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Module - FIVE

Foundations of
Individual Behavior

Psychology
Psychology concepts
concepts
Attitudes
statementseither favorable or
unfavorable- concerning objects

learning

Personality

Relatively
permanent change
in behavior

Relatively
permanent change
in behavior

Perception
process by which individuals organize and
interpret their sensory impressions

Ability,
Ability,Intellect,
Intellect, and
and Intelligence
Intelligence
Ability
An individuals capacity to perform
the various tasks in a job

Intellectual Ability
The capacity to do mental activities

Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive,
social, emotional, and cultural

Dimensions
Dimensions of
of Intellectual
Intellectual Ability
Ability

Number
Numberaptitude
aptitude
Verbal
Verbalcomprehension
comprehension
Perceptual
Perceptualspeed
speed
Inductive
Inductivereasoning
reasoning
Deductive
Deductivereasoning
reasoning
Spatial
Spatialvisualization
visualization
Memory
Memory
E X H I B I T 21
E X H I B I T 21

Physical
Physical Abilities
Abilities
Physical Abilities
The capacity to do tasks
demanding stamina, dexterity,
strength, and similar
characteristics

Nine
Nine Physical
PhysicalAbilities
Abilities
Strength
StrengthFactors
Factors
1.1.
2.2.

Dynamic
Dynamicstrength
strength
Trunk
Trunkstrength
strength

3.3.
4.4.

Static
Staticstrength
strength
Explosive
Explosivestrength
strength Flexibility
FlexibilityFactors
Factors
5.5. Extent
Extentflexibility
flexibility

Other
OtherFactors
Factors
7.7.
8.8.

Body
Bodycoordination
coordination
Balance
Balance

9.9. Stamina
Stamina

6.6. Dynamic
Dynamicflexibility
flexibility
Source: Adapted from
HRMagazine published
by the Society for Human
Resource Management,
Alexandria, VA.

E X H I B I T 22
E X H I B I T 22

The
The Ability-Job
Ability-Job Fit
Fit

Employees
Abilities

Ability-Job
Fit

Jobs Ability
Requirements

Biographical
Biographical Characteristics
Characteristics
Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristicssuch as age, gender,
race and tenurethat are objective and easily
obtained from personnel records

Learning
Learning
Learning
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs
as a result of experience

Learning
Learning
Involves
Involveschange
change
IsIsrelatively
relativelypermanent
permanent
IsIsacquired
acquiredthrough
throughexperience
experience

Theories
Theories of
of Learning
Learning
Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual responds
to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce
such a response

Key
KeyConcepts
Concepts
Unconditioned
Unconditionedstimulus
stimulus
Unconditioned
Unconditionedresponse
response
Conditioned
Conditionedstimulus
stimulus
Conditioned
Conditionedresponse
response

Source: The Far Side


by Gary Larson 1993
Far Works, Inc. All rights
reserved. Used with
permission.

E X H I B I T 23
E X H I B I T 23

Theories
Theories of
of Learning
Learning (contd)
(contd)
Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior
leads to a reward or prevents a punishment

Key
KeyConcepts
Concepts
Reflexive
Reflexive(unlearned)
(unlearned)behavior
behavior
Conditioned
Conditioned(learned)
(learned)behavior
behavior
Reinforcement
Reinforcement

Theories
Theories of
of Learning
Learning (contd)
(contd)
Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation and
direct experience

Key
KeyConcepts
Concepts
Attentional
Attentionalprocesses
processes
Retention
Retentionprocesses
processes
Motor
Motorreproduction
reproductionprocesses
processes
Reinforcement
Reinforcementprocesses
processes

Theories
Theories of
of Learning
Learning (contd)
(contd)
Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves
an individual closer to the desired response

Key
KeyConcepts
Concepts
Reinforcement
Reinforcementisisrequired
requiredtotochange
changebehavior.
behavior.
Some
Somerewards
rewardsare
aremore
moreeffective
effectivethan
thanothers.
others.
The
Thetiming
timingofofreinforcement
reinforcementaffects
affectslearning
learningspeed
speedand
and
permanence.
permanence.

