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West Virginia University

Elastic Properties of Materials, Tensile Test

Xingbo Liu

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Engineering Stress:

E = F/A0

Engineering Strain:

E = (L-L0)/L = L / L

Hooks Law:

= E E
=G

Generalized Hooks Law:


x = x/E - y/E- z/E
y = y/E - x/E- z/E
z = z/E - y/E- x/E

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test

(a)

Linear

Nonlinear

(b)

(c)

Typical F vs L plots of linear and nonlinear materials


under tensile loading

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)

Typical F/A0 vs L/L0 plots of linear and nonlinear


materials under tensile loading

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)


Proportionality Limit: Last point where stress and strain are
linearly related. (Point a.)
Elastic Limit:

Last point from which after removal of load,


there is no permanent strain. (Point b.)

Yield Point:

Technically the same as the elastic limit but


usually associated with the gross onset of
permanent strain. Many materials do not
exhibit a clearly defined yield point and so
this point is often taken to correspond to a
certain offset of strain. Point c is the yield
point for 0.2% (0.002 strain) offset

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)

Yield Strength:

Stress at yield point, y.

Tensile Strength:

Sometimes called the Ultimate Tensile


Strength (UTS) and is the maximum stress
reached during the loading. Point d.

Material Toughness:

The area under the elastic and the plastic


portion of the stress-strain curve. It is the
total energy required to stress the material to
the point of fracture

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)


Elongation:

(Plastic) strain after fracture, or tensile


ductility. The broken pieces are put together
and measured, and f = (L-L0)/L0.

Reduction of Area:

The maximum decrease in cross-sectional


area. RA = (A - A0)/A0

Resilience:

The ability of a material to absorb energy


when deformed elastically and to return it
when unloaded.

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)

True Stress:

T = F/A
= F(E+1)/A0

True Strain:

T = ln (L/L0) = ln (E +1)

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)

Comparison of engineering and true stress-strain curves

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)

At Maximum Load:

E Fmax / A0
A0
T ln( )
A

T Fmax / A

Eliminating Fmax yields

A0
T
T E
Ee
A
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West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)

True Fracture Stress: The load at fracture divided by the crosssectional area at fracture.

T fracture

Ffracture
Afracture

Ffracture A0
A0 Afracture

A0
Afracture

True Fracture Strain: The true fracture strain ef is the true


strain based on the original area A0 and
the area after fracture Af

T fracture

A0

1
ln(
) ln(
)
Afracture
1 RA

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd)


True Uniform Strain: True strain based only on the strain up to
maximum load. It may be calculated from either the specimen
cross-sectional area Au or the gage length Lu at maximum load.
The uniform strain is often useful in estimating the formability of
metals from the results of a tension test.

T uniform

A0
ln( )
Au

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West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd) Work Hardening

n is the strain-hardening exponent


K is the strength coefficient

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West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd) Work Hardening

Log/log plot of true stress-strain curve

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West Virginia University

Tensile Test (Contd) Work Hardening

Various forms of power curve =K* n

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West Virginia University

Values for n and K for metals at room temperature

Metal

Condition

K, psi

0,05% C steel

Annealed

0,26

77000

SAE 4340 steel

Annealed

0,15

93000

0,60% C steel

Quenched and tempered 1000oF

0,10

228000

0,60% C steel

Quenched and tempered 1300oF

0,19

178000

Copper

Annealed

0,54

46400

70/30 brass

Annealed

0,49

130000

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering