifestyle:
I CAN JUST TAKE SUPPLEMENTS

supplements have been shown to have a decreased risk of certain cancers, CVD, and diabetes have also been shown to increase risk in certain cases (breast cancer) have none of the benefits of fiber does not include social aspect of eating to date, over 20,000 phytochemicals in food have

FACING OPPOSITION What your patients put in their mouth is one of the things that they
FACING OPPOSITION
What your patients put in
their mouth is one of the
things that they DO have
control over
EATING LOCALLY – CREATING MINDFULNESS • food is the one thing that every human being has
EATING LOCALLY – CREATING
MINDFULNESS
• food is the one thing that every human being has in
common
• pay attention to what you are putting in your body →
if you can’t pronounce it, don’t eat it!
• go to the local farmer’s market to see what is in
season, what’s fresh, and who is growing your food →
usually cheaper
• what is in season usually indicates what your body
needs for the climactic conditions around you → light
foods in summer, etc
• fostering an attitude of appreciation for yourself and

our children

WALKING INSTEAD OF RUNNING
WALKING INSTEAD OF
RUNNING

start by increasing fruit and vegetable intake by 1 per day, increasing the total intake each week drink more water by slowly diluting juice until entirely water try green tea start by making one entire meal from scratch → Sunday dinners! start a dinner time routine → turn off the TV, stop reading a book, and just focus on the food in front of you try one new food/fruit/vegetable per week educate themselves → take accountability and control

Ashley Smyth, RHN, NNCP Registered Holistic Nutritionist 85 Murray St Chatham, ON 519.784.4731 www.purevitality.ca
Ashley Smyth, RHN, NNCP
Registered Holistic
Nutritionist
85 Murray St
Chatham, ON
519.784.4731
www.purevitality.ca