Types
Types of
of Reinforcement
Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior

Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the
desired behavior occurs

Punishment
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate
an undesirable behavior

Extinction
Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to
cause its cessation

Schedules
Schedules of
of Reinforcement
Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced
each time it is demonstrated

Intermittent Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced often
enough to make the behavior worth
repeating but not every time it is
demonstrated

Schedules
Schedules of
of Reinforcement
Reinforcement (contd)
(contd)
Fixed-Interval Schedule
Rewards are spaced at uniform
time intervals

Variable-Interval Schedule
Rewards are initiated after a
fixed or constant number of
responses

Schedules
Schedules of
of Reinforcement
Reinforcement (contd)
(contd)

Fixed-ratio

E X H I B I T 24
E X H I B I T 24

Behavior
Behavior Modification
Modification
OB Mod
The application of reinforcement concepts to
individuals in the work setting

Five
FiveStep
StepProblem-Solving
Problem-SolvingModel
Model
1.1.
2.2.

Identify
Identifycritical
criticalbehaviors
behaviors
Develop
Developbaseline
baselinedata
data

3.3.
4.4.

Identify
Identifybehavioral
behavioralconsequences
consequences
Develop
Developand
andapply
applyintervention
intervention

5.5. Evaluate
Evaluateperformance
performanceimprovement
improvement

What
What is
is Personality?
Personality?
Personality
The sum total of ways in which an individual
reacts and interacts with others.
Personality Traits
Enduring
characteristics that
describe an
individuals behavior.

Personality
Personality
Determinants
Determinants
Heredity
Heredity
Environment
Environment
Situation
Situation

The
The Myers-Briggs
Myers-Briggs Type
Type Indicator
Indicator
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
A personality test that taps four characteristics
and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality
types.
Personality
PersonalityTypes
Types
Extroverted
Extrovertedvs.
vs.Introverted
Introverted(E
(Eor
orI)I)
Sensing
Sensingvs.
vs.Intuitive
Intuitive(S
(Sor
orN)
N)
Thinking
Thinkingvs.
vs.Feeling
Feeling(T
(Tor
orF)
F)
Judging
Judgingvs.
vs.Perceiving
Perceiving(P
(Por
orJ)J)

The
The Big
Big Five
Five Model
Model of
of Personality
Personality Dimensions
Dimensions
Extroversion
Sociable, gregarious, and assertive

Agreeableness
Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.

Conscientiousness
Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.

Emotional Stability
Calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous,
depressed, and insecure (negative).

Openness to Experience
Imaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism.

Major
Major Personality
PersonalityAttributes
Attributes Influencing
Influencing OB
OB
Locus of control
Machiavellianism
Self-esteem
Self-monitoring
Risk taking
Type A personality

Locus
Locus of
of Control
Control
Locus of Control
The degree to which people believe they are
masters of their own fate.
Internals
Individuals who believe that they control what
happens to them.

Externals
Individuals who believe that what happens to them
is controlled by outside forces such as luck or
chance.

Machiavellianism
Machiavellianism
Machiavellianism (Mach)
Degree to which an individual is pragmatic,
maintains emotional distance, and believes
that ends can justify means.

Conditions
ConditionsFavoring
FavoringHigh
HighMachs
Machs
Direct
Directinteraction
interaction
Minimal
Minimalrules
rulesand
andregulations
regulations
Emotions
Emotionsdistract
distractfor
forothers
others

Self-Esteem
Self-Esteem and
and Self-Monitoring
Self-Monitoring
Self-Esteem (SE)
Individuals degree of liking or disliking
themselves.
Self-Monitoring
A personality trait that measures an
individuals ability to adjust his or her
behavior to external, situational factors.

Risk-Taking
Risk-Taking
High Risk-taking Managers
Make quicker decisions
Use less information to make decisions
Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial
organizations

Low Risk-taking Managers


Are slower to make decisions
Require more information before making decisions
Exist in larger organizations with stable
environments

Risk Propensity
Aligning managers risk-taking propensity to job
requirements should be beneficial to organizations.

Personality
Personality Types
Types
Proactive Personality
Identifies opportunities, shows initiative,
takes action, and perseveres until meaningful
change occurs.
Creates positive change in the environment,
regardless or even in spite of constraints or
obstacles.

Achieving
Achieving Person-Job
Person-Job Fit
Fit
Personality-Job Fit
Theory (Holland)
Identifies six
personality types and
proposes that the fit
between personality
type and occupational
environment
determines satisfaction
and turnover.

Personality
PersonalityTypes
Types
Realistic
Realistic
Investigative
Investigative
Social
Social
Conventional
Conventional
Enterprising
Enterprising
Artistic
Artistic

EmotionsEmotions- Why
Why Emotions
Emotions Were
Were Ignored
Ignored in
in OB
OB
The myth of rationality
Organizations are not emotion-free.

Emotions of any kind are disruptive to


organizations.
Original OB focus was solely on the effects of
strong negative emotions that interfered with
individual and organizational efficiency.

What
What Are
Are Emotions?
Emotions? (contd)
(contd)
Emotional Labor
A situation in which an employee expresses
organizationally desired emotions during
interpersonal transactions.
Emotional Dissonance
A situation in which an employee
must project one emotion while
simultaneously feeling another.

Felt
Felt versus
versus Displayed
Displayed Emotions
Emotions
Felt Emotions
An individuals actual
emotions.
Displayed Emotions
Emotions that are organizationally required
and considered appropriate in a given job.

Emotion
Emotion Dimensions
Dimensions
Variety of emotions
Positive
Negative

Intensity of emotions
Personality
Job Requirements

Frequency and duration of emotions


How often emotions are exhibited.
How long emotions are displayed.

Gender
Gender and
and Emotions
Emotions
Women

Can show greater emotional expression.


Experience emotions more intensely.
Display emotions more frequently.
Are more comfortable in expressing emotions.
Are better at reading others emotions.

Men
Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent
with the male image.
Are innately less able to read and to identify with
others emotions.
Have less need to seek social approval by
showing positive emotions.

Affective
Affective Events
Events Theory
Theory (AET)
(AET)
Emotions are negative or positive responses to a work
environment event.
Personality and mood determine the intensity of the
emotional response.
Emotions can influence a broad range of work
performance and job satisfaction variables.
Implications of the theory:
Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles.
Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction.
Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction.
Emotions have only short-term effects on job
performance.
Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers
and reduce job performance.

OB
OB Applications
Applications of
of Understanding
Understanding Emotions
Emotions
Ability and Selection
Emotions affect employee effectiveness.

Decision Making
Emotions are an important part of the decisionmaking process in organizations.

Motivation
Emotional commitment to work and high
motivation are strongly linked.

Leadership
Emotions are important to acceptance of
messages from organizational leaders.

OB
OB Applications
Applications (contd)
(contd)
Interpersonal Conflict
Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are
strongly intertwined.

Customer Services
Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers
which, in turn, affects customer relationships.

Deviant Workplace Behaviors


Negative emotions lead to employee deviance
(actions that violate norms and threaten the
organization).

Productivity failures
Property theft and destruction
Political actions
Personal aggression

Ability
Ability and
and Selection
Selection
Emotional
Intelligence
An assortment of
noncognitive skills,
capabilities, and
competencies that
influence a persons
ability to succeed in
coping with
environmental
demands and
pressures.

Emotional
EmotionalIntelligence
Intelligence(EI)
(EI)
Self-awareness
Self-awareness
Self-management
Self-management
Self-motivation
Self-motivation
Empathy
Empathy
Social
Socialskills
skills
Research
ResearchFindings
Findings
High
HighEI
EIscores,
scores,not
nothigh
high
IQ
IQscores,
scores,characterize
characterize
high
highperformers.
performers.

Attitudes
Attitudes
Evaluative statementseither favorable or
unfavorable- concerning objects, people
or events
We are interested in attitudes about the
work
I like my job

Attitudes:
Attitudes: Job
Job satisfaction
satisfaction
Positive
Attitudes

Negative
Attitudes

Job
Satisfaction

Job
Dissatisfaction

Attitudes:
Attitudes: What
What determines
determines job
job Satisfaction
Satisfaction ??
Mentally challenging work
Equitable rewards
Supportive working conditions
Supportive colleagues-

People want jobs were:


They can apply their
capacities
Task variety
Freedom and feedback

abilities

an

Attitudes:
Attitudes: ..what
..what determines
determines Job
Job
Satisfaction?
Satisfaction?
Satisfaction

Frustration
None

objectives

A lot

Attitudes:
Attitudes: Job
Job Satisfaction
Satisfaction
People expect more than material
People seeks:

Personal communications
Friendship
Support from other people
(socializes)

Productivity
Productivity and
and job
job
satisfaction
The more satisfaction are more
satisfaction
productive?

Its not clear


Ti has same effects

Other factors have more influence as


working in a chain
But productivity provides satisfaction

Cognitive
Cognitive dissonance
dissonance
Any incompatibility between two or
more attitudes or between behavior
and attitudes.
people will attempt to reduce the
dissonance and, hence the
discomfort
Way to reduce dissonance:

Change the job


Change the behavior
it's unimportant
Change the attitude
Seek more consonant elements

Cognitive
Cognitive dissonance
dissonance
Factors
uncontrollable
Rewards

Personality
Personality
The sum total of
ways in which an
individual reacts
to an interact with
others.
Sixteen primary
traits:

Reserved - Outgoing
Less intelligent - More
intelligent
Affected by feelingsEmotionally stable
Submissive Dominant
Serious Happy-golucky

Expedient conscientious
Timid - Venturesome
Tough-minded Sensitive
Trusting - Suspicious
Practical - Imaginative
Forthright - Shrewd
Self_assured apprehensive
ConservativeExperimenting
Group dependent
Self_sufficient
Uncontrolled Controlled
Relaxed - Tense

Indicador
Indicador de
de tipos
tipos Myers-Briggs
Myers-Briggs
Extroverted - Introverted (E o I)
Sensing - Intuitive (S o N)
thinking - felling (T o F)
Perceiving - judging (P o J)
INTJ (Visionaries, determined)
ESTJ (Organizers,)
ENTP (Conceptualizer,)
NTs (Business people supersuccessful
firms)

Personality:
Personality: The
The big
big five
five model.
model.
Extraversion:
sociable, talkative and assertive.

Agreeableness:
Good natured, cooperative and trusting.

Conscientiousness:
responsible, dependable, persistent and achievement
oriented

Emotional stability:
Calm, enthusiastic, secure (positive) vs. tense,
nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).

Openness to experience:
Imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity and
intellectualism

Major
Major personality
personality attributes
attributes influencing
influencing OB
OB
Locus of control
Internals
Externals

Machiavellianism
self esteem
Self monitoring
Risk taking
Type A personality
Type B personality

Typology
Typology of
of personality
personality
Realistic:

physical activities, require skill, strength,


and coordination
Shy, genuine/ persistent, stable,
conforming, practical
Mechanic, drill press operator, assembly line
worker, farmer

Investigative

activities that involve thinking, organizing,


and understanding
Analytical, original, curious, independent
Biologist, economist, mathematician, news
reporter

Typology
Typology of
of personality
personality
Social:
activities that involve helping and developing
others
Sociable, friendly, cooperative, understanding
Social worker, teacher, counselor, clinical
psychologist

Conventional:
rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous
activities
Conforming, efficient, practical,
unimaginative, inflexible
Accountant, corporate manager, bank teller,
file clerk

Typology
Typology of
of personality
personality
Enterprising:

verbal activities where there are


opportunities to influence others and attain
power
Self-confident, ambitious, energetic,
domineering
Lawyer, real estate agent, public relations
specialist, small business manager

Artistic:

ambiguous and unsystematic activities that


allow creative expression
Imaginative, disorderly, idealistic,
emotional, impractical
Painter, musician, writer, interior decorator

Matching
Matching personalities
personalities and
and Jobs
Jobs

Perception
Perception
A process by which individuals
organize and interpret their sensory
impressions in order to give
meaning to their environment
Factors influencing perception:
The perceiver,
Attitudes, motives, interest, experience,
expectations

The target
Novelty, motion, sounds, size, background,
proximity

The situation
Time, work setting, social setting

Attribution
Attribution theory
theory
When we observe people we attempt to
develop explanations of why they behave
in certain ways.
When individuals observe behavior, they
attempt to determine whether it is
internally or externally caused.
Internally: under control of individual.
Externally: outside causes.

Attribution
Attribution theory
theory
Determination depends on:
Distinctiveness
Different behaviors in different situations.
As usually or he dont use to do this.

Consensus
Everyone do the same in this situation.

Consistency
Does the person respond the same over time?

Attribution
Attribution theory
theory
There is a tendency for individuals
to attribute their own success to
internal factors such as ability or
effort while putting the blame for
failure on external factors as luck.

Shortcuts
Shortcuts in
in judging
judging others
others
Selective perception
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis
of their interest, background, experience, and
attitudes.

Contrast effects
Comparison with otter people about same
characteristic.

projection
Attributing ones own characteristics to he other
people.

Stereotyping
Perception of the group to which that person belongs.

Halo effect
Drawing a general impression about an individual on
the basis or a single characteristic.

Learning
Learning
Any relatively permanent change in
behavior that occurs as result of
experience.
How do we learn?
Classical conditioning
Behavior depends on consequences (money,
smiles,)
Positive consequences: repeat.
Negative consequences: do no repeat.

Learning
Learning

conditioning

comportamiento

Environme
nt
Shaping

Learning
Learning
Operant conditioning
slow, rewards, punishment.
Test and fail

Shaping
By observing what happens to other people.
Quick

Defining
Defining Some
Some Terms
Terms
Personality: A persons unique and relatively
stable behavior patterns; the consistency of who
you are, have been, and will become
Character: Personal characteristics that have
been judged or evaluated
Temperament: Hereditary aspects of personality,
including sensitivity, moods, irritability, and
adaptability
Personality Trait: Stable qualities that a person
shows in most situations
Personality Type: People who have several traits
in common

Personality
Personality Types
Types and
and Other
Other Concepts
Concepts
Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a
Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of
two personality types:
Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose
attention is focused inward
Extrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose
attention is directed outward
Self-Concept: Your ideas, perceptions, and
feelings about who you are
Self-Esteem: How we evaluate ourselves; a
positive self-evaluation of ourselves
Low Self-esteem: A negative self-evaluation

Figure 10.1

FIGURE 10.1 Personality types are defined by the presence of several specific traits. For
example, several possible personality traits are shown in the left column. A person who
has a Type A personality typically possesses all or most of the highlighted traits. Type A
persons are especially prone to heart disease (see Chapter 11).

Figure 10.2

FIGURE 10.2 English psychologist Hans Eysenck (19161997) believed that many
personality traits are related to whether you are mainly introverted or extroverted and
whether you tend to be emotionally stable or unstable (highly emotional). These
characteristics, in turn, are related to four basic types of temperament first recognized by
the early Greeks. The types are: melancholic (sad, gloomy), choleric (hot-tempered,
irritable), phlegmatic (sluggish, calm), and sanguine (cheerful, hopeful).

Personality
Personality Theories:
Theories: An
An Overview
Overview
Personality
Theory:
System
of
concepts,
assumptions, ideas, and principles proposed to
explain personality; includes five perspectives:
Trait Theories: Attempt to learn what traits make up
personality and how they relate to actual behavior
Psychodynamic Theories: Focus on the inner workings
of personality, especially internal conflicts and
struggles
Behavioristic Theories: Focus on external environment
and on effects of conditioning and learning
Social Learning Theories: Attribute differences in
perspectives to socialization, expectations, and
mental processes
Humanistic Theories: Focus on private, subjective
experience and personal growth

Gordon
Gordon Allport
Allport and
and Traits
Traits
Common Traits: Characteristics shared by most
members of a culture
Individual Traits: Describe a persons unique
personal qualities
Cardinal Traits: So basic that all of a persons
activities can be traced back to the trait
Central Traits: Core qualities of a personality
Secondary Traits: Inconsistent or superficial
aspects of a person

Raymond
Raymond Cattell
Cattell and
and Traits
Traits
Surface Traits: Features that make up the visible
areas of personality
Source Traits: Underlying traits of a personality;
each reflected in a number of surface traits
Cattell also created 16PF, personality test
Gives a picture of an individuals
personality

Figure 10.3

FIGURE 10.3 The 16 source traits measured by Cattells 16 PF are listed beside the graph.
Scores can be plotted as a profile for an individual or a group. The profiles shown here are
group averages for airline pilots, creative artists, and writers. Notice the similarity between
artists and writers and the difference between these two groups and pilots.

