Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

# West Virginia University

Xingbo Liu

Tensile Test

## West Virginia University

Engineering Stress:

E = F/A0

Engineering Strain:

E = (L-L0)/L = L / L

Hooks Law:

= E E
=G

## Generalized Hooks Law:

x = x/E - y/E- z/E
y = y/E - x/E- z/E
z = z/E - y/E- x/E

Tensile Test

(a)

Linear

Nonlinear

(b)

(c)

## Tensile Test (Contd)

Proportionality Limit: Last point where stress and strain are
linearly related. (Point a.)
Elastic Limit:

## Last point from which after removal of load,

there is no permanent strain. (Point b.)

Yield Point:

## Technically the same as the elastic limit but

usually associated with the gross onset of
permanent strain. Many materials do not
exhibit a clearly defined yield point and so
this point is often taken to correspond to a
certain offset of strain. Point c is the yield
point for 0.2% (0.002 strain) offset

Yield Strength:

## Stress at yield point, y.

Tensile Strength:

## Sometimes called the Ultimate Tensile

Strength (UTS) and is the maximum stress

Material Toughness:

## The area under the elastic and the plastic

portion of the stress-strain curve. It is the
total energy required to stress the material to
the point of fracture

Elongation:

## (Plastic) strain after fracture, or tensile

ductility. The broken pieces are put together
and measured, and f = (L-L0)/L0.

Reduction of Area:

## The maximum decrease in cross-sectional

area. RA = (A - A0)/A0

Resilience:

## The ability of a material to absorb energy

when deformed elastically and to return it

## Tensile Test (Contd)

True Stress:

T = F/A
= F(E+1)/A0

True Strain:

T = ln (L/L0) = ln (E +1)

E Fmax / A0
A0
T ln( )
A

T Fmax / A

## Eliminating Fmax yields

A0
T
T E
Ee
A
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

## Tensile Test (Contd)

True Fracture Stress: The load at fracture divided by the crosssectional area at fracture.

T fracture

Ffracture
Afracture

Ffracture A0
A0 Afracture

A0
Afracture

## True Fracture Strain: The true fracture strain ef is the true

strain based on the original area A0 and
the area after fracture Af

T fracture

A0

1
ln(
) ln(
)
Afracture
1 RA

## Tensile Test (Contd)

True Uniform Strain: True strain based only on the strain up to
maximum load. It may be calculated from either the specimen
cross-sectional area Au or the gage length Lu at maximum load.
The uniform strain is often useful in estimating the formability of
metals from the results of a tension test.

T uniform

A0
ln( )
Au

## n is the strain-hardening exponent

K is the strength coefficient

Metal

Condition

K, psi

0,05% C steel

Annealed

0,26

77000

Annealed

0,15

93000

0,60% C steel

0,10

228000

0,60% C steel

0,19

178000

Copper

Annealed

0,54

46400

70/30 brass

Annealed

0,49

130000