Raymond
Raymond Cattell
Cattell and
and the
the Big
Big Five
Five
Personality
Personality Factors
Factors

Extroversion
Agreeableness
Conscientious
Neuroticism
Openness to Experience

Figure 10.4

Traits
Traits and
and Situations
Situations
Trait-Situation Interactions: When external
circumstances influence the expression of
personality traits
Behavioral Genetics: Study of inherited
behavioral traits

Figure 10.6

FIGURE 10.6 The approximate relationship between the id, ego, and superego, and the
levels of awareness.

Freuds
Freuds Psychoanalytic
Psychoanalytic Theory:
Theory: The
The
IdInnate biological instincts and urges; selfId
serving, irrational, and totally unconscious
Works on Pleasure Principle: Wishes to have its
desires (pleasurable) satisfied NOW, without
waiting and regardless of the consequences

Freuds
Freuds Psychoanalytic
Psychoanalytic Theory:
Theory: The
The Ego
Ego
Executive; directs id energies
Partially conscious and partially unconscious
Works on Reality Principle: Delays action
until it is practical and/or appropriate

Freuds
Freuds Psychoanalytic
Psychoanalytic Theory:
Theory: The
The Superego
Superego
Judge or censor for thoughts and actions of the
ego
Superego comes from our parents or
caregivers; guilt comes from the superego
Two parts
Conscience: Reflects actions for which a
person has been punished
Ego Ideal: Second part of the superego;
reflects behavior ones parents approved of
or rewarded

Freudian
Freudian Dynamics
Dynamics of
of Personality
Personality and
and Anxieties
Anxieties
Ego is always caught in the middle of battles
between superegos desires for moral behavior
and the ids desires for immediate gratification
Neurotic Anxiety: Caused by id impulses that the
ego can barely control
Moral Anxiety: Comes from threats of punishment
from the superego
Unconscious: Holds repressed memories and
emotions and the ids instinctual drives
Conscious: Everything you are aware of at a
given moment
Preconscious: Material that can easily be brought
into awareness

Freudian
Freudian Personality
Personality Development
Development
Develops in stages; everyone goes through same
stages in same order
Majority of personality is formed before age 6
Erogenous Zone: Area on body capable of
producing pleasure
Fixation: Unresolved conflict or emotional hangup caused by overindulgence or frustration

Freudian
Freudian Personality
Personality Development:
Development:
Oral
Oral Stage
Stage
Oral Stage: Ages 0-1. Most of infants pleasure
comes from stimulation of the mouth. If a child is
overfed or frustrated, oral traits will develop. Early
oral fixations can cause
Oral Dependent Personality: Gullible, passive,
and need lots of attention.
Later oral fixations can cause
Oral-aggressive adults who like to argue and
exploit others

Freudian
Freudian Personality
Personality Development:
Development:
Anal
Anal Stage
Stage
Anal Stage: Ages 1-3. Attention turns to process of
elimination. Child can gain approval or express
aggression by letting go or holding on. Ego
develops. Harsh or lenient toilet training can make a
child:
Anal Retentive: Stubborn, stingy, orderly, and
compulsively clean
Anal Expulsive: Disorderly, messy, destructive,
or cruel

Freudian
Freudian Personality
Personality Development:
Development:
Phallic
Phallic Stage
Stage
Phallic Stage: Ages 3-6. Child now notices and is
physically attracted to opposite sex parent. The child is
vain, sensitive, narcissistic. Can lead to:
Oedipus Conflict: For boys only. Boy feels rivalry
with his father for his mothers affection. Boy may
feel threatened by father (castration anxiety). To
resolve, boy must identify with his father (i.e.,
become more like him and adopt his heterosexual
beliefs).
Electra Conflict: Girl loves her father and
competes with her mother. Girl identifies with her
mother more slowly because she already feels
castrated.
Both concepts are widely rejected today by most
psychologists

Freudian
Freudian Personality
Personality Development:
Development:
Latency
Latency Stage
Stage

Latency: Ages 6-Puberty. Psychosexual development


is dormant. Same sex friendships and play occur
here.

Freudian
Freudian Personality
Personality Development:
Development:
Genital
Genital Stage
Stage

Genital Stage: Puberty-on. Realization of full adult


sexuality occurs here; sexual urges re-awaken.

Learning
Learning Theories
Theories and
and Some
Some Key
Key Terms
Terms
Behavioral Personality Theory: Model of
personality that emphasizes learning and
observable behavior
Learning Theorist: Believes that learning shapes
our behavior and explains personality
Situational Determinants: External conditions
that influence our behaviors

Figure 10.8

FIGURE 10.8 Incongruence occurs when there is a mismatch between any of these three
entities: the ideal self (the person you would like to be), your self-image (the person you
think you are), and the true self (the person you actually are). Selfesteem suffers when
there is a large difference between ones ideal self and self-image. Anxiety and
defensiveness are common when the self-image does not match the true self.

More
More Rogerian
Rogerian Concepts
Concepts
Conditions of Worth: Internal standards of
evaluation used by children
Positive Self-Regard: Thinking of oneself as a
good, lovable, worthwhile person
Organismic Valuing: Natural, undistorted, fullbody reaction to an experience
Unconditional Positive Regard: Unshakable love
and approval

Personality
Personality Assessment
Assessment
Interview: Face-to-face meeting designed to gain
information about someones personality, current
psychological state, or personal history
Unstructured Interview: Conversation is
informal, and topics are discussed as they
arise
Structured Interview: Follows a prearranged
plan, using a series of planned questions
Halo Effect: Tendency to generalize a favorable or
unfavorable first impression to an entire
personality (make a good first impression)
Direct Observation: Looking at behavior

Other
Other Types
Types of
of Personality
Personality Assessments
Assessments
Behavioral Assessment: Recording the frequency
of specific behaviors
Situational Test: Real life situations are simulated
so that someones spontaneous reactions can be
recorded
In-Basket Test: Simulates decision-making
challenges that executives face
Basket full of memos is given to applicant,
and applicant must act appropriately as
quickly as possible
Leaderless Group Discussion: Test of leadership
that simulates group decision making and
problem solving

More
More Types
Types of
of Personality
Personality Assessments!
Assessments!
Reliability: Does a test give close to the same
score each time it is given to the same person?
Validity: Does the test measure what it claims to
measure?
Personality Questionnaire: Paper-and-pencil test
consisting of questions that reveal personality
aspects
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory2 (MMPI-2): Widely used objective
personality questionnaire
Honesty (Integrity) Test: Assumes that poor
attitudes toward dishonest acts predispose a
person to dishonest behavior

Figure 10.9

FIGURE 10.9 Sample rating scale items. To understand how the scale works, imagine
someone you know well. Where would you place check marks on each of the scales to
rate that persons characteristics?

Projective
Projective Tests
Tests
Psychological tests that use ambiguous or
unstructured stimuli; person needs to describe
the ambiguous stimuli or make up stories about
them
Rorschach Technique: Developed by Swiss
psychologist Hermann Rorschach; contains
10 standardized inkblots (the inkblot test)
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT):
Developed by Henry Murray, personality
theorist; projective device consisting of 20
drawings (black and white) of various
situations; people must make up stories
about the people in it

Shyness
Shyness
Definition: Tendency to avoid others and feeling
uneasiness and strain when socializing
Social Anxiety: Feeling of apprehension in the
presence of others
Evaluation Fears: Fears of being inadequate,
embarrassed, ridiculed, or rejected
Private Self-Consciousness: Attention to inner
feelings, thoughts, and fantasies
Public Self-Consciousness: Intense awareness of
oneself as a social object

Analysts

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H
2005 Prentice Hall Inc.
All rights reserved.

E D I T I O N

W W W . P R E N H AL L . C O M / R O B B I N S

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook

Your time is limited, so don't waste it living


someone else's life. Don't be trapped by dogma
which is living with the results of other
people's thinking.
Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown
out your own inner voice. And most important,
have the courage to follow your heart and
intuition.
They somehow already know what you truly
want to become. Everything else is secondary.

Commanders are natural-born leaders.


People with this personality type embody the
gifts of charisma and confidence, and project
authority in a way that draws crowds together
behind a common goal.
But unlike their Feeling (F) counterpart,
Commanders are characterized by an often
ruthless level of rationality, using their drive,
determination and sharp minds to achieve
whatever end they've set for themselves.

Perhaps it is best that they make


up only three percent of the
population, lest they overwhelm
the more timid and sensitive
personality types that make up
much of the rest of the world but
we have Commanders to thank for
many of the businesses and
institutions we take for granted
every day.

Diplomats

Everything you do right now ripples outward and


affects everyone. Your posture can shine your
heart or transmit anxiety. Your breath can radiate
love or muddy the room in depression. Your
glance can awaken joy. Your words can inspire
freedom. Your every act can open hearts and
minds.
David Deid

Sentinels

Explorers

EMOTIONS
EMOTIONS
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6111

Emotions
Emotions
Carroll Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of
them are present in infancy, except for contempt,
shame, and guilt
Tom McCarthy/ Rainbow
Nancy Brown/ The Image Bank

Types
Types of
of Emotions
Emotions
Primary Emotions
1) Are evident in all cultures
2) Are based in survival
3) Correlate with facial expressions
Positive primary emotions (Love, Affection,
Joy)
Negative primary emotions( Fear, Sadness,
anger)

Sources
Sources of
of Emotions
Emotions

Gender
Age
Personality
Time
Stress
Relaxation
Exercise
Social activities

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

6114

Emotional
Emotional Labor
Labor
Emotions play an important part in how employees
function during the work day. Emotional labor and
emotional dissonance reflect how challenging it can
be for employees to maintain a helpful, caring attitude
- when inside, they may be dealing with negative
personal or work issues.
According to Hochschild (1983), jobs involving emotional labor
are defined as those that:
require face-to-face or voice-to-voice contact with the public.
require the worker to produce an emotional state in another
person.
allow the employer, through training and supervision, to exercise
a degree of control over the emotional activities of employees.
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

6115

Types
Types Of
Of Emotional
Emotional Labor
Labor

Deep acting is about a person trying to feel a


specific emotion that they are thinking about in their
mind.
Surface acting, however, is when a person has to
fake emotion to meet certain social or work rules.

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6116

Emotional
Emotional Intelligence
Intelligence
Emotional intelligence is an array of emotional,
social and personal abilities which influences
ones overall ability to cope effectively with
environmental demands and pressures.
Linguistic Intelligence
Logical Mathematical intelligence
Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence

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6117

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6118

Essential
Essential ingredients
ingredients
Emotional literacy
Emotional fitness
Emotional domain
Emotional alchemy

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6119

Framework
Framework
Personal competence

Social competence

Self awareness
Self management

Social awareness
Relationship
management

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6120

Benefits
Benefits
Increased performance
Effective leaders
More teamwork
Improved and enhanced innovation
courage

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6121

The
The Physiological
Physiological Component
Component

AA Historical
Historical Perspective
Perspective

James-Lange
James-Lange Theory
Theory of
of Emotion
Emotion
Emotion arises from
physiological arousal
Happiness comes from
smiling
Sadness comes from
crying

The
The Cognitive
Cognitive Component
Component

Schachters
Schachters Two-Factor
Two-Factor Theory
Theory of
of
Emotion
Emotion
Physiological arousal
Sweaty palms
Increased heart rate
Rapid breathing

Cognitive Label
Attribute source of
arousal to a cause.

To have an emotion, both


factors are required.

The
The Physiological
Physiological Component
Component

AA Historical
Historical Perspective
Perspective

Cannon-Bard
Cannon-Bard Theory
Theory of
of Emotion
Emotion
Emotion originates
in the thalamus
Body
(physiological
systems) and Mind
(emotional
experience) are
independently
activated at the
same time

Orgn
Orgn Behaviour
Behaviour Application
Application of
of emotions
emotions
Employee selection
Motivation
Leadership
Decision making
Employee conflict
Job attitude